Meant for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, this introduction to measure theory and Lebesgue integration is motivated by the historical questions that led to its development. The author tells the story of the mathematicians who wrestled with the difficulties inherent in the Riemann integral, leading to the work of Jordan, Borel, and Lebesgue.
In this book, Hawkins elegantly places Lebesgue's early work on integration theory within in proper historical context by relating it to the developments during the nineteenth century that motivated it and gave it significance and also to the contributions made in this field by Lebesgue's contemporaries. Hawkins was awarded the 1997 MAA Chauvenet Prize and the 2001 AMS Albert Leon Whiteman Memorial Prize for notable exposition and exceptional scholarship in the history of mathematics.
Second edition of this introduction to real analysis, rooted in the historical issues that shaped its development.
Second Year Calculus: From Celestial Mechanics to Special Relativity covers multi-variable and vector calculus, emphasizing the historical physical problems which gave rise to the concepts of calculus. The book guides us from the birth of the mechanized view of the world in Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in which mathematics becomes the ultimate tool for modelling physical reality, to the dawn of a radically new and often counter-intuitive age in Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity in which it is the mathematical model which suggests new aspects of that reality. The development of this process is discussed from the modern viewpoint of differential forms. Using this concept, the student learns to compute orbits and rocket trajectories, model flows and force fields, and derive the laws of electricity and magnetism. These exercises and observations of mathematical symmetry enable the student to better understand the interaction of physics and mathematics.
Lebesgue Integration on Euclidean Space contains a concrete, intuitive, and patient derivation of Lebesgue measure and integration on Rn. Throughout the text, many exercises are incorporated, enabling students to apply new ideas immediately. Jones strives to present a slow introduction to Lebesgue integration by dealing with n-dimensional spaces from the outset. In addition, the text provides students a thorough treatment of Fourier analysis, while holistically preparing students to become workers in real analysis.
This is an introduction to recent developments in algebraic combinatorics and an illustration of how research in mathematics actually progresses. The author recounts the story of the search for and discovery of a proof of a formula conjectured in the late 1970s: the number of n x n alternating sign matrices, objects that generalize permutation matrices. While apparent that the conjecture must be true, the proof was elusive. Researchers became drawn to this problem, making connections to aspects of invariant theory, to symmetric functions, to hypergeometric and basic hypergeometric series, and, finally, to the six-vertex model of statistical mechanics. All these threads are brought together in Zeilberger's 1996 proof of the original conjecture. The book is accessible to anyone with a knowledge of linear algebra. Students will learn what mathematicians actually do in an interesting and new area of mathematics, and even researchers in combinatorics will find something new here.
The great Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie developed the general theory of transformations in the 1870s, and the first part of the book properly focuses on his work. In the second part the central figure is Wilhelm Killing, who developed structure and classification of semisimple Lie algebras. The third part focuses on the developments of the representation of Lie algebras, in particular the work of Elie Cartan. The book concludes with the work of Hermann Weyl and his contemporaries on the structure and representation of Lie groups which serves to bring together much of the earlier work into a coherent theory while at the same time opening up significant avenues for further work.
This undergraduate textbook introduces students to the basics of real analysis, provides an introduction to more advanced topics including measure theory and Lebesgue integration, and offers an invitation to functional analysis. While these advanced topics are not typically encountered until graduate study, the text is designed for the beginner. The author’s engaging style makes advanced topics approachable without sacrificing rigor. The text also consistently encourages the reader to pick up a pencil and take an active part in the learning process. Key features include: - examples to reinforce theory; - thorough explanations preceding definitions, theorems and formal proofs; - illustrations to support intuition; - over 450 exercises designed to develop connections between the concrete and abstract. This text takes students on a journey through the basics of real analysis and provides those who wish to delve deeper the opportunity to experience mathematical ideas that are beyond the standard undergraduate curriculum.
This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-style sections have been added. Investigations of Euler’s computation of ζ(2), the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem, and the gamma function are now among the book’s cohort of seminal results serving as motivation and payoff for the beginning student to master the methods of analysis.
Varieties of Integration explores the critical contributions by Riemann, Darboux, Lebesgue, Henstock, Kurzweil, and Stieltjes to the theory of integration and provides a glimpse of more recent variations of the integral such as those involving operator-valued measures. By the first year of graduate school, a young mathematician will have encountered at least three separate definitions of the integral. The associated integrals are typically studied in isolation with little attention paid to the relationships between them or to the historical issues that motivated their definitions. Varieties of Integration redresses this situation by introducing the Riemann, Darboux, Lebesgue, and gauge integrals in a single volume using a common set of examples. This approach allows the reader to see how the definitions influence proof techniques and computational strategies. Then the properties of the integrals are compared in three major areas: the class of integrable functions, the convergence properties of the integral, and the best form of the Fundamental Theorems of Calculus.
In 1902, modern function theory began when Henri Lebesgue described a new "integral calculus." His "Lebesgue integral" handles more functions than the traditional integral-so many more that mathematicians can study collections (spaces) of functions. For example, it defines a distance between any two functions in a space. This book describes these ideas in an elementary accessible way. Anyone who has mastered calculus concepts of limits, derivatives, and series can enjoy the material. Unlike any other text, this book brings analysis research topics within reach of readers even just beginning to think about functions from a theoretical point of view.
This very well written and accessible book emphasizes the reasons for studying measure theory, which is the foundation of much of probability. By focusing on measure, many illustrative examples and applications, including a thorough discussion of standard probability distributions and densities, are opened. The book also includes many problems and their fully worked solutions.
This book provides a conceptual introduction to the theory of ordinary differential equations, concentrating on the initial value problem for equations of evolution and with applications to the calculus of variations and classical mechanics, along with a discussion of chaos theory and ecological models. It has a unified and visual introduction to the theory of numerical methods and a novel approach to the analysis of errors and stability of various numerical solution algorithms based on carefully chosen model problems. While the book would be suitable as a textbook for an undergraduate or elementary graduate course in ordinary differential equations, the authors have designed the text also to be useful for motivated students wishing to learn the material on their own or desiring to supplement an ODE textbook being used in a course they are taking with a text offering a more conceptual approach to the subject.
A User-Friendly Introduction to Lebesgue Measure and Integration provides a bridge between an undergraduate course in Real Analysis and a first graduate-level course in Measure Theory and Integration. The main goal of this book is to prepare students for what they may encounter in graduate school, but will be useful for many beginning graduate students as well. The book starts with the fundamentals of measure theory that are gently approached through the very concrete example of Lebesgue measure. With this approach, Lebesgue integration becomes a natural extension of Riemann integration. Next, -spaces are defined. Then the book turns to a discussion of limits, the basic idea covered in a first analysis course. The book also discusses in detail such questions as: When does a sequence of Lebesgue integrable functions converge to a Lebesgue integrable function? What does that say about the sequence of integrals? Another core idea from a first analysis course is completeness. Are these -spaces complete? What exactly does that mean in this setting? This book concludes with a brief overview of General Measures. An appendix contains suggested projects suitable for end-of-course papers or presentations. The book is written in a very reader-friendly manner, which makes it appropriate for students of varying degrees of preparation, and the only prerequisite is an undergraduate course in Real Analysis.
This is an elementary, self-contained presentation of the integration processes developed by Lebesgue, Denjoy, Perron, and Henstock. An excellent text for graduate students with a background in real analysis.
Only a few books stand as landmarks in social and scientific upheaval. Norbert Wiener's classic is one in that small company. Founder of the science of cybernetics—the study of the relationship between computers and the human nervous system—Wiener was widely misunderstood as one who advocated the automation of human life. As this book reveals, his vision was much more complex and interesting. He hoped that machines would release people from relentless and repetitive drudgery in order to achieve more creative pursuits. At the same time he realized the danger of dehumanizing and displacement. His book examines the implications of cybernetics for education, law, language, science, technology, as he anticipates the enormous impact—in effect, a third industrial revolution—that the computer has had on our lives.
Spaces is a modern introduction to real analysis at the advanced undergraduate level. It is forward-looking in the sense that it first and foremost aims to provide students with the concepts and techniques they need in order to follow more advanced courses in mathematical analysis and neighboring fields. The only prerequisites are a solid understanding of calculus and linear algebra. Two introductory chapters will help students with the transition from computation-based calculus to theory-based analysis. The main topics covered are metric spaces, spaces of continuous functions, normed spaces, differentiation in normed spaces, measure and integration theory, and Fourier series. Although some of the topics are more advanced than what is usually found in books of this level, care is taken to present the material in a way that is suitable for the intended audience: concepts are carefully introduced and motivated, and proofs are presented in full detail. Applications to differential equations and Fourier analysis are used to illustrate the power of the theory, and exercises of all levels from routine to real challenges help students develop their skills and understanding. The text has been tested in classes at the University of Oslo over a number of years.
This manual is written to accompany Mathematical Interest Theory by Leslie Jane Federer Vaaler and James W. Daniel. . It includes detailed solutions to the odd-numbered problems. There are solutions to 239 problems, and sometimes more than one way to reach the answer is presented . In keeping with the presentation of the text, calculator discussion for the Texas Instruments BAII Plus or BAII Plus Professional calculators is typeset in a different font from the rest of the text.
After three decades since the first nearly complete edition of John von Neumann's papers, this book is a valuable selection of those papers and excerpts of his books that are most characteristic of his activity, and reveal that of his continuous influence. The results receiving the 1994 Nobel Prizes in economy deeply rooted in Neumann's game theory are only minor traces of his exceptionally broad spectrum of creativity and stimulation. The book is organized by the specific subjects-quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, operator algebra, hydrodynamics, economics, computers, science and society. In addition, one paper which was written in German will be translated and published in English for the first time. The sections are introduced by short explanatory notes with an emphasis on recent developments based on von Neumann's contributions. An overall picture is provided by Ulam's, one of his most intimate partners in thinking, 1958 memorial lecture. Facsimilae and translations of some of his personal letters and a newly completed bibliography based on von Neumann's own careful compilation are added. Contents:Quantum Mechanics:Mathematical Foundations of Quantum MechanicsThe Logic of Quantum Mechanics (with G Birkhoff)Ergodic Theory:Proof of the Quasi-Ergodic HypothesisOperator Methods in Classical Mechanics, II (with P R Halmos)Operator Algebra:Algebra of Functional Operations and Theory of Normal OperatorsOn Rings of Operators I–IVUse of Variational Methods in HydrodynamicsEconomics:Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (with O Morgenstern)Computers:On the Principles of Large Scale Computing Machines (with H H Goldstine)Science and Society:The MathematicianMethod in the Physical SciencesThe Role of Mathematics in the Sciences and in Societyand other papers Readership: Mathematicians. keywords:Mathematics;Science History;Computer Science;J V Neumann;Science and Society;Game Theory;Quantum Mechanics;Operator Algebra;Hydrodynamics;Ergodic Theory“The collection bears testimony to the lasting influence of John von Neumann's work on the course of modern mathematics.”R Siegmund-Schultze Mathematical Abstracts “This collection is a fascinating introduction to the work of John von Neumann … it has much to offer even to the casual browser and will also be relevant and interesting to those working today in the fields on which von Neumann had such enormous influence.”Mathematical Reviews
Mathematical demography is the centerpiece of quantitative social science. The founding works of this field from Roman times to the late Twentieth Century are collected here, in a new edition of a classic work by David R. Smith and Nathan Keyfitz. Commentaries by Smith and Keyfitz have been brought up to date and extended by Kenneth Wachter and Hervé Le Bras, giving a synoptic picture of the leading achievements in formal population studies. Like the original collection, this new edition constitutes an indispensable source for students and scientists alike, and illustrates the deep roots and continuing vitality of mathematical demography.