Mollusks have been important to humans since our earliest days. Initially, when humans were primarily interested in what they could eat or use, mollusks were important as food, ornaments, and materials for tools. Over the centuries, as human knowledge branched out and individuals started to study the world around them, mollusks were important subjects for learning how things worked. In this volume, the editors and contributors have brought together a broad range of topics within the field of malacology. It is our expectation that these topics will be of interest and use to amateur and professional malacologists.
This updated guide provides the latest findings about the biology and ecology of the Gulf of Mexico. It reflects the effects of recent storms and hurricanes, and includes an expanded chapter on sea turtles. Hundreds of detailed drawings introduce you to more than 300 marine creatures commonly found along the beaches and bays of this area. Easy-to-read descriptions explain the taxonomic feeding, mating, and migratory habits of these coastal residents. In addition, this guide tells you about many offshore creatures, such as oysters, shrimp, and lobsters, and the numerous animals that inhabit the subsea oil platforms.
An essential handbook for anyone concerned with the restoration of aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems, worldwide.
This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.
Most aquatic ecosystems have variable water levels. These water-level fluctuations (WLF) have multiple effects on the organisms above and below the waterline. Natural WLF patterns in lakes guarantee both productivity and biodiversity, while untimely floods and droughts may have negative effects. Human impacts on WLF have led to a stabilization of the water levels of many lakes by hydraulic regulation, untimely drawdown due to water use, or floods due to water release from hydropower plants in the catchments. This book provides a first review in this field. It presents selected papers on the ecological effects of WLF in lakes, resulting from a workshop at the University of Konstanz in winter 2005. Issues addressed here include the extent of WLF, and analyses of their effects on different groups of biota from microorganisms to vertebrates. Applied issues include recommendations for the hydrological management of regulated lakes to reduce negative impacts, and a conceptual framework is delivered by an extension of the floodpulse concept for lakes. Current impacts on water use, including increasing demands on drinking and irrigation water, hydropower etc., and climate change effects on WLF make this book an essential resource for aquatic ecologists, engineers, and decision-makers dealing with the management of lake ecosystems and their catchments.
This 2-day workshop is the culmination of a study of the status and future of marine biotechnology. The overall goal of this workshop is to examine what was initially called "Opportunities for Marine Biotechnology in the United States," to consider where we are now in this field of "Environmental Marine Biotechnology," to envision the field in the future, and to discuss any impediments that might be encountered along the way. Opportunities for Environmental Applications of Marine Biotechnology: Proceedings of the October 5-6, 1999, Workshop addresses the question of where the federal government should invest its limited funds and what future initiatives should be planned.
Explains both the disaster and the decisions that led up to it and argues that for the future the emphasis needs to be on prevention and that risk-management policies be based on better understandings of humans and hardware.
Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems, Second Edition provides foundational information on the construction of chemical and biological models – from simple cases to more complex biogeochemical models and life cycle resolving model components. This step-by-step approach to increasing the complexity of the models allows readers to explore the theoretical framework and become familiar with the models even when they have limited experience in mathematical modeling. Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems shows how biological model components can be integrated into three dimensional circulation models and how such models can be used for numerical experiments. Covers the marine food web from nutrients, phytoplankton to higher trophic levels Presents information on the response of marine systems to external pressures as seen in physical biological models Provides an extended discussion of unifying theoretical concepts and of physical biological interaction Covers higher trophic levels, in particular multi-species fish models and their interaction with the biogeochemical models Offers MATLAB scripts on a companion website for many of the described example models to facilitate reproduction of the findings in the book and guide reader to writing own code
This is a new edition of the classic textbook on marine protected area (MPA) management in the tropics, originally produced as an output of the Bali World Parks Congress in 1982. Approaches to planning and managing MPAs have evolved considerably. Major advances include innovative financing mechanisms, partnerships with the private sector and NGOs, and collaborative management between government and coastal communities. These advances have brought new approaches for MPA establishment and management that are more participatory, involving communities through interaction and collaboration rather than prescription. With new case studies and illustrations, the guide comes in a water-resistant cover for field use. It is intended for those who plan individual and/or national MPA systems and gives philosophical context for MPAs along with some basic principles and approaches.
Within this monograph a comprehensive and systematic knowledge on shallow-water hydrodynamics is presented. A two-dimensional system of shallow-water equations is analyzed, including the mathematical and mechanical backgrounds, the properties of the system and its solution. Also featured is a new mathematical simulation of shallow-water flows by compressible plane flows of a special virtual perfect gas, as well as practical algorithms such as FDM, FEM, and FVM. Some of these algorithms have been utilized in solving the system, while others have been utilized in various applied fields. An emphasis has been placed on several classes of high-performance difference schemes and boundary procedures which have found wide uses recently for solving the Euler equations of gas dynamics in aeronautical and aerospatial engineering. This book is constructed so that it may serve as a handbook for practicians. It will be of interest to scientists, designers, teachers, postgraduates and professionals in hydraulic, marine, and environmental engineering; especially those involved in the mathematical modelling of shallow-water bodies.
This book describes how man-made litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers contributed to the broad awareness of marine litter as a problem of global significance. The authors summarise more than five decades of marine litter research, which receives growing attention after the recent discovery of great oceanic garbage patches and the ubiquity of microscopic plastic particles in marine organisms and habitats. In 16 chapters, authors from all over the world have created a universal view on the diverse field of marine litter pollution, the biological impacts, dedicated research activities, and the various national and international legislative efforts to combat this environmental problem. They recommend future research directions necessary for a comprehensive understanding of this environmental issue and the development of efficient management strategies. This book addresses scientists, and it provides a solid knowledge base for policy makers, NGOs, and the broader public.
The Laguna Madre of Texas and Tamaulipas is the only hypersaline coastal lagoon on the North American continent and only one of five worldwide. Extending along 277 miles of shoreline in South Texas and northeastern Mexico, the lagoon is renowned for its vast seagrass meadows, huge wintering redhead population, and bountiful fishing grounds. Recent concerns about increasing human activity have focused attention on the long-term health of the Laguna Madre as growing population pressures, pollution problems, and dredging threaten this unique ecosystem. The Nature Conservancy, whose mission is the conservation of biodiversity through protection of habitat, recognized the need to compile all known information about the Laguna Madre in order to move ahead with a science-based conservation agenda. This book is the result. Taking an ecosystem approach to the study of this rich habitat, the authors first provide an overview of the natural history of the Laguna Madre and adjacent areas, including an essay on the importance of the region's private ranches. Succeeding chapters discuss the diverse natural resources of the lagoon—seagrasses, open bays, tidal flats, barrier islands, abundant waterfowl, colonial waterbird rookeries, sea turtles, and fisheries. A final section identifies information gaps, offers a conservation framework, and makes recommendations for preserving the biodiversity of this complex and special ecosystem. Over seventy years of literature on the Laguna Madre and surrounding environments has been synthesized here. With 150 figures and illustrations, the book is the first to take a broad and comprehensive look at both the Texan and Tamaulipan Laguna Madre. For scientists, conservationists, resource managers, and policy makers involved in the future of the Texas and Mexico coasts, the value of this book is clear. And coastal residents, birders, anglers, and nature lovers who want to learn about and take care of the Laguna Madre will find this to be an indispensable guide.
The results of a survey of New Zealand and international literature to identify negative impacts associated with visitors to marine protected areas are presented. It is suggested that further research is needed to assess the biological significance of visitor impacts and that there is a need for long-term research to assess the sustainability of visitor activities.
Mangroves and seagrasses form extensive and highly productive ecosystems that are both biologically diverse and economically valuable. This book, now in its third edition and fully updated throughout, continues to provide a current and comprehensive introduction to all aspects of the biology and ecology of mangroves and seagrasses. Using a global range of examples and case studies, it describes the unique adaptations of these plants to their exacting environments; the rich and diverse communities of organisms that depend on mangrove forests and seagrass meadows (including tree-climbing shrimps, synchronously flashing fireflies, and 'gardening' seacows); the links between mangrove, seagrass, and other habitats; and the evolution, biodiversity, and biogeography of mangroves and seagrasses. The economic value of mangroves and seagrasses is also discussed, including approaches to rational management of these vital resources and techniques for the restoration of degraded habitats. A final chapter, new to this edition, examines the potential effects of global climate change including sea level rise. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these fascinating aquatic ecosystems although pollution, conservation, and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible textbook assumes no previous knowledge of mangrove or seagrass ecology and is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional ecologists, conservation practitioners, and resource managers.
Horseshoe crabs, those mysterious ancient mariners, lured me into the sea as a child along the beaches of New Jersey. Drawn to their shiny domed shells and spiked tails, I could not resist picking them up, turning them over and watching the wondrous mechanical movement of their glistening legs, articulating with one another as smoothly as the inner working of a clock. What was it like to be a horseshoe crab, I wondered? What did they eat? Did they always move around together? Why were some so large and others much smaller? How old were they, anyway? What must it feel like to live underwater? What else was out there, down there, in the cool, green depths that gave rise to such intriguing creatures? The only way to find out, I reasoned, would be to go into the ocean and see for myself, and so I did, and more than 60 years later, I still do.