Where would we be without conversation? Throughout history, conversations have allowed us to see different perspectives, build ideas, and solve problems. Conversations, particularly academic conversations ... push students to think and learn in lasting ways. Academic conversations are back-and-forth dialogues in which students focus on a topic and explore it by building, challenging, and negotiating relevant ideas. [The] authors ... have identified five core communication skills to help students hold productive academic conversations across content areas. These skills are: elaborating and clarifying, supporting ideas with evidence, building on and/or challenging ideas, paraphrasing and synthesizing. This books shows teachers how to weave the cultivation of academic conversation skills and conversations into current teaching approaches.
“For thousands of years people have been using the skills we describe in this book to engage in conversations with others. What isn’t as prevalent, however, is instruction--especially in primary grades—in which we engage students in productive conversations about academic ideas. This book fills that very big need.” --Jeff Zwiers & Sara Hamerla Talk about content mastery . . . Primary teachers, you won’t want to miss this: if you’re looking for a single resource to foster purposeful content discussions and high-quality interpersonal engagement, then put Jeff Zwiers and Sara Hamerla’s K-3 Guide to Academic Conversations at the top of your reading list. Whether your students love to talk or not, all must be equipped with key conversation skills such as active listening, taking turns, posing, clarifying, supporting with examples, and arguing ideas. This ready resource comes packed with every imaginable tool you could need to make academic conversations part of your everyday teaching: Sample lesson plans and anchor charts Guidelines for creating effective prompts Applications across content areas, with corresponding assessments Rubrics and protocols for listening to student speech Transcripts of conversations and questions for reflection Companion website with video and downloadable resources Tens of thousands of students in the upper grades have reaped the benefits of academic conversations: high-quality face-to-face interactions, increased motivation, stronger collaborative argumentation skills, and better understanding and retention of content. The K-3 Guide to Academic Conversations is that resource for providing your primary students with the same powerful learning opportunities.
Teachers across the country are seeking ways to make their multicultural classrooms come alive with student talk about content. Content-Area Conversations: How to Plan Discussion-Based Lessons for Diverse Language Learners is a practical, hands-on guide to creating and managing environments that spur sophisticated levels of student communication, both oral and written. Paying special attention to the needs of English language learners, the authors *Detail research-based steps for designing lessons that spark student talk; *Share real-life classroom scenarios and dialogues that bring theory to life; *Describe easy-to-use assessments for all grade levels; *Provide rubrics, worksheets, sentence frames, and other imaginative tools that encourage academic communication; and *Offer guiding questions to help teachers plan instruction. Teachers at any grade level, in any content area, will find a wide variety of strategies in this book to help students simultaneously learn English and learn in English. Drawing both on decades of research data and on the authors' real-life experiences as teachers of English language learners, this book is replete with ideas for fostering real academic discourse in your classroom.
Being literate in an academic discipline means more than simply being able to read and comprehend text; it means you can think, speak, and write as a historian, scientist, mathematician, or artist. Doug Buehl strips away the one-size-fits-all approach to content area literacy and presents a much-needed instructional model for disciplinary literacy, showing how to mentor middle and high school learners to become "academic insiders" who are college and career ready. This thoroughly revised second edition of Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines shows how to help students adjust their thinking to comprehend a range of complex texts that fall outside their reading comfort zones. This book --a natural companion to Buehl's Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning, which has been bolstering student comprehension for almost three decades--provides the following supports for teachers: Instructional tools that adapt generic literacy practices to discipline-specific variations Strategies for frontloading instruction to activate and build background knowledge New approaches for encouraging inquiry around disciplinary texts In-depth exploration of the role of argumentation in informational text Numerous examples from science, mathematics, history and social studies, English/language arts, and related arts to show you what vibrant learning looks like in various classroom settings Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines introduces teachers from all disciplines to new kinds of thinking and, ultimately, teaching that helps students achieve new levels of understanding.
“Of the over one hundred new publications on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), this one truly stands out! In the second edition of Building Academic Language, Jeff Zwiers presents a much-needed, comprehensive roadmap to cultivating academic language development across all disciplines, this time placing the rigor and challenges of the CCSS front and center. A must-have resource!” —Andrea Honigsfeld, EdD, Molloy College “Language is critical to the development of content learning as students delve more deeply into specific disciplines. When students possess strong academic language, they are better able to critically analyze and synthesize complex ideas and abstract concepts. In this second edition of Building Academic Language, Jeff Zwiers successfully builds the connections between the Common Core State Standards and academic language. This is the ‘go to’ resource for content teachers as they transition to the expectations for college and career readiness.” —Katherine S. McKnight, PhD, National Louis University With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) by most of the United States, students need help developing their understanding and use of language within the academic context. This is crucially important throughout middle school and high school, as the subjects discussed and concepts taught require a firm grasp of language in order to understand the greater complexity of the subject matter. Building Academic Language shows teachers what they can do to help their students grasp language principles and develop the language skills they’ll need to reach their highest levels of academic achievement. The Second Edition of Building Academic Language includes new strategies for addressing specific Common Core standards and also provides answers to the most important questions across various content areas, including: What is academic language and how does it differ by content area? How can language-building activities support content understanding for students? How can teachers assist students in using language more effectively, especially in the academic context? How can academic language usage be modeled routinely in the classroom? How can lesson planning and assessment support academic language development? An essential resource for teaching all students, this book explains what every teacher needs to know about language for supporting reading, writing, and academic learning.
If we want all our students to become better thinkers and learners, we must design rigorous learning experiences that go beyond helping them simply master standards. In this guide, Robyn R. Jackson takes you step by step through the process of planning rigorous instruction--what great teachers do to ensure students have a learning destination that's worth working toward and that the path they take to get there will help them pass the big tests and become engaged learners, effective problem solvers, and critical thinkers. Here, you'll learn how to * Create a rigorous unit assessment to guide your instruction and ensure standards mastery. * Select rigorous learning materials by examining the type of thinking you want students to engage in and the type of understanding you want them to acquire. * Choose rigorous instructional strategies by looking at ways to help students grasp new content and acquire new skills, apply what they are learning in a meaningful way, use thinking processes to synthesize new understandings, and adapt these understandings to new contexts across disciplines. * Create a rigorous learning unit, tailored to your standards and classroom content, and to the students you teach.
Engage and enlighten students by skillfully guiding them through thought-provoking classroom discussions using these straightforward strategies.
By now it’s a given: if we’re to help our ELLs and SELs access the rigorous demands of today’s content standards, we must cultivate the “code” that drives school success: academic language. Look no further for assistance than this much-anticipated series from Ivannia Soto, in which she invites field authorities Jeff Zwiers, David and Yvonne Freeman, Margarita Calderon, and Noma LeMoine to share every teacher’s need-to-know strategies on the four essential components of academic language. The subject of this volume is conversational discourse. Here, Jeff Zwiers reveals the power of academic conversation in helping students develop language, clarify concepts, comprehend complex texts, and fortify thinking and relational skills. With this book as your roadmap, you’ll learn how to: Foster the skills and language students must develop for productive interactions Implement strategies for scaffolding paired conversations Assess student’s oral language development as you go It’s imperative that our ELLs and SELs practice academic language in rich conversations with others in school, especially when our classrooms may be their only opportunities to receive modeling, scaffolding, and feedback focused on effective discourse. This book, in concert with the other three volumes in the series, can provide both a foundation and a framework for accelerating the learning of diverse students across grade levels and disciplines.
In stories and poems that explore how our society shapes us, Identity Lessons features a wide array of ethnic perspectives on growing up in America. Leading the reader into the living-rooms, boardrooms, classrooms, and movie houses of America, distinguished writers from all points of the American ethnic landscape shed light on the space between conformity and difference, and examine the struggle between the need to belong and the pull of one's cultural roots. With insight, wit, and poignancy, the contributors to this anthology recall their attempts to reconcile family from the old country with the powerful messages about race, gender and class confronting them in their new surroundings. A collection of superb and moving writing, Identity Lessons deconstructs conceptions of personal and national identity, and forms an indispensable primer for understanding our cultural selves.
Educators know it's important to get students to engage in "higher-order thinking." But what does higher-order thinking actually look like? And how can K-12 classroom teachers assess it across the disciplines? Author, consultant, and former classroom teacher Susan M. Brookhart answers these questions and more in this straightforward, practical guide to assessment that can help teachers determine if students are actually displaying the kind of complex thinking that current content standards emphasize. Brookhart begins by laying out principles for assessment in general and for assessment of higher-order thinking in particular. She then defines and describes aspects of higher-order thinking according to the categories established in leading taxonomies, giving specific guidance on how to assess students in the following areas: * Analysis, evaluation, and creation * Logic and reasoning * Judgment * Problem solving * Creativity and creative thinking Examples drawn from the National Assessment of Educational Progress and from actual classroom teachers include multiple-choice items, constructed-response (essay) items, and performance assessment tasks. Readers will learn how to use formative assessment to improve student work and then use summative assessment for grading or scoring. Aimed at elementary, middle, and high school teachers in all subject areas, How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom provides essential background, sound advice, and thoughtful insight into an area of increasing importance for the success of students in the classroom--and in life.
Set the stage for effective academic language instruction with strategies that are designed specifically for English language learners and support instruction in content-area vocabulary. The teacher-friendly format includes strategy descriptions, rationale, and resources for easy implementation. Each strategy features examples for different grade levels and content areas. Complete sample lessons demonstrate how strategies can be integrated into content-area instruction. This resource is correlated to the Common Core State Standards. 200pp. + Resource CD
What comes to mind when you think about lesson planning? If you're like most teachers, you focus on the material you need to present, what you will do and say, what you will ask students to do, and the assessments you will create and administer. And if you're like most teachers, you also know what it's like to be disappointed when this careful planning doesn't always lead to the deep understanding and mastery you'd intended. There's a better way to approach instructional design says author and teacher-educator Ann R. Reeves, and it's within every teacher's grasp. It begins with a simple mental shift from "planning for activities" to "planning for learning outcomes" and a critical concentration on learning objectives. Remarkable for its clarity and filled with vivid examples, Where Great Teaching Begins is a step-by-step walk through the crucial, behind-the-scenes intellectual work necessary to make instruction truly effective and help students learn deeply and meaningfully. Here, you'll discover how to * Translate even the most inscrutable standards into strong, learning-focused objectives. * Use effective objectives as the basis for excellent assessment. * Craft engaging learning activities that incorporate both targeted content and necessary thinking skills. * Pull objectives, assessments, and learning activities together into powerful plans for learning. Whether you're a novice instructional designer or a veteran seeking a new, streamlined process, this book is a must-read take on how to plan and achieve the excellent learning all teachers aim for and all students deserve.
Selected as an Outstanding Academic Title by Choice Magazine, January 2010 Classroom talk, by which children make sense of what their peers and teachers mean, is the most important educational tool for guiding the development of understanding and for jointly constructing knowledge. So what practical steps can teachers take to develop effective classroom interaction? Bringing together leading international researchers and drawing on the pioneering work of Douglas Barnes, this book considers ways of improving classroom talk. Chapters cover: - classroom communication and managing social relations; - talk in science classrooms; - using critical conversations in studying literature; - exploratory talk and thinking skills; - talking to learn and learning to talk in the mathematics classroom; - the 'emerging pedagogy' of the spoken word. With an accessible blend of theory, research and practice, the book will be a valuable resource for teachers, teacher-trainers, policy makers, researchers and students.
"As elegantly practical as it is theoretically elegant. It is a guided tour, as one examines the tools of expert teachers as they engage students in a journey that is aptly dubbed Reading Apprenticeship?learning how to become a savvy, strategic reader under the tutelage of thoughtful, caring, and demanding teachers.? P. David Pearson, University of California, Berkeley, and founding editor of the Handbook of Reading Research. Reading for Understanding is a monumental achievement. It was a monumental achievement when it came out as a first edition in 1999, bringing years of rigorous reading research together in a framework for teaching that made sense in actual secondary school classrooms. Now, just thirteen years later, Schoenbach and Greenleaf have several randomized clinical trials and multiple on-going studies at their fingertips to demonstrate the effects of this approach for developing the reading and thinking of young people in our nation?s middle and high school classrooms, as well as in community college classrooms. Their careful work on developing disciplinary literacy among all students represents a passion for and commitment to supporting students?and their teachers?in reading for understanding, which translates to reading for enjoyment, self-awareness, learning, and for purposeful and informed action in our society. ?Elizabeth Moje, Arthur F. Thurnau Professor and Associate Dean for Research, School of Education, University of Michigan Reading Apprenticeship has proven to be an inspiration to Renton Technical College faculty and students alike. They have learned together to view themselves as readers in transformative ways, as they embrace powerful techniques to increase reading comprehension. The ideas and strategies in Reading for Understanding anchor this new and broad-based energy around reading and an enthusiasm among our faculty to model effective reading strategies for our students. ?Steve Hanson, President, Renton Technical College, Renton, Washington Reading for Understanding has the finest blend I have seen of research, strategies, and classroom vignettes to deepen teacher learning and help them connect the dots between theory and practice. ?Curtis Refior, Content Area Literacy Coach, Fowlerville Community Schools, Fowlerville, Michigan A teacher-tested, research-based resource for dramatically improving reading skills Published in partnership with WestEd, this significantly updated second edition of the bestselling book contains strategies for helping students in middle school through community college gain the reading independence to master subject area textbooks and other material. Based on the Reading Apprenticeship program, which three rigorous "gold standard" research studies have shown to be effective in raising students' reading achievement Presents a clear framework for improving the reading and subject area learning of all students, including English learners, students with special needs, as well as those in honors and AP courses Provides concrete tools for classroom use and examples from a range of classrooms Presents a clear how-to for teachers implementing the subject area literacies of the Common Core Standards Reading for Understanding proves it's never too late for teachers and students to work together to boost literacy, engagement, and achievement.
The concept and construct of race is often implicitly yet profoundly connected to issues of culture and identity. Meeting an urgent need for empirical and conceptual research that specifically explores critical issues of race, culture, and identities in second language education, the key questions addressed in this groundbreaking volume are these: How are issues of race relevant to second language education? How does whiteness influence students’ and teachers’ sense of self and instructional practices? How do discourses of racialization influence the construction of student identities and subjectivities? How do discourses on race, such as colorblindness, influence classroom practices, educational interventions, and parental involvement? How can teachers transform the status quo? Each chapter is grounded in theory and provides implications for engaged practice. Topics cover a wide range of themes that emerge from various pedagogical contexts. Authors from diverse racial/ethnic/cultural backgrounds and geopolitical locations include both established and beginning scholars in the field, making the content vibrant and stimulating. Pre-reading Questions and Discussion Questions in each chapter facilitate comprehension and encourage dialogue.
Dialogue is one of the best vehicles for learning how to think, how to be reasonable, how to make moral decisions and how to understand another person's point of view. It is supremely flexible, instructional, collaborative, and rigorous. At its very best, dialogue is one of the best ways for participants to learn good habits of thinking. There is also substantial evidence that teachers currently talk too much in classes, often only waiting .8 seconds after asking a question before jumping in with the answer if a student doesn't quickly volunteer. This book guides teachers through the different types of dialogue and how they can be used to enhance students' learning.
The Common Core State Standards require students to do more with knowledge and language than ever before. Rather than be mere consumers of knowledge, students must now become creators, critics, and communicators of ideas across disciplines. Yet in order to take on these new and exciting roles, many students need daily teaching with an extra emphasis on accelerating their academic communication skills. Common Core Standards in Diverse Classrooms describes seven research-based teaching practices for developing complex language and literacy skills across grade levels and disciplines: using complex texts, fortifying complex output, fostering academic interaction, clarifying complex language, modeling, guiding, and designing instruction. Most important, you will find clear descriptions and examples of how these essential practices can--and should--be woven together in real lessons. You will also find the following: Classroom activities based on the practices Dozens of classroom examples from lessons in different grade levels and disciplines Detailed lessons with annotations focused on language and literacy development Strategies and tools for building system-wide capacity for sustained growth in the practices Common Core Standards in Diverse Classrooms is a concise guide for helping us improve our practices to strengthen two vital pillars that support student learning: academic language and disciplinary literacy.
Looking for a way to increase engagement, differentiate instruction, and incorporate more informational text and student writing into your curriculum? Teaching with Text Sets is your answer! This must-have resource walks you through the steps to create and use multi-genre, multimodal text sets for content-area and language arts study. It provides detailed information to support you as you choose topics, locate and evaluate texts, organize texts for instruction, and assess student learning. This guide is an excellent resource to help you meet the College and Career Readiness and other state standards.
Clear, on-the-ground guidance for Reading Apprenticeship implementation Leading for Literacy provides tools and real-life examples to expand the benefits of a literacy approach that sparks students' engaged reading and thinking across disciplines, from middle school through community college. A companion to the landmark Reading for Understanding, this book guides teachers, leaders, and administrators through the nuts, bolts, benefits, and stumbling blocks of creating Reading Apprenticeship communities that extend a culture of literacy beyond individual classrooms. This book explains how to generate authentic buy-in from teachers and administrators, use the Reading Apprenticeship Framework to turn reform overload into reform coherence, and create literacy teams, professional learning communities, and Reading Apprenticeship communities of practice that sustain an institutional focus on a student-centered, strengths-based culture of literacy. Key insights from Reading Apprenticeship practitioners across the country address how to get started, build momentum, assess progress, and build partnerships and networks across schools, districts, campuses, and regions. Persistently low levels of adolescent literacy continue to short-change students, contribute to discredited high school diplomas, and cause millions of students to drop out of high school and community college. Forty percent or more of community college students require remedial reading courses as college freshman. The researchers at WestEd's Strategic Literacy Initiative developed the Reading Apprenticeship Framework to provide educators with a proven path to improving literacy for all students, and this book provides clear guidance on bringing the framework to life. How to integrate Reading Apprenticeship with existing reform efforts How to use formative assessment to promote teacher and student growth How to coach and empower teachers How to cultivate literacy leadership How to provide long-term support for a strong content-literacy program Nationwide classroom testing has shown Reading Apprenticeship to promote not only literacy and content knowledge, but also motivation and positive academic identity—leading to better student outcomes that reach beyond the classroom walls. Leading for Literacy lays out compelling ways to spread the benefits of Reading Apprenticeship, with practical guidance and real-world insight.
Social and emotional learning is at the heart of good teaching, but as standards and testing requirements consume classroom time and divert teachers' focus, these critical skills often get sidelined. In "Sharing the Blue Crayon," Mary Anne Buckley shows teachers how to incorporate social and emotional learning into a busy day and then extend these skills to literacy lessons for young children. Through simple activities such as read-alouds, sing-alongs, murals, and performances, students learn how to get along in a group, empathize with others, develop self-control, and give and receive feedback, all while becoming confident readers and writers. As Buckley shares, "Every day we ask young children to respectfully converse, question, debate, and collaborate about literature, science, math problems, history, and more. That's sophisticated stuff and requires sophisticated skills. Social and emotional skills are essential to helping children communicate their knowledge and articulate their questions. We must teach students how to build respectful, caring classroom communities, where students are supported and fully engaged in the learning and everyone can reach their potential." In this fresh and original book, Buckley captures the humor, wonder, honesty, and worries of our youngest learners and helps teachers understand how to harness their creativity and guide their conversations toward richer expressions of knowledge. Teachers of special populations will especially appreciate Buckley's successful strategies for reaching English language learners and children from high-poverty homes who may not have strong foundations for academic discourse. As Buckley reminds us, "By understanding one another--orally and socially at first, then using those community-building exchanges to strengthen the skills of reading and writing--we experience the authentic pride and sweet joys of learning, understanding, and connecting to one another."