By now it’s a given: if we’re to help our ELLs and SELs access the rigorous demands of today’s content standards, we must cultivate the “code” that drives school success: academic language. Look no further for assistance than this much-anticipated series from Ivannia Soto, in which she invites field authorities Jeff Zwiers, David and Yvonne Freeman, Margarita Calderon, and Noma LeMoine to share every teacher’s need-to-know strategies on the four essential components of academic language. The subject of this volume is conversational discourse. Here, Jeff Zwiers reveals the power of academic conversation in helping students develop language, clarify concepts, comprehend complex texts, and fortify thinking and relational skills. With this book as your roadmap, you’ll learn how to: Foster the skills and language students must develop for productive interactions Implement strategies for scaffolding paired conversations Assess student’s oral language development as you go It’s imperative that our ELLs and SELs practice academic language in rich conversations with others in school, especially when our classrooms may be their only opportunities to receive modeling, scaffolding, and feedback focused on effective discourse. This book, in concert with the other three volumes in the series, can provide both a foundation and a framework for accelerating the learning of diverse students across grade levels and disciplines.
By now it’s a given: if we’re to help our ELLs and SELs access the rigorous demands of today’s content standards, we must cultivate the “code” that drives school success: academic language. Look no further for assistance than this much-anticipated series from Ivannia Soto, in which she invites field authorities Jeff Zwiers, David and Yvonne Freeman, Margarita Calderon, and Noma LeMoine to share every teacher’s need-to-know strategies on the four essential components of academic language. The subject of this volume is culture. Here, Noma LeMoine makes clear once and for all how culturally and linguistically responsive pedagogy validates, facilitates, liberates, and empowers ethnically diverse students. With this volume as your roadmap, you’ll learn how to: Implement instructional strategies designed to meet the linguistic and cultural needs of ELLs and SELs Use language variation as an asset in the classroom Recognize and honor prior knowledge, home languages, and cultures The culture and language every student brings to the classroom have vast implications for how to best structure the learning environment. This guidebook will help you get started as early as tomorrow. Better yet, read all four volumes in the series as an all-in-one instructional plan for closing the achievement gap.
By now it’s a given: if we’re to help our ELLs and SELs access the rigorous demands of today’s content standards, we must cultivate the “code” that drives school success: academic language. Look no further for assistance than this much-anticipated series from Ivannia Soto, in which she invites field authorities Jeff Zwiers, David and Yvonne Freeman, Margarita Calderon, and Noma LeMoine to share every teacher’s need-to-know strategies on the four essential components of academic language. The subject of this volume is grammar and syntax. Here, David and Yvonne Freeman shatter the myth that academic language is all about vocabulary, revealing how grammar and syntax inform our students’ grasp of challenging text. With this book as your roadmap, you’ll learn how to: Teach grammar in the context of students’ speech and writing Use strategies such as sentence frames, passives, combining simple sentences into more complex sentences, and nominalization to create more complex noun phrases Assess academic language development through a four-step process Look inside and discover the tools you need to help students master more sophisticated and complex grammatical and syntactical structures right away. Better yet, read all four volumes in the series and put in place a start-to-finish instructional plan for closing the achievement gap.
By now it’s a given: if we’re to help our ELLs and SELs access the rigorous demands of today’s content standards, we must cultivate the “code” that drives school success: academic language. Look no further for assistance than this much-anticipated series from Ivannia Soto, in which she invites field authorities Jeff Zwiers, David and Yvonne Freeman, Margarita Calderon, and Noma LeMoine to share every teacher’s need-to-know strategies on the four essential components of academic language. The subject of this volume is vocabulary. Here, Margarita Calderon reveals how vocabulary is best taught as a tool for completing and constructing more complex messages. With this book as your roadmap, you’ll learn how to: Teach high-frequency academic words and discipline-specific vocabulary across content areas Utilize strategies for teaching academic vocabulary, moving students from Tier 1 to Tiers 2 and 3 words and selecting appropriate words to teach Assess vocabulary growth as you go Our vocabulary instruction must come from the texts our ELLs and SELs are about to read, not from a set of activities that teach words in isolation. This guidebook will help you get started as early as tomorrow. Better yet, read all four volumes in the series and put in place an all-in-one instructional plan for closing the achievement gap.
Population mobility is at an all-time high in human history. One result of this unprecedented movement of peoples around the world is that in many school systems monolingual and monocultural students are the exception rather than the rule, particularly in urban areas. This shift in demographic realities entails enormous challenges for educators and policy-makers. What do teachers need to know in order to teach effectively in linguistically and culturally diverse contexts? How long does it take second language learners to acquire proficiency in the language of school instruction? What are the differences between attaining conversational fluency in everyday contexts and developing proficiency in the language registers required for academic success? What adjustments do we need to make in curriculum, instruction and assessment to ensure that second-language learners understand what is being taught and are assessed in a fair and equitable manner? How long do we need to wait before including second-language learners in high-stakes national examinations and assessments? What role (if any) should be accorded students’ first language in the curriculum? Do bilingual education programs work well for poor children from minority-language backgrounds or should they be reserved only for middle-class children from the majority or dominant group? In addressing these issues, this volume focuses not only on issues of language learning and teaching but also highlights the ways in which power relations in the wider society affect patterns of teacher–student interaction in the classroom. Effective instruction will inevitably challenge patterns of coercive power relations in both school and society.
Recommends that language teachers incorporate discourse and pragmatics in their teaching if they wish to implement a communicative approach in their classrooms. The authors show how a discourse perspective can enhance the teaching of traditional areas of linguistic knowledge and language skills.
Louis A. Arena University of Delaware Newark, DE This monograph contains select, revised, and invited papers which deal with the topic, Language Proficiency: Defining, Teaching, and Testing. This topic was the theme of the eighth annual symposium held at the University of Delaware. The papers contained in this volume are invited papers or were originally scheduled for presentation and/or presented at the eighth annual Delaware Symposium on Language Studies. The papers combine research con ducted in the areas of teaching, testing, and defining second language pro ficiency within the profession of applied linguistics. They are divided into three principal sections: "Applied Linguistics and Language Pro ficiency", "Language Proficiency in Reading and Writing", and "Testing for Language Proficiency". In Part I, Paul Angelis' "Applied Linguistics: Realities and Projections re the Teaching Profession'; sketches a historical portrait of Applied Linguistics, its definition, presence, and role in the profession that teaches second language proficiency. Angelis concludes that Applied Linguistics is still a young discipline in terms of substance, organization, and strategy, and that these three components will determine the prospects for the future of applied linguistics re the teaching profession. The next six papers address the issue of second language proficiency from various points of view. Kensaku Yoshida's essay "Knowing vs Believing vs Feeling: Studies on Japanese Bilinguals" concludes that some Japanese bilinguals are actually not necessarily bilingual because they very often face problems requiring other kinds of proficiency, i. e.
People in many African communities live within a series of concentric circles when it comes to language. In a small group, a speaker uses an often unwritten and endangered mother tongue that is rarely used in school. A national indigenous language—written, widespread, sometimes used in school—surrounds it. An international language like French or English, a vestige of colonialism, carries prestige, is used in higher education, and promises mobility—and yet it will not be well known by its users. The essays in Languages in Africa explore the layers of African multilingualism as they affect language policy and education. Through case studies ranging across the continent, the contributors consider multilingualism in the classroom as well as in domains ranging from music and film to politics and figurative language. The contributors report on the widespread devaluing and even death of indigenous languages. They also investigate how poor teacher training leads to language-related failures in education. At the same time, they demonstrate that education in a mother tongue can work, linguists can use their expertise to provoke changes in language policies, and linguistic creativity thrives in these multilingual communities.
This volume brings together empirical research that explores interaction in a wide range of educational settings. It includes work that takes a cognitive, brain-based approach to studying interaction, as well as studies that take a social, contextual perspective. Interaction is defined quite broadly, with many chapters focusing on oral interaction as is typical in the field, while other chapters report work that involves interaction between learners and technology. Several studies describe the linguistic and discourse features of interaction between learners and their interlocutors, but others demonstrate how interaction can serve other purposes, such as to inform placement decisions. The chapters in the book collectively illustrate the diversity of contemporary approaches to interaction research, investigating interactions with different interlocutors ( learner-learner, learner-teacher), in a variety of environments (classrooms, interactive testing environments, conversation groups) and through different modalities (oral and written, face-to-face and technology-mediated).
This volume compiles 11 papers indicative of the new directions that indigenous education is taking in North America. Three sections focus on language, culture, and teaching; indigenous perspectives on indigenous education; and issues surrounding teaching methods. The papers are: (1) "Teaching Dine Language and Culture in Navajo Schools: Voices from the Community" (Ann Batchelder); (2) "Language Revitalization in Navajo/English Dual Language Classrooms" (Mary Ann Goodluck, Louise Lockard, Darlene Yazzie); (3) "Racing against Time: A Report on the Leupp Navajo Immersion Project" (Michael Fillerup); (4) "Community-Based Native Teacher Education Programs" (Connie Heimbecker, Sam Minner, Greg Prater); (5) "Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children" (Carla Paciotto); (6) "Post-Colonial Recovering and Healing" (Angelina Weenie); (7) "Observations on Response towards Indigenous Cultural Perspectives as Paradigms in the Classroom" (Stephen Greymorning); (8) "Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric" (Robert N. St. Clair); (9) "An Examination of Western Influences on Indigenous Language Teaching" (J. Dean Mellow); (10) "Teaching English to American Indians" (Jon Reyhner); and (11) "Charter Schools for American Indians" (Brian Bielenberg). (Contains references in each paper and contributor profiles.) (SV)
This book brings together a collection of current research on the assessment of oral proficiency in a second language. Fourteen chapters focus on the use of the language proficiency interview or LPI to assess oral proficiency. The volume addresses the central issue of validity in proficiency assessment: the ways in which the language proficiency interview is accomplished through discourse.Contributors draw on a variety of discourse perspectives, including the ethnography of speaking, conversation analysis, language socialization theory, sociolinguistic variation theory, human interaction research, and systemic functional linguistics. And for the first time, LPIs conducted in German, Korean, and Spanish are examined as well as interviews in English. This book sheds light on such important issues as how speaking ability can be defined independently of an LPI that is designed to assess it and the extent to which an LPI is an authentic representation of ordinary conversation in the target language. It will be of considerable interest to language testers, discourse analysts, second language acquisition researchers, foreign language specialists, and anyone concerned with proficiency issues in language teaching and testing.
Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner experiences abroad while addressing current concerns central to second language acquisition.
Inhaltsangabe:Introduction: In our world of internationalisation and globalisation, teaching and learning take place in a transnational and global context. It is a proven fact that children spend significant periods of their lives in school and it is widely acknowledged among teachers as well as researchers that classroom discourse plays a crucial part in the process of learning. Language, after all, is which the business of schooling is primarily accomplished in. Learning takes place to a great extent when interacting with fellow students or the teacher. Therefore, classroom language studies, investigating what classroom discourse actually looks like (instead of stating what it should be), are of great importance. Nowadays language studies are to be seen as social and cultural practises embedded in a comprehensive and potentially global process . The study of classroom language and interaction is central to the study of classroom learning. Analysing classroom discourse in order to highlight its characteristic features, therefore, constitutes a worthwhile task since its findings may be used to improve teaching. In this way teachers might become more aware of the way teachers and learners jointly create learning opportunities, and subsequently classroom discourse might be adjusted in order to enhance learning. Interestingly in this respect is Walsh s reference to teachers interactional awareness, characterised as the use of meta-language, critical self-evaluation and more conscious interactive decision making. A detailed analysis of classroom discourse possibly helps heighten teachers awareness with regard to classroom interaction. In conclusion, the increased importance of language in our multicultural societies calls for a detailed investigation of features of classroom discourse with the overall aim of improving teaching and consequently learning. Analyzing classroom discourse is at the heart of the study presented here. The central idea of my enquiry is to compare classroom discourse in two countries. Comparatively studying classroom discourse in two countries will reveal different pedagogical traditions and their underlying social values. The focus of my study is on classes of English as a foreign language taught by a team of a non-native teacher and a native assistant. This analysis of teacher-assistant collaboration, a frequent yet under-researched form of practice, will also help to improve teaching. More background information on my [...]
The selected contributions of this volume focuses on various issues related to second language pedagogy and second language acquisition in the Japanese context. Part I covers such topics as discourse pragmatics and cross-cultural pragmatics in language teaching; the instruction of conversation through training in story telling skills; task activities as a means for grammarization in grammar teaching; the development of a computerized speaking test and a proficiency scale for EFL learners; and the social aspects of the language teacher expertise. Part II deals with the cognitive transformation involved in the acquisition of syntactic structures; the application of ZPD to adult learners not only in terms of interpersonal interaction but also through interfacing with other media; examination of learners' narrative data to analyze linguistic and gestural reference and to investigate learners' use of phrasal verbs; learner's strategy use in self-instruction that utilizes audiovisual materials; and network computer technology in computer-assisted language learning.
This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.
This volume explores the defining element in the work of language teacher educators: language itself. The book is in two parts. The first part holds up to scrutiny concepts of language that underlie much practice in language teacher education yet too frequently remain under-examined. These include language as social institution, language as verbal practice, language as reflexive practice, language as school subject and language as medium of language learning.The chapters in the second part are written by language teacher educators working in a range of institutional contexts and on a variety of types of program including both long and short courses, both pre-service and in-service courses, and teacher education practice focusing variously on metalinguistic awareness for teachers, language improvement, and classroom communication. The unifying factor is that collectively they illuminate how language teacher educators research their practice and reflect on underlying principles.
Language testers have generally come to recognize the limitations of traditional statistical methods for validating oral language tests. They have begun to consider more innovative approaches to test validation, approaches that promise to illuminate the assessment process itself, rather than just assessment outcomes (i.e., ratings). One such approach is conversation analysis (or CA), a rigorous empirical methodology developed by sociologists, which employs inductive methods in order to discover and describe the recurrent, systematic properties of conversation, including sequential organization, turn-taking, repair, preference structure, and topic management. CA offers a systematic approach for analysing spoken interaction from a qualitative perspective, allowing one to make observations about a stretch of talk while at the same time interacting with it. This book provides language testers with a background in the conversation analytic framework and a fuller understanding of what is entailed in using conversation analysis in the context of oral language test validation.
Recent work in applied linguistics has expanded our understanding of the rule governed nature of language. The concept of an idealized speaker -hearer whose linguistic competence is abstract and separate from reality has been enriched by the notion of an actual interlocutor who possesses communicative compe tence, a knowledge of language which accounts for its use in real-world con texts. Areas of variation previously relegated to idiosyncratic differences in performance have been found to be dynamic yet consistent and lend themselves to study and systematic description. Because language acquisition involves the development of communicative competence, by its very nature it incorporates variation and systematicity. Sec ond-language acquisition is similarly variable, since interlanguage is subject to the same universal and language-specific conventions. In addition, aspects of the second language have been found to be unevenly acquired and are differ entially reflected in particular contexts or settings. Yet, despite our expanding knowledge, this variability is only beginning to be treated in much of the sec ond-language acquisition literature. This volume presents the work of some researchers and methodologists who have taken on the challenge of including variation in their research designs and pedagogical recommendations. Variation is shown to be relevant to lin guistic, social, and psychological aspects of language. It is apparent in the registers and dialects of the target language and in the inter language of learners.
"The Handbook of Classroom Discourse and Interaction is an authoritative reference work exploring the latest research, methodologies, and theories related to classroom language, teaching, and learning"--