Major changes in policy and management , across the entire agricultural production chain, will be needed to ensure the best use of available water resources in meeting growing demands for food and other agricultural products. This new volume in the successful History of Water Series focuses on the African continent to address this key issue. Humanity has its roots in Africa and many of our food systems developed there. All types of agricultural production are present and the sheer size of the continent offers wide ecological variation from extreme desert to dense rainforest. Drawing together leading international contributors from a wide variety of disciplines Water and Food offers new insights into the evolution of food systems, from early hunter gatherers to the global challenges of the modern world.
The present book collects 31 articles that Jacques van der Vliet, a leading scholar in the field of Coptic Studies (Leiden University / Radboud University, Nijmegen), has published since 1999 on Christian inscriptions from Egypt and Nubia. These inscriptions are dated between the third/fourth and the fourteenth centuries, and are often written in Coptic and/or Greek, once in Latin, and sometimes (partly) in Arabic, Syriac or Old Nubian. They include inscriptions on tomb stones, walls of religious buildings, tools, vessels, furniture, amulets and even texts on luxury garments. Whereas earlier scholars in the field of Coptic Studies often focused on either Coptic or Greek, Van der Vliet argues that inscriptions in different languages that appear in the same space or on the same kind of objects should be examined together. In addition, he aims to combine the information from documentary texts, archaeological remains and inscriptions, in order to reconstruct the economic, social and religious life of monastic or civil communities. He practiced this methodology in his studies on the Fayum, Wadi al-Natrun, Sohag, Western Thebes and the region of Aswan and Northern Nubia, which are all included in this book.
With the world population set to reach 9 billion by the year 2050, and food demand expected to increase by 60 per cent during the same period, one of the key issues facing the world is food security. Major changes in policy and management , across the entire agricultural production chain, will be needed to ensure the best use of available water resources in meeting growing demands for food and other agricultural products. This new volume in the successful History of Water Series focuses on the African continent to address this key issue. Humanity has its roots in Africa and many of our food systems developed there. All types of agricultural production are present and the sheer size of the continent offers wide ecological variation from extreme desert to dense rainforest. Drawing together leading international contributors from a wide variety of disciplines Water and Food offers new insights into the evolution of food systems, from early hunter gatherers to the global challenges of the modern world.
Abundantly illustrated with color photos, archaeological drawings, and site maps, this substantive catalog from the Tenth International Conference of the Nubian Society, held in September 2002 in Rome, surveys the recently discovered antiquities of the Nile Valley and beyond, throughout Egypt and the Sudan. In these numerous archaeological, archaeometrical, and epigraphical discoveries, scientists present new groundwork for the understanding of Egypt, not as a lone oasis of civilization, but rather as a key part of a larger ancient world. The essays are presented in their original languages; most are in English, though some are in French or Italian.
The Sahara-Sahel borderland occupies a critical geographical position due to its recurrent latitudinal shifts, continually having a strong impact on humans, animals and plants. Gobero is located at the southern limits of the present Sahara, in Niger. The archaeological record at this site encompasses the re-occupation of the Sahara ca 10,000 years ago until approximately 2000 years ago. During this long period, Gobero witnessed significant fluctuations in climate and water resource availability that resulted in cycles of human occupation, abandonment and re-occupation around a natural basin occupied by a palaeolake, until desertification became an irreversible process and the area turned into a no-return frontier for its occupants. This book presents the archaeological, anthropological and environmental data collected during the 2005 and 2006 field seasons at Gobero. Various factors highlight the extraordinary significance of this site. Thanks to its geographical position, straddling the ancient shifting border(s) of the Sahara and the Sahel, the Gobero's archaeological record reveals critical population movements in this part of Africa and different economic and technological strategies its inhabitants employed to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The presence of both settlement and burial features at Gobero gives a comprehensive view of the cultural, social, economic and funerary traditions of the people who lived and died at this site during almost the entire Holocene. The results from these archaeological investigations provide a term of reference for future research and interpretations of past human occupations in the Sahara, as well as North and West Africa.
The volume presents all the data collected during the cycle of research conducted by the Italian Archaeological Mission in the Farafra Oasis between 1990 and 2005. The 29 multidisciplinary essays contained in this book provide a detailed picture of the population of the Farafra Oasis, hitherto one of the least well known within the Western Desert. Farafra became particularly important during the middle Holocene, the period when climate conditions were most favourable, with later brief humid episodes even in the historic periods. The results of the long-term research cycle presented here, combined with data from the survey of the whole Wadi el Obeiyid still in progress, allow the authors to identify changes in the peopling of the oasis and to define various occupation phases. The new chronology for the Wadi el Obeiyid is one of the main achievements of the book and, as demonstrated in the final chapter, is in complete agreement with the main cultural units of other territories in the Western Desert. On this chronological basis, the contacts between the latter and the populations established on the Nile are brought into sharper focus. The importance of the archaeological documents discovered at Farafra and, at the same time their fragility due to the deterioration of the physical environment and the uncontrolled human activities, make us fear for their conservation. We hope that this book, with its complete documentation of the precious nature of the Farafra Oasis landscape and its archaeological heritage, may help to promote more effective policies for its safeguard.
This study presents the first comprehensive description of a small corpus of ceramic vessels, now defined as Eastern Desert Ware (EDW). The vessels that comprise this corpus are hand-made cups and bowls, shaped without the use of a potter's wheel, with proportionally thin walls and well-finished surfaces. Larger vessels and closed forms do occur very sporadically, although these forms may so far have escaped recognition. Many of the outside and several inside surfaces of the vessels are burnished and decorated with geometrical patterns impressed or incised in the unfired clay. These patterns are often remarkably asymmetric and frequently enhanced by a white inlay or a partial red slip. Eastern Desert Ware has been found in archaeological contexts predominantly dated to the 4th-6th centuries CE, by associated pottery, coins, and radiocarbon analysis, in the Nile Valley between the Fifth Cataract, just north of where the Atbara debouches into the Nile, and the First Cataract near Aswan, as well as in the desert to the east, between Quseir and Port Sudan, an area of roughly 350,000 km . CHAPTER ONE: Historical Background of the Eastern Desert and Eastern Desert Ware; CHAPTER TWO: The Macroscopic Description of Eastern Desert Ware and its Comparison with Associated Pottery Material; CHAPTER THREE: The Provenance of Eastern Desert Ware as Suggested by the Chemical Composition of the Fabric of the Vessels; CHAPTER FOUR: The Use of Eastern Desert Ware as Suggested by Lipid Residues in the Walls of the Vessels; CHAPTER FIVE: The Eastern Desert and the Production of Eastern Desert Ware; CHAPTER SIX: Interpretative Summary and Conclusions.
In 2008, a 170 km stretch of the Middle Nile valley was flooded by the reservoir of the newly constructed Merowe Dam at the Fourth Cataract. This large dam project led to the displacement of some 70,000 people, who lost their homeland, their way of life and much of their cultural heritage. Most of those affected were small-scale riverine farmers belonging to the Manasir and the Shaiqiyya of Amri and Hamdab. Although large-scale archaeological rescue campaigns were undertaken along the projected reservoir in anticipation of the flooding, the scientific community paid little attention to the living heritage of the present inhabitants of the Fourth Cataract region. As a rare testimony to the affected people, the volume edited by Cornelia Kleinitz and Claudia Naser collects the work of ethnographers, social geographers, architects and archaeologists among local communities at the Fourth Cataract, and, in one case, in a prospective resettlement area. The contributions focus on traditional architecture, agricultural production and ways of life - including gender aspects - in this remote and highly specific cultural landscape before resettlement, investigate the process of forced resettlement and its consequences for the affected communities, and outline a political history and a critical ethnography of archaeological salvage in the context of dam building in the Middle Nile valley and the area of the Merowe Dam, respectively. Evaluating the conditions of dam construction, the salvage of cultural heritage and the fate of the affected people from several perspectives, the papers of this volume contribute to the critical discussion of the benefits and costs of major infrastructural development projects in Africa and beyond.
The proceedings of the Second International Conference about Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt (Toulouse, France, 2005) present the results of the latest research on the rise of the Pharaonic culture in Ancient Egypt. It contains 65 contributions by 80 authors from different countries. The articles in this volume have been organised in nine thematic sections: craft and craft specialisation; physical anthropology; geoarchaeology and environmental sciences; interactions between Upper and Lower Egypt; interactions between the desert and the Nile Valley; foreign relations; birth of writing and kingship; cult, ideology and social complexity; excavations and museums. Les actes de la Deuxieme Conference Internationale sur l'Egypte pre- et protodynastique (Toulouse, France, 2005) presentent les resultats des recherches les plus recentes sur l'emergence de la culture pharaonique dans l'Egypte ancienne. Ils contiennent 65 contributions redigees par 80 auteurs de differents pays. Les articles de ce volume sont organises en neuf sections thematiques: artisanat et specialisation technique; anthropologie physique; geo-archeologie et sciences environnementales; interactions entre la Haute et la Basse-Egypte; interactions entre le desert et la Vallee du Nil; relations internationales; naissance de l'ecriture et royaute; culte, ideologie et complexite sociale; travaux de terrain et musees.
Catalogue publié à l'occasion de l'exposition Méroé un empire sur le Nil présentée au Musée du Louvre du 26 mars au 6 novembre 2010. Pour la première fois, une exposition est conscarée exclusivement à Méroé, royaume du Soudan antique connu pour sa légendaire capitale et sa fameuse nécropole royale dotée de pyramides, s'attachant ainsi à faire connaître une civilisation majestueuse et énigmatique des rives du Nil qui s'est développé entre 270 avant J.C. et 350 après J.C.. Deux cents objets seront exposés au musée du Louvre, dont, en compagnies des trésors du Louvre et de musées de réputation internationale, une centaine d'objets en provenance du musée national du Soudan de Kharthoum, spécialement restaurés pour l'occasion : verres, faïences et terres cuites, bijoux, sculptures, reliefs, sceaux ... Le catalogue, qui l'accompagne, rédigé par des spécialistes, sera le premier sur le sujet.
Archaische Felszeichnungen und Pyramiden im Wüstensand, gigantische Tempelanlagen und Festungen am Nil - der Autor präsentiert das reiche archäologische Erbe Nubiens und erzählt die Geschichte dieses rätselhaften "Goldlands der Ägypter"