Abundantly illustrated with color photos, archaeological drawings, and site maps, this substantive catalog from the Tenth International Conference of the Nubian Society, held in September 2002 in Rome, surveys the recently discovered antiquities of the Nile Valley and beyond, throughout Egypt and the Sudan. In these numerous archaeological, archaeometrical, and epigraphical discoveries, scientists present new groundwork for the understanding of Egypt, not as a lone oasis of civilization, but rather as a key part of a larger ancient world. The essays are presented in their original languages; most are in English, though some are in French or Italian.
The present book collects 31 articles that Jacques van der Vliet, a leading scholar in the field of Coptic Studies (Leiden University / Radboud University, Nijmegen), has published since 1999 on Christian inscriptions from Egypt and Nubia. These inscriptions are dated between the third/fourth and the fourteenth centuries, and are often written in Coptic and/or Greek, once in Latin, and sometimes (partly) in Arabic, Syriac or Old Nubian. They include inscriptions on tomb stones, walls of religious buildings, tools, vessels, furniture, amulets and even texts on luxury garments. Whereas earlier scholars in the field of Coptic Studies often focused on either Coptic or Greek, Van der Vliet argues that inscriptions in different languages that appear in the same space or on the same kind of objects should be examined together. In addition, he aims to combine the information from documentary texts, archaeological remains and inscriptions, in order to reconstruct the economic, social and religious life of monastic or civil communities. He practiced this methodology in his studies on the Fayum, Wadi al-Natrun, Sohag, Western Thebes and the region of Aswan and Northern Nubia, which are all included in this book.
The volume presents all the data collected during the cycle of research conducted by the Italian Archaeological Mission in the Farafra Oasis between 1990 and 2005. The 29 multidisciplinary essays contained in this book provide a detailed picture of the population of the Farafra Oasis, hitherto one of the least well known within the Western Desert. Farafra became particularly important during the middle Holocene, the period when climate conditions were most favourable, with later brief humid episodes even in the historic periods. The results of the long-term research cycle presented here, combined with data from the survey of the whole Wadi el Obeiyid still in progress, allow the authors to identify changes in the peopling of the oasis and to define various occupation phases. The new chronology for the Wadi el Obeiyid is one of the main achievements of the book and, as demonstrated in the final chapter, is in complete agreement with the main cultural units of other territories in the Western Desert. On this chronological basis, the contacts between the latter and the populations established on the Nile are brought into sharper focus. The importance of the archaeological documents discovered at Farafra and, at the same time their fragility due to the deterioration of the physical environment and the uncontrolled human activities, make us fear for their conservation. We hope that this book, with its complete documentation of the precious nature of the Farafra Oasis landscape and its archaeological heritage, may help to promote more effective policies for its safeguard.
The latter part of the fifteenth century BC saw Egypt's political power reach its zenith, with an empire that stretched from beyond the Euphrates in the north to much of what is now Sudan in the south. The wealth that flowed into Egypt allowed its kings to commission some of the most stupendous temples of all time, some of the greatest dedicated to Amun-Re, King of the Gods. Yet a century later these temples lay derelict, the god's images, names, and titles all erased in an orgy of iconoclasm by Akhenaten, the devotee of a single sun-god. This book traces the history of Egypt from the death of the great warrior-king Thutmose III to the high point of Akhenaten's reign, when the known world brought gifts to his newly-built capital city of Amarna, in particular looking at the way in which the cult of the sun became increasingly important to even 'orthodox' kings, culminating in the transformation of Akhenaten's father, Amenhotep III, into a solar deity in his own right.
With the world population set to reach 9 billion by the year 2050, and food demand expected to increase by 60 per cent during the same period, one of the key issues facing the world is food security. Major changes in policy and management , across the entire agricultural production chain, will be needed to ensure the best use of available water resources in meeting growing demands for food and other agricultural products. This new volume in the successful History of Water Series focuses on the African continent to address this key issue. Humanity has its roots in Africa and many of our food systems developed there. All types of agricultural production are present and the sheer size of the continent offers wide ecological variation from extreme desert to dense rainforest. Drawing together leading international contributors from a wide variety of disciplines Water and Food offers new insights into the evolution of food systems, from early hunter gatherers to the global challenges of the modern world.
Pastoralism has shaped livelihoods and landscapes on the African continent for millennia. Mobile livestock husbandry has generally been portrayed as an economic strategy that successfully met the challenges of low biomass productivity and environmental variability in arid and semi-arid environments. This volume focuses on the emergence, diversity, and inherent dynamics of pastoralism in Africa based on research during a twelve-year period on the southwest and northeast regions. Unraveling the complex prehistory, history, and contemporary political ecology of African pastoralism, results in insight into the ingenuity and flexibility of historical and contemporary herders.
This study presents the first comprehensive description of a small corpus of ceramic vessels, now defined as Eastern Desert Ware (EDW). The vessels that comprise this corpus are hand-made cups and bowls, shaped without the use of a potter's wheel, with proportionally thin walls and well-finished surfaces. Larger vessels and closed forms do occur very sporadically, although these forms may so far have escaped recognition. Many of the outside and several inside surfaces of the vessels are burnished and decorated with geometrical patterns impressed or incised in the unfired clay. These patterns are often remarkably asymmetric and frequently enhanced by a white inlay or a partial red slip. Eastern Desert Ware has been found in archaeological contexts predominantly dated to the 4th-6th centuries CE, by associated pottery, coins, and radiocarbon analysis, in the Nile Valley between the Fifth Cataract, just north of where the Atbara debouches into the Nile, and the First Cataract near Aswan, as well as in the desert to the east, between Quseir and Port Sudan, an area of roughly 350,000 km . CHAPTER ONE: Historical Background of the Eastern Desert and Eastern Desert Ware; CHAPTER TWO: The Macroscopic Description of Eastern Desert Ware and its Comparison with Associated Pottery Material; CHAPTER THREE: The Provenance of Eastern Desert Ware as Suggested by the Chemical Composition of the Fabric of the Vessels; CHAPTER FOUR: The Use of Eastern Desert Ware as Suggested by Lipid Residues in the Walls of the Vessels; CHAPTER FIVE: The Eastern Desert and the Production of Eastern Desert Ware; CHAPTER SIX: Interpretative Summary and Conclusions.
In 2008, a 170 km stretch of the Middle Nile valley was flooded by the reservoir of the newly constructed Merowe Dam at the Fourth Cataract. This large dam project led to the displacement of some 70,000 people, who lost their homeland, their way of life and much of their cultural heritage. Most of those affected were small-scale riverine farmers belonging to the Manasir and the Shaiqiyya of Amri and Hamdab. Although large-scale archaeological rescue campaigns were undertaken along the projected reservoir in anticipation of the flooding, the scientific community paid little attention to the living heritage of the present inhabitants of the Fourth Cataract region. As a rare testimony to the affected people, the volume edited by Cornelia Kleinitz and Claudia Naser collects the work of ethnographers, social geographers, architects and archaeologists among local communities at the Fourth Cataract, and, in one case, in a prospective resettlement area. The contributions focus on traditional architecture, agricultural production and ways of life - including gender aspects - in this remote and highly specific cultural landscape before resettlement, investigate the process of forced resettlement and its consequences for the affected communities, and outline a political history and a critical ethnography of archaeological salvage in the context of dam building in the Middle Nile valley and the area of the Merowe Dam, respectively. Evaluating the conditions of dam construction, the salvage of cultural heritage and the fate of the affected people from several perspectives, the papers of this volume contribute to the critical discussion of the benefits and costs of major infrastructural development projects in Africa and beyond.
The proceedings of the Second International Conference about Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt (Toulouse, France, 2005) present the results of the latest research on the rise of the Pharaonic culture in Ancient Egypt. It contains 65 contributions by 80 authors from different countries. The articles in this volume have been organised in nine thematic sections: craft and craft specialisation; physical anthropology; geoarchaeology and environmental sciences; interactions between Upper and Lower Egypt; interactions between the desert and the Nile Valley; foreign relations; birth of writing and kingship; cult, ideology and social complexity; excavations and museums. Les actes de la Deuxieme Conference Internationale sur l'Egypte pre- et protodynastique (Toulouse, France, 2005) presentent les resultats des recherches les plus recentes sur l'emergence de la culture pharaonique dans l'Egypte ancienne. Ils contiennent 65 contributions redigees par 80 auteurs de differents pays. Les articles de ce volume sont organises en neuf sections thematiques: artisanat et specialisation technique; anthropologie physique; geo-archeologie et sciences environnementales; interactions entre la Haute et la Basse-Egypte; interactions entre le desert et la Vallee du Nil; relations internationales; naissance de l'ecriture et royaute; culte, ideologie et complexite sociale; travaux de terrain et musees.
This book presents a comprehensive critical analysis of diverse ceramic assemblages from Sai Island, in the Middle Nile Valley of Northern Sudan, on the border between ancient Upper and Lower Nubia. The assemblages included in this study cover about five millennia, spanning the period c. 8000 to c. 2500 BC.
The 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies was held at the British Museum, London, from 1st-6th August 2010. The conference, held every four years, is the only international gathering of archaeologists and scholars from associated disciplines which considers all aspects of Sudan and southern Egypt's ancient and more recent past. The main sessions, and main papers published herein, were devoted to a consideration of the Merowe Dam Archaeological Salvage Project, its aftermath and impact. Over de previous decade this has been the major focus of archaeological activity on the Middle Nile. The dam is now complete and the reservoir is filled, drawing a line under the fieldwork component of the project. It was felt timely, therefore, in the interim to obtain an overview of what was found during the many years of intensive work and the first main paper speaker in each session sought to do just that. They were followed by reports on sites, categories of objects and more thematic papers arranged broadly by period. These highlight that, while the focus of archaeological activity still remains in the Nile Valley where there is the densest concentration of sites and also where there remains the most concentrated threat to their survival, much work is being undertaken away from the river and in some cases outside its catchment area. The role of the deserts is increasingly being appreciated while the role of the savannah and areas even further south have yet to be given the prominence that they probably deserve.
The two tombs examined here date to the beginning of that obscure period of Nubian history coinciding with the end of Egyptian colonization and the foundation of the independent Kingdom of Kush with its capital at Napata. This volume details the excavations at the Hillat el-Arab necropolis. Its highly interesting finds are considered as a major contribution towards a better understanding of the origins of the Kushite State.
Plants provide the food, shelter, medicines, and biomass that underlie sustainable life. One of the earliest and often overlooked uses of plants is the production of smoke, dating to the time of early hominid species. Plant-derived smoke has had an enormous socio-economic impact throughout human history, being burned for medicinal and recreational purposes, magico-religious ceremonies, pest control, food preservation, and flavoring, perfumes, and incense. This illustrated global compendium documents and describes approximately 2,000 global uses for over 1,400 plant species. The Uses and Abuses of Plant-Derived Smoke is accessibly written and provides a wealth of information on human uses for smoke. Divided into nine main categories of use, the compendium lists plant-derived smoke's medicinal, historical, ceremonial, ritual and recreational uses. Plant use in the production of incense and to preserve and flavor foods and beverages is also included. Each entry includes full binomial names and family, an identification of the person who named the plant, as well as numerous references to other scholarly texts. Of particular interest will be plants such as Tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum), Boswellia spp (frankincense), and Datura stramonium (smoked as a treatment for asthma all over the world), all of which are described in great detail.
A comprehensive review of the honeybees of Africa on a subspecies as well as by country basis. Includes an updated multivariate analysis of the subspecies based on the merger of the Ruttner database (Oberursel) and that of Hepburn & Radloff (Grahamstown) for nearly 20,000 bees. Special emphasis is placed on natural zones of hybridisation and introgression of different populations; seasonal cycles of development in different ecological-climatological zones of the continent; swarming, migration and absconding; and an analysis of the bee flora of the continent. The text is supplemented by tables containing quantitative data on all aspects of honeybee biology, and by continental and regional maps.