In the introduction to the first volume of The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves (Springer-Verlag, 1986), I observed that "the theory of elliptic curves is rich, varied, and amazingly vast," and as a consequence, "many important topics had to be omitted." I included a brief introduction to ten additional topics as an appendix to the first volume, with the tacit understanding that eventually there might be a second volume containing the details. You are now holding that second volume. it turned out that even those ten topics would not fit Unfortunately, into a single book, so I was forced to make some choices. The following material is covered in this book: I. Elliptic and modular functions for the full modular group. II. Elliptic curves with complex multiplication. III. Elliptic surfaces and specialization theorems. IV. Neron models, Kodaira-Neron classification of special fibers, Tate's algorithm, and Ogg's conductor-discriminant formula. V. Tate's theory of q-curves over p-adic fields. VI. Neron's theory of canonical local height functions.
The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This volume stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves. Topics covered include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell–Lutz theorem describing points of finite order, the Mordell–Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points, the Thue–Siegel theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, theorems on counting points with coordinates in finite fields, Lenstra's elliptic curve factorization algorithm, and a discussion of complex multiplication and the Galois representations associated to torsion points. Additional topics new to the second edition include an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography and a brief discussion of the stunning proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Wiles et al. via the use of elliptic curves.
The theory of elliptic curves is distinguished by its long history and by the diversity of the methods that have been used in its study. This book treats the arithmetic approach in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. Following a brief discussion of the necessary algebro-geometric results, the book proceeds with an exposition of the geometry and the formal group of elliptic curves, elliptic curves over finite fields, the complex numbers, local fields, and global fields. Final chapters deal with integral and rational points, including Siegels theorem and explicit computations for the curve Y = X + DX, while three appendices conclude the whole: Elliptic Curves in Characteristics 2 and 3, Group Cohomology, and an overview of more advanced topics.
This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.
This book introduces the theory of modular forms, from which all rational elliptic curves arise, with an eye toward the Modularity Theorem. Discussion covers elliptic curves as complex tori and as algebraic curves; modular curves as Riemann surfaces and as algebraic curves; Hecke operators and Atkin-Lehner theory; Hecke eigenforms and their arithmetic properties; the Jacobians of modular curves and the Abelian varieties associated to Hecke eigenforms. As it presents these ideas, the book states the Modularity Theorem in various forms, relating them to each other and touching on their applications to number theory. The authors assume no background in algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. Exercises are included.
The book divides naturally into several parts according to the level of the material, the background required of the reader, and the style of presentation with respect to details of proofs. For example, the first part, to Chapter 6, is undergraduate in level, the second part requires a background in Galois theory and the third some complex analysis, while the last parts, from Chapter 12 on, are mostly at graduate level. A general outline ofmuch ofthe material can be found in Tate's colloquium lectures reproduced as an article in Inven tiones [1974]. The first part grew out of Tate's 1961 Haverford Philips Lectures as an attempt to write something for publication c10sely related to the original Tate notes which were more or less taken from the tape recording of the lectures themselves. This inc1udes parts of the Introduction and the first six chapters The aim ofthis part is to prove, by elementary methods, the Mordell theorem on the finite generation of the rational points on elliptic curves defined over the rational numbers. In 1970 Tate teturned to Haverford to give again, in revised form, the originallectures of 1961 and to extend the material so that it would be suitable for publication. This led to a broader plan forthe book.
The subject of elliptic curves is one of the jewels of nineteenth-century mathematics, originated by Abel, Gauss, Jacobi, and Legendre. This 1997 book presents an introductory account of the subject in the style of the original discoverers, with references to and comments about more recent and modern developments. It combines three of the fundamental themes of mathematics: complex function theory, geometry, and arithmetic. After an informal preparatory chapter, the book follows an historical path, beginning with the work of Abel and Gauss on elliptic integrals and elliptic functions. This is followed by chapters on theta functions, modular groups and modular functions, the quintic, the imaginary quadratic field, and on elliptic curves. Requiring only a first acquaintance with complex function theory, this book is an ideal introduction to the subject for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and physics, with many exercises with hints scattered throughout the text.
This textbook covers the basic properties of elliptic curves and modular forms, with emphasis on certain connections with number theory. The ancient "congruent number problem" is the central motivating example for most of the book. My purpose is to make the subject accessible to those who find it hard to read more advanced or more algebraically oriented treatments. At the same time I want to introduce topics which are at the forefront of current research. Down-to-earth examples are given in the text and exercises, with the aim of making the material readable and interesting to mathematicians in fields far removed from the subject of the book. With numerous exercises (and answers) included, the textbook is also intended for graduate students who have completed the standard first-year courses in real and complex analysis and algebra. Such students would learn applications of techniques from those courses. thereby solidifying their under standing of some basic tools used throughout mathematics. Graduate stu dents wanting to work in number theory or algebraic geometry would get a motivational, example-oriented introduction. In addition, advanced under graduates could use the book for independent study projects, senior theses, and seminar work.
This book is a general introduction to the theory of schemes, followed by applications to arithmetic surfaces and to the theory of reduction of algebraic curves. The first part introduces basic objects such as schemes, morphisms, base change, local properties (normality, regularity, Zariski's Main Theorem). This is followed by the more global aspect: coherent sheaves and a finiteness theorem for their cohomology groups. Then follows a chapter on sheaves of differentials, dualizing sheaves, and Grothendieck's duality theory. The first part ends with the theorem of Riemann-Roch and its application to the study of smooth projective curves over a field. Singular curves are treated through a detailed study of the Picard group. The second part starts with blowing-ups and desingularisation (embedded or not) of fibered surfaces over a Dedekind ring that leads on to intersection theory on arithmetic surfaces. Castelnuovo's criterion is proved and also the existence of the minimal regular model. This leads to the study of reduction of algebraic curves. The case of elliptic curves is studied in detail. The book concludes with the funadmental theorem of stable reduction of Deligne-Mumford. The book is essentially self-contained, including the necessary material on commutative algebra. The prerequisites are therefore few, and the book should suit a graduate student. It contains many examples and nearly 600 exercises.
This volume contains the expanded lectures given at a conference on number theory and arithmetic geometry held at Boston University. It introduces and explains the many ideas and techniques used by Wiles, and to explain how his result can be combined with Ribets theorem and ideas of Frey and Serre to prove Fermats Last Theorem. The book begins with an overview of the complete proof, followed by several introductory chapters surveying the basic theory of elliptic curves, modular functions and curves, Galois cohomology, and finite group schemes. Representation theory, which lies at the core of the proof, is dealt with in a chapter on automorphic representations and the Langlands-Tunnell theorem, and this is followed by in-depth discussions of Serres conjectures, Galois deformations, universal deformation rings, Hecke algebras, and complete intersections. The book concludes by looking both forward and backward, reflecting on the history of the problem, while placing Wiles'theorem into a more general Diophantine context suggesting future applications. Students and professional mathematicians alike will find this an indispensable resource.
This book is divided into two parts. The first one is purely algebraic. Its objective is the classification of quadratic forms over the field of rational numbers (Hasse-Minkowski theorem). It is achieved in Chapter IV. The first three chapters contain some preliminaries: quadratic reciprocity law, p-adic fields, Hilbert symbols. Chapter V applies the preceding results to integral quadratic forms of discriminant ± I. These forms occur in various questions: modular functions, differential topology, finite groups. The second part (Chapters VI and VII) uses "analytic" methods (holomor phic functions). Chapter VI gives the proof of the "theorem on arithmetic progressions" due to Dirichlet; this theorem is used at a critical point in the first part (Chapter Ill, no. 2.2). Chapter VII deals with modular forms, and in particular, with theta functions. Some of the quadratic forms of Chapter V reappear here. The two parts correspond to lectures given in 1962 and 1964 to second year students at the Ecole Normale Superieure. A redaction of these lectures in the form of duplicated notes, was made by J.-J. Sansuc (Chapters I-IV) and J.-P. Ramis and G. Ruget (Chapters VI-VII). They were very useful to me; I extend here my gratitude to their authors.
After two chapters geared toward elementary levels, there follows a detailed treatment of the theory of Hecke operators, which associate zeta functions to modular forms. At a more advanced level, complex multiplication of elliptic curves and abelian extensions of certain algebraic number fields, which is traditionally called "Hilbert's twelfth problem." Another advanced topic is the determination of the zeta function of an algebraic curve uniformized by modular functions, which supplies an indispensable background for the recent proof of Fermat's last theorem by Wiles.
Comprehensive account of recent developments in arithmetic theory of modular forms, for graduates and researchers.
The goal of this book is to present local class field theory from the cohomo logical point of view, following the method inaugurated by Hochschild and developed by Artin-Tate. This theory is about extensions-primarily abelian-of "local" (i.e., complete for a discrete valuation) fields with finite residue field. For example, such fields are obtained by completing an algebraic number field; that is one of the aspects of "localisation". The chapters are grouped in "parts". There are three preliminary parts: the first two on the general theory of local fields, the third on group coho mology. Local class field theory, strictly speaking, does not appear until the fourth part. Here is a more precise outline of the contents of these four parts: The first contains basic definitions and results on discrete valuation rings, Dedekind domains (which are their "globalisation") and the completion process. The prerequisite for this part is a knowledge of elementary notions of algebra and topology, which may be found for instance in Bourbaki. The second part is concerned with ramification phenomena (different, discriminant, ramification groups, Artin representation). Just as in the first part, no assumptions are made here about the residue fields. It is in this setting that the "norm" map is studied; I have expressed the results in terms of "additive polynomials" and of "multiplicative polynomials", since using the language of algebraic geometry would have led me too far astray.
The purpose of this book is to introduce the reader to arithmetic topics, both ancient and modern, that have been at the center of interest in applications of number theory, particularly in cryptography. Because number theory and cryptography are fast-moving fields, this new edition contains substantial revisions and updated references.
This is an updated English translation of Cohomologie Galoisienne, published more than thirty years ago as one of the very first versions of Lecture Notes in Mathematics. It includes a reproduction of an influential paper by R. Steinberg, together with some new material and an expanded bibliography.
This book uses the beautiful theory of elliptic curves to introduce the reader to some of the deeper aspects of number theory. It assumes only a knowledge of the basic algebra, complex analysis, and topology usually taught in advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate courses. Reviews Indeed, the book is affordable (in fact, the most affordable of all references on the subject), but also a high quality work and a complete introduction to the rich theory of the arithmetic of elliptic curves, with numerous examples and exercises for the reader, many interesting remarks and an updated bibliography. Mathematical Reviews, Álvaro Lozano-Robledo J. S. Milne's lecture notes on elliptic curves are already well-known … The book under review is a rewritten version of just these famous lecture notes from 1996, which appear here as a compact and inexpensive paperback that is now available worldwide. Zentralblatt MATH, Werner Kleinert
This self-contained introduction to modern cryptography emphasizes the mathematics behind the theory of public key cryptosystems and digital signature schemes. The book focuses on these key topics while developing the mathematical tools needed for the construction and security analysis of diverse cryptosystems. Only basic linear algebra is required of the reader; techniques from algebra, number theory, and probability are introduced and developed as required. This text provides an ideal introduction for mathematics and computer science students to the mathematical foundations of modern cryptography. The book includes an extensive bibliography and index; supplementary materials are available online. The book covers a variety of topics that are considered central to mathematical cryptography. Key topics include: classical cryptographic constructions, such as Diffie–Hellmann key exchange, discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, the RSA cryptosystem, and digital signatures; fundamental mathematical tools for cryptography, including primality testing, factorization algorithms, probability theory, information theory, and collision algorithms; an in-depth treatment of important cryptographic innovations, such as elliptic curves, elliptic curve and pairing-based cryptography, lattices, lattice-based cryptography, and the NTRU cryptosystem. The second edition of An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography includes a significant revision of the material on digital signatures, including an earlier introduction to RSA, Elgamal, and DSA signatures, and new material on lattice-based signatures and rejection sampling. Many sections have been rewritten or expanded for clarity, especially in the chapters on information theory, elliptic curves, and lattices, and the chapter of additional topics has been expanded to include sections on digital cash and homomorphic encryption. Numerous new exercises have been included.