Civilization from its origins has depended on the food, fibre, and other commodities produced by farmers. In this unique exploration of the world history of agriculture, Mark B. Tauger looks at farmers, farming, and their relationships to non-farmers from the classical societies of the Mediterranean and China through to the twenty-first century. Viewing farmers as the most important human interface between civilization and the natural world, Agriculture in World History examines the ways that urban societies have both exploited and supported farmers, and together have endured the environmental changes and crises that threatened food production. Accessibly written and following a chronological structure, Agriculture in World History illuminates these topics through studies of farmers in numerous countries all over the world from Antiquity to the contemporary period. Key themes addressed include the impact of global warming, the role of political and social transformations, and the development of agricultural technology. In particular, the book highlights the complexities of recent decades: increased food production, declining numbers of farmers, and environmental, economic, and political challenges to increasing food production against the demands of a growing population. This wide-ranging survey will be an indispensable text for students of world history, and for anyone interested in the historical development of the present agricultural and food crises.
Described as "the New York Review of Books for history," Historically Speaking has emerged as one of the most distinctive historical publications in recent years, actively seeking out contributions from a pantheon of leading voices in historical discourse from both inside and outside academia. Recent Themes in World History and the History of the West represents some of the best writing on Western civilization and world history in the past five years. This collection of essays and interviews from Historically Speaking gives leading historians' approaches to the continually evolving field of world history, with a specific emphasis on the relationship of Western civilization to the history of the world. The book also discusses the effect of empire on global history and the many ways empire continues to manifest in the contemporary world. The contributors discuss world history as an intricate story of the connections within the global community, rather than a tidy, static narrative that attempts to summarize everything in our global past. In this volume the study of world history is presented as a constantly comparative endeavor, concerned with the major themes that link and divide humanity.
In Peace in World History, Peter N. Stearns examines the ideas of peace that have existed throughout history, and how societies have sought to put them into practice. Beginning with the status of peace in early hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies, and continuing through the present day, the narrative gives students a clear view of the ways people across the world have understood and striven to achieve peace throughout history. Topics covered include: Comparison of the ‘pax Romana’ and ‘pax Sinica’ of Rome and China Concepts of peace in Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, and their historical impact The place of peace in the periods of expanding empires The emergence, starting in the 19th century, of formal schemes to promote peace amid increasingly destructive technologies for warfare Moving away from the view of history as a series of military conflicts, Peace in World History offers a new way of looking at world history by focusing on peace. Showing how concepts of peace have evolved over time even as they have been challenged by war and conflict, this lively and engaging narrative enables students to consider peace as a human possibility.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Exploring the history and importance of corn worldwide, Arturo Warman traces its development from a New World food of poor and despised peoples into a commodity that plays a major role in the modern global economy. The book, first published in Mexico in 1988, combines approaches from anthropology, social history, and political economy to tell the story of corn, a "botanical bastard" of unclear origins that cannot reseed itself and is instead dependent on agriculture for propagation. Beginning in the Americas, Warman depicts corn as colonizer. Disparaged by the conquistadors, this Native American staple was embraced by the destitute of the Old World. In time, corn spread across the globe as a prodigious food source for both humans and livestock. Warman also reveals corn's role in nourishing the African slave trade. Through the history of one plant with enormous economic importance, Warman investigates large-scale social and economic processes, looking at the role of foodstuffs in the competition between nations and the perpetuation of inequalities between rich and poor states in the world market. Praising corn's almost unlimited potential for future use as an intensified source of starch, sugar, and alcohol, Warman also comments on some of the problems he foresees for large-scale, technology-dependent monocrop agriculture.
Filling a gap in a field with very few teaching books available, Childhood in World History provides a much-needed historical overview. Studying childhood historically greatly advances our understanding of what childhood is about, and a world history focus permits broad questions to be asked. Peter N. Stearns, an esteemed name in the field, focuses on childhood in several ways: childhood across change – the shift from hunting and gathering to an agricultural society, the impact of civilization, and the emergence of major religions new and old debates about the distinctive features of Western childhood, including child labour the emergence of a modern, industrial pattern of childhood in the West, Japan and communist societies, focusing on education and economic independence globalization and the spread of child-centred consumerism. Highlighting the gains, the divisions, and the losses for children across the millennia, this fascinating book will appeal to students across the board, and will prove an excellent teaching resource.
Drawing on a number of disciplines, nine scholars examine the major issues addressed by rural history.
The second volume in the American Historical Association's global history series introduces readers to the cross-cultural study of ancient and classical civilizations. The opening essay by Jerry Bentley surveys methodologies and critical interpretations that have been essential to the development of comparative historical analysis. These include contributions from the fields of sociology, archaeology, linguistics, and anthropology, and recent investigative practices that honor previously neglected groups and validate testimony passed down through oral traditions. The first set of essays highlight predominant themes in global history by examining the ongoing interactions between ancient agrarian and nomadic societies as well as the impact of these exchanges on economic development and cross-cultural adaptation. The essays in the second section focus on regional patterns in the dissemination of ideas, institutions, and material culture. By highlighting key historical transitions and recurring cultural patterns, this book provides an engaging introduction to the complexities of human development. Written by leading scholars in the field, the historiographic essays in Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History offer students and teachers a comprehensive overview of the arguments, applications, and resources that inform comparative global history.
'Expansive and accessible, Peter Stearns' Sexuality in World History offers a much needed introduction to histories of sexuality from a global perspective.' – Mary Spongberg- Head of Department of Modern History, Macquarie University, USA This book examines sexuality in the past, and explores how it helps explain sexuality in the present. The subject of sexuality is often a controversial one, and exploring it through a world history perspective emphasises the extent to which societies, including our own, are still reacting to historical change through contemporary sexual behaviours, values, and debates. The study uses a clear chronological structure to focus on major patterns and changes in sexuality – both sexual culture and sexual behaviours – in the main periods of world history, with comparison and discussion across cultures and societies. Topics covered include: issues involved in studying the history of sexuality the sexual implications of the transition from hunting and gathering economies to agricultural economies sexuality in Classical societies the post-Classical period and the spread of the world religions sex in an age of trade and colonies changes in sexual behaviours and sexual attitudes between 1750 and 1950 sex in contemporary world history. The book is a vital contribution to the study of world history, and is the perfect companion for all students of the history of sexuality.
Covering societies from classical times to the twenty-first century, Gender in World History is a fascinating exploration of what happens to established ideas about men, women, and gender roles when different cultural systems come into contact. The book breaks new ground to facilitate a consistent approach to gender in a world history context. Now in its third edition, the book has been thoroughly updated, including: expanded treatment of Africa under Islamic influence expanded discussion of southeast Asia a new chapter on contemporary Latin America representations of individual women engagement with recent work on gender history and theory. With truly global coverage, this book enables students to understand how gender roles have varied across the world and over time, and the vital role of gender in structuring social and political relationships. Providing a succinct, current overview of the history of gender throughout the world, Gender in World History remains essential reading for students of world history.
In The Industrial Turn in World History, Peter N. Stearns presents a concise yet far reaching overview of the worldwide shift from agricultural societies to industrial societies over the past two centuries. Putting the implications for individuals and societies in global context while simultaneously considering the limits of generalization across cultures, Stearns’s text explores the nature of industrialization across national and regional lines. Rather than portraying the Industrial Revolution as primarily a Western, early 19th-century development, this new narrative argues that the move to industrial societies is an ongoing and truly global shift. Taking a largely social and cultural approach, Stearns engages with the leading-edge approach of looking at emotion historically—allowing readers to ask questions about the impact of industrial society on emotional experience and happiness levels. This innovating framing allows for use in a variety of courses, including world history, economic history, and more general courses on the Industrial Revolution.
Maps follow the march of human history from prehistory to the present, covering the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China; the Roman empire; the Medieval and Early Modern world; and the twentieth century.
Completely updated to include with new chapters, this is second edition is a fascinating exploration of what happens to established ideads about men and women, and their roles, when different cultural systems come into contact.
Uns modernen Menschen erscheint die Sesshaftigkeit so natürlich wie dem Fisch das Wasser. Wie selbstverständlich gehen wir und auch weite Teile der historischen Forschung davon aus, dass die neolithische Revolution, in deren Verlauf der Mensch seine nomadische Existenz aufgab und zum Ackerbauer und Viehzüchter wurde, ein bedeutender zivilisatorischer Fortschritt war, dessen Früchte wir noch heute genießen. James C. Scott erzählt in seinem provokanten Buch eine ganz andere Geschichte. Gestützt auf archäologische Befunde, entwickelt er die These, dass die ersten bäuerlichen Staaten aus der Kontrolle über die Reproduktion entstanden und ein hartes Regime der Domestizierung errichteten, nicht nur mit Blick auf Pflanzen und Tiere. Auch die Bürger samt ihrer Sklaven und Frauen wurden der Herrschaft dieser frühesten Staaten unterworfen. Sie brachte Strapazen, Epidemien, Ungleichheiten und Kriege mit sich. Einzig die »Barbaren« haben sich gegen die Mühlen der Zivilisation gestemmt, sich der Sesshaftigkeit und den neuen Besteuerungssystemen verweigert und damit der Unterordnung unter eine staatliche Macht. Sie sind die heimlichen Helden dieses Buches, das unseren Blick auf die Menschheitsgeschichte verändert.
The development of agriculture has often been described as the most important change in all of human history. Volume 2 of the Cambridge World History series explores the origins and impact of agriculture and agricultural communities, and also discusses issues associated with pastoralism and hunter-fisher-gatherer economies. To capture the patterns of this key change across the globe, the volume uses an expanded timeframe from 12,000 BCE–500 CE, beginning with the Neolithic and continuing into later periods. Scholars from a range of disciplines, including archaeology, historical linguistics, biology, anthropology, and history, trace common developments in the more complex social structures and cultural forms that agriculture enabled, such as sedentary villages and more elaborate foodways, and then present a series of regional overviews accompanied by detailed case studies from many different parts of the world, including Southwest Asia, South Asia, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, and Europe.
In this concise, accessible introductory survey of the history of the United States from 1790 to the present day, Edward J. Davies examines key themes in the evolution of America from colonial rule to international supremacy. Focusing particularly on those currents within US history that have influenced the rest of the world, the book is neatly divided into three parts which examine the Atlantic world, 1700–1800, the US and the industrial world, and the emergence of America as a global power. The United States in World History explores such key issues as: the dynamics of the British Atlantic community the American revolution the impact of industrialization on the US the expansion of US consumer and cultural industries the Cold War, and its implications for the US. Part of our successful Themes in World History series, The United States in World History presents a new way of examining the United States, and reveals how concepts that originated in America's definition of itself as a nation – concepts such as capitalism, republicanism and race – have had supranational impact across the world.
This book traces the connections among regions brought about by the movement of people, diseases, crops, technology and ideas. Drawing on examples from a wide range of geographical regions and thematic areas, noted world historian Patrick Manning guides the reader through the earliest human migrations, including the earliest hominids, their development and spread, and the controversy surrounding the rise of homo sapiens ; the rise and spread of major language groups ; an examination of civilizations, farmers and pastoralists from 3000 BCE to 500 CE ; trade patterns including the early Silk Road and maritime trade in the Mediterrane and more.
Tracing historical relationship from the dawn of civilization through the twentieth century, the authors argue that technology as "applied science" emerged relatively, as industry and governments began funding scientific research. They explore the emergence of Europe and the United States as a scientific and technological power.
The challenges and opportunities offered to British farming by the profound changes of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries make these years of outstanding interest to the agricultural historian. These original essays are presented to Gordon Mingay, the most distinguished historian of the Agricultural Revolution, and reflect his own interests in three central themes; landownership and landed society; rural labour; and agriculture both as a business and as a way of life.