This book, based on lectures presented in courses on algebraic geometry taught by the author at Purdue University, is intended for engineers and scientists (especially computer scientists), as well as graduate students and advanced undergraduates in mathematics. In addition to providing a concrete or algorithmic approach to algebraic geometry, the author also attempts to motivate and explain its link to more modern algebraic geometry based on abstract algebra.The book covers various topics in the theory of algebraic curves and surfaces, such as rational and polynomial parametrization, functions and differentials on a curve, branches and valuations, and resolution of singularities. The emphasis is on presenting heuristic ideas and suggestive arguments rather than formal proofs. Readers will gain new insight into the subject of algebraic geometry in a way that should increase appreciation of modern treatments of the subject, as well as enhance its utility in applications in science and industry.
This book presents a readable and accessible introductory course in algebraic geometry, with most of the fundamental classical results presented with complete proofs. An emphasis is placed on developing connections between geometric and algebraic aspects of the theory. Differences between the theory in characteristic and positive characteristic are emphasized. The basic tools of classical and modern algebraic geometry are introduced, including varieties, schemes, singularities, sheaves, sheaf cohomology, and intersection theory. Basic classical results on curves and surfaces are proved. More advanced topics such as ramification theory, Zariski's main theorem, and Bertini's theorems for general linear systems are presented, with proofs, in the final chapters. With more than 200 exercises, the book is an excellent resource for teaching and learning introductory algebraic geometry.
This ACM volume deals with tackling problems that can be represented by data structures which are essentially matrices with polynomial entries, mediated by the disciplines of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. The discoveries stem from an interdisciplinary branch of research which has been growing steadily over the past decade. The author covers a wide range, from showing how to obtain deep heuristics in a computation of a ring, a module or a morphism, to developing means of solving nonlinear systems of equations - highlighting the use of advanced techniques to bring down the cost of computation. Although intended for advanced students and researchers with interests both in algebra and computation, many parts may be read by anyone with a basic abstract algebra course.
Consider a rational projective curve $\mathcal{C}$ of degree $d$ over an algebraically closed field $\pmb k$. There are $n$ homogeneous forms $g_{1},\dots, g_{n}$ of degree $d$ in $B=\pmb k[x, y]$ which parameterize $\mathcal{C}$ in a birational, base point free, manner. The authors study the singularities of $\mathcal{C}$ by studying a Hilbert-Burch matrix $\varphi$ for the row vector $[g_{1},\dots, g_{n}]$. In the ``General Lemma'' the authors use the generalized row ideals of $\varphi$ to identify the singular points on $\mathcal{C}$, their multiplicities, the number of branches at each singular point, and the multiplicity of each branch. Let $p$ be a singular point on the parameterized planar curve $\mathcal{C}$ which corresponds to a generalized zero of $\varphi$. In the `'triple Lemma'' the authors give a matrix $\varphi'$ whose maximal minors parameterize the closure, in $\mathbb{P}^{2}$, of the blow-up at $p$ of $\mathcal{C}$ in a neighborhood of $p$. The authors apply the General Lemma to $\varphi'$ in order to learn about the singularities of $\mathcal{C}$ in the first neighborhood of $p$. If $\mathcal{C}$ has even degree $d=2c$ and the multiplicity of $\mathcal{C}$ at $p$ is equal to $c$, then he applies the Triple Lemma again to learn about the singularities of $\mathcal{C}$ in the second neighborhood of $p$. Consider rational plane curves $\mathcal{C}$ of even degree $d=2c$. The authors classify curves according to the configuration of multiplicity $c$ singularities on or infinitely near $\mathcal{C}$. There are $7$ possible configurations of such singularities. They classify the Hilbert-Burch matrix which corresponds to each configuration. The study of multiplicity $c$ singularities on, or infinitely near, a fixed rational plane curve $\mathcal{C}$ of degree $2c$ is equivalent to the study of the scheme of generalized zeros of the fixed balanced Hilbert-Burch matrix $\varphi$ for a parameterization of $\mathcal{C}$.
This volume is a well structured overview of existing computational approaches to Riemann surfaces as well as those under development. It covers the software tools currently available and provides solutions to partial differential equations and surface theory.
Cluster algebras, introduced by Fomin and Zelevinsky in 2001, are commutative rings with unit and no zero divisors equipped with a distinguished family of generators (cluster variables) grouped in overlapping subsets (clusters) of the same cardinality (the rank of the cluster algebra) connected by exchange relations. Examples of cluster algebras include coordinate rings of many algebraic varieties that play a prominent role in representation theory, invariant theory, the study of total positivity, etc. The theory of cluster algebras has witnessed a spectacular growth, first and foremost due to the many links to a wide range of subjects including representation theory, discrete dynamical systems, Teichmuller theory, and commutative and non-commutative algebraic geometry. This book is the first devoted to cluster algebras. After presenting the necessary introductory material about Poisson geometry and Schubert varieties in the first two chapters, the authors introduce cluster algebras and prove their main properties in Chapter 3. This chapter can be viewed as a primer on the theory of cluster algebras. In the remaining chapters, the emphasis is made on geometric aspects of the cluster algebra theory, in particular on its relations to Poisson geometry and to the theory of integrable systems.
Sure to be influential, Watanabe's book lays the foundations for the use of algebraic geometry in statistical learning theory. Many models/machines are singular: mixture models, neural networks, HMMs, Bayesian networks, stochastic context-free grammars are major examples. The theory achieved here underpins accurate estimation techniques in the presence of singularities.
Riesz space (or a vector lattice) is an ordered vector space that is simultaneously a lattice. A topological Riesz space (also called a locally solid Riesz space) is a Riesz space equipped with a linear topology that has a base consisting of solid sets. Riesz spaces and ordered vector spaces play an important role in analysis and optimization. They also provide the natural framework for any modern theory of integration. This monograph is the revised edition of the authors' book Locally Solid Riesz Spaces (1978, Academic Press). It presents an extensive and detailed study (with complete proofs) of topological Riesz spaces. The book starts with a comprehensive exposition of the algebraic and lattice properties of Riesz spaces and the basic properties of order bounded operators between Riesz spaces. Subsequently, it introduces and studies locally solid topologies on Riesz spaces-- the main link between order and topology used in this monograph. Special attention is paid to several continuity properties relating the order and topological structures of Riesz spaces, the most important of which are the Lebesgue and Fatou properties. A new chapter presents some surprising applications of topological Riesz spaces to economics. In particular, it demonstrates that the existence of economic equilibria and the supportability of optimal allocations by prices in the classical economic models can be proven easily using techniques from the theory of topological Riesz spaces. At the end of each chapter there are exercises that complement and supplement the material in the chapter. The last chapter of the book presents complete solutions to all exercises. Prerequisites are the fundamentals of real analysis, measure theory, and functional analysis. This monograph will be useful to researchers and graduate students in mathematics. It will also be an important reference tool to mathematical economists and to all scientists and engineers who use order structures in their research.
This book provides an accessible and self-contained introduction to the theory of algebraic curves over a finite field, a subject that has been of fundamental importance to mathematics for many years and that has essential applications in areas such as finite geometry, number theory, error-correcting codes, and cryptology. Unlike other books, this one emphasizes the algebraic geometry rather than the function field approach to algebraic curves. The authors begin by developing the general theory of curves over any field, highlighting peculiarities occurring for positive characteristic and requiring of the reader only basic knowledge of algebra and geometry. The special properties that a curve over a finite field can have are then discussed. The geometrical theory of linear series is used to find estimates for the number of rational points on a curve, following the theory of Stöhr and Voloch. The approach of Hasse and Weil via zeta functions is explained, and then attention turns to more advanced results: a state-of-the-art introduction to maximal curves over finite fields is provided; a comprehensive account is given of the automorphism group of a curve; and some applications to coding theory and finite geometry are described. The book includes many examples and exercises. It is an indispensable resource for researchers and the ideal textbook for graduate students.
Information geometry provides the mathematical sciences with a new framework of analysis. It has emerged from the investigation of the natural differential geometric structure on manifolds of probability distributions, which consists of a Riemannian metric defined by the Fisher information and a one-parameter family of affine connections called the $\alpha$-connections. The duality between the $\alpha$-connection and the $(-\alpha)$-connection together with the metric play an essential role in this geometry. This kind of duality, having emerged from manifolds of probability distributions, is ubiquitous, appearing in a variety of problems which might have no explicit relation to probability theory. Through the duality, it is possible to analyze various fundamental problems in a unified perspective. The first half of this book is devoted to a comprehensive introduction to the mathematical foundation of information geometry, including preliminaries from differential geometry, the geometry of manifolds or probability distributions, and the general theory of dual affine connections. The second half of the text provides an overview of many areas of applications, such as statistics, linear systems, information theory, quantum mechanics, convex analysis, neural networks, and affine differential geometry. The book can serve as a suitable text for a topics course for advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
This book provides the first lucid and accessible account to the modern study of the geometry of four-manifolds. It has become required reading for postgraduates and research workers whose research touches on this topic. Pre-requisites are a firm grounding in differential topology, and geometry as may be gained from the first year of a graduate course. The subject matter of this book is the most significant breakthrough in mathematics of the last fifty years, and Professor Donaldson won a Fields medal for his work in the area. The authors start from the standpoint that the fundamental group and intersection form of a four-manifold provides information about its homology and characteristic classes, but little of its differential topology. It turns out that the classification up to diffeomorphism of four-manifolds is very different from the classification of unimodular forms and that the study of this question leads naturally to the new Donaldson invariants of four-manifolds. A central theme of this book is that the appropriate geometrical tools for investigating these questions come from mathematical physics: the Yang-Mills theory and anti-self dual connections over four-manifolds. One of the many consquences of this theory is that 'exotic' smooth manifolds exist which are homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to (4, and that large classes of forms cannot be realized as intersection forms whereas distinct manifolds may share the same form. These result have hadfar-reaching consequences in algebraic geometry, topology, and mathematical physics, and will continue to be a mainspring of mathematical research for years to come.
The present book is intended as a textbook and reference work on three topics in the title. Together with a volume in progress on "Groups and Geometric Analysis" it supersedes my "Differential Geometry and Symmetric Spaces," published in 1962. Since that time several branches of the subject, particularly the function theory on symmetric spaces, have developed substantially. I felt that an expanded treatment might now be useful.
The main aim of this book is to introduce Lie groups and allied algebraic and geometric concepts to a robotics audience. These topics seem to be quite fashionable at the moment, but most of the robotics books that touch on these topics tend to treat Lie groups as little more than a fancy notation. I hope to show the power and elegance of these methods as they apply to problems in robotics. A subsidiary aim of the book is to reintroduce some old ideas by describing them in modem notation, particularly Study's Quadric-a description of the group of rigid motions in three dimensions as an algebraic variety (well, actually an open subset in an algebraic variety)-as well as some of the less well known aspects of Ball's theory of screws. In the first four chapters, a careful exposition of the theory of Lie groups and their Lie algebras is given. Except for the simplest examples, all examples used to illustrate these ideas are taken from robotics. So, unlike most standard texts on Lie groups, emphasis is placed on a group that is not semi-simple-the group of proper Euclidean motions in three dimensions. In particular, the continuous subgroups of this group are found, and the elements of its Lie algebra are identified with the surfaces of the lower Reuleaux pairs. These surfaces were first identified by Reuleaux in the latter half of the 19th century.
The book description for the forthcoming "Ramification Theoretic Methods in Algebraic Geometry (AM-43)" is not yet available.
The common solutions of a finite number of polynomial equations in a finite number of variables constitute an algebraic variety. The degrees of freedom of a moving point on the variety is the dimension of the variety. A one-dimensional variety is a curve and a two-dimensional variety is a surface. A three-dimensional variety may be called asolid. Most points of a variety are simple points. Singularities are special points, or points of multiplicity greater than one. Points of multiplicity two are double points, points of multiplicity three are tripie points, and so on. A nodal point of a curve is a double point where the curve crosses itself, such as the alpha curve. A cusp is a double point where the curve has a beak. The vertex of a cone provides an example of a surface singularity. A reversible change of variables gives abirational transformation of a variety. Singularities of a variety may be resolved by birational transformations.
This volume consists of articles based on lectures delivered at an International Colloquium held at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay. Experts from all over the world spoke at the Conference on different aspects of geometry and analysis. Topics include: impact of geometry on the boundary solutions of a semilinear Neumann problem with critical nonlinearity; algebraic representations of reductive groups over local fields; scalar conservation laws with boundary condition; and the Borel-Weil theorem and the Feynman path integral. 1. Fundamental group of the Affine Line in Positive Characteristic, S.S. Abhyankar 2. Impact of geometry on the boundary on the positive solutions of a semilinear Neumann problem with Critical nonlinearity, Adimurthi 3. Sur a cohomologie de certains espaces de modules de fibres fectoriels, A. Beauville 4. Some quantum analogues of solvable Lie groups, C. De Concini et al 5. Compact complex manifolds whose tangent bundles satisfy numerical effectivity properties, J.-P. Demailly 6. Algebraic Representations of Reductive Groups over Local Fields, W.J. Haboush 7. Poncelet Polygons and the Painleve Equations, N.J. Hitchin 8. Scalar conservation laws with boundary condition, K.T. Joseph 9. Bases for Quantum Demazure modules-I, V. Lakshmibai 10. An Appendix to Basesfor Quantum Demazurew modules-I 11. Moduli Spaces of Abelian Surfaces with Isogeny, Ch. Birkenhake and H. Lange 12. Instantons and Parabolic Sheaves, M. Maruyama 13. Numerically effective line bundles which are not ample, V.B. Mehta and S. Subramanian 14. Moduli of logarithmic connections, N. Nitsure 15. The Borel-Weil theorem and the Feyman path integral, K. Okamoto 16. Geometric super-rigidity, Y.-T. Siu

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