Definitive modern edition of Stevenson's intriguing account of his emigration from Scotland to California
This book provides important insight on a range of issues focused on three themes; what new climate change information is being developed, how that knowledge is communicated and how it can be usefully applied across international, regional and local scales. There is increasing international investment and interest to develop and communicate updated climate change information to promote effective action. As change accelerates and planetary boundaries are crossed this information becomes particularly relevant to guide decisions and support both proactive adaptation and mitigation strategies. Developing new information addresses innovations in producing interdisciplinary climate change knowledge and overcoming issues of data quality, access and availability. This book examines effective information systems to guide decision-making for immediate and future action. Cases studies in developed and developing countries illustrate how climate change information promotes immediate and future actions across a range of sectors.
A major objective of this volume is to create and share knowledge about the socio-economic, political and cultural dimensions of climate change. The authors analyze the effects of climate change on the social and environmental determinants of the health and well-being of communities (i.e. poverty, clean air, safe drinking water, food supplies) and on extreme events such as floods and hurricanes. The book covers topics such as the social and political dimensions of the ebola response, inequalities in urban migrant communities, as well as water-related health effects of climate change. The contributors recommend political and social-cultural strategies for mitigate, adapt and prevent the impacts of climate change to human and environmental health. The book will be of interest to scholars and practitioners interested in new methods and tools to reduce risks and to increase health resilience to climate change.
Over the past decade there have been extraordinary advances towards drought risk reduction with the development of new water-conserving technologies, and new tools for planning, vulnerability and impact assessment, mitigation, and policy. Drought and Water Crises: Integrating Science, Management, and Policy, Second Edition comprehensively captures this evolving progress as it discusses drought management in the light of present risks, global climate change and public policy actions. This new edition emphasizes the paradigm shift from managing disasters to managing risk, reflecting the global emphasis that has evolved in recent years, a new focus that shines light on preparedness strategies and the tools and methods that are essential in drought risk reduction. The book provides additional relevant case studies that integrate this new approach and discusses examples applied in both developed and developing countries.
Governments all over the world are struggling with the question of how to adapt to climate change. They need information not only about the issue and its possible consequences, but also about feasible governance strategies and instruments to combat it. At the same time, scientists from different social disciplines are trying to understand the dynamics and peculiarities of the governance of climate change adaptation. This book demonstrates how action-oriented research methods can be used to satisfy the need for both policy-relevant information and scientific knowledge. Bringing together eight case studies that show inspiring practices of action research from around the world, including Australia, Denmark, Vietnam and the Netherlands, the book covers a rich variety of action-research applications, running from participatory observation to serious games and role-playing exercises. It explores many adaptation challenges, from flood-risk safety to heat stress and freshwater availability, and draws out valuable lessons about the conditions that make action research successful, demonstrating how scientific and academic knowledge can be used in a practical context to reach useful and applicable insights. The book will be of interest to scholars and students of climate change, environmental policy, politics and governance.
Australians are famous for our love of the coast, although in many places this 'love' has caused serious and often irreversible impacts. The sustainable management of our society's many uses of the coast is complex and challenging. While a wealth of knowledge exists about the coast, this is not always brought to bear on decision-making. Coastal management to date has had limited success, and in some cases interventions have made problems worse. Australia's coast has been shaped by severe events such as cyclones and floods, with climate change now increasing the number and intensity of these hazards. In addition, our coastal populations are growing, and with them our social, environmental and economic vulnerability to such hazards. This book explores the evolution of coastal management, and provides critical insights into contemporary experience and understanding of coastal management in Australia. It draws on contemporary theory and lessons from case examples to highlight the roles of research and community engagement in coastal management. The book concludes with a chapter of recommendations which can help guide coastal management and research around the world.
The prospect of the adverse effects that global climate change will have on human societies, opened up a discourse about the way adaptation should be managed. In order to finance adaptation measures in the most severe affected countries, the parties of the Kyoto Protocol established the Adaptation Fund in 2007. In view of the limited resources that are available for adaptation, scales for the prioritization of countries that are based on their suspected vulnerability, have been developed in literature. But so far, indicators of vulnerability reflect only the general indicators of human development, and therefore, fail to capture the complex structures of vulnerability. In order to capture the mentioned complexity in a more satisfactory way, this book highlights the theory of collective learning. The collective learning approach assumes that vulnerability can be significantly decreased when governance systems adapt to external changes through collective learning processes. This study connects to this notion, and therefore, it assesses the influence of collective learning processes on the vulnerability of the Bangladeshi and Pakistani society towards flood hazards. This determinant of vulnerability is used to capture the matter's complexity.
Climate change is dramatically affecting freshwater supplies, particularly in the developing world. The papers in this volume present a powerful case for and exploration of different freshwater adaptation strategies in the face of global climatic change. The volume centres on six detailed case studies, from India, China, Mexico, Brazil, the lower Danube basin and Tanzania, written by experienced local academics and practitioners. They assess autonomous adaptation in the freshwater sector, drawing out key lessons about what motivated these societies to change, which factors led to more successful adaptation, and how interventions may best be sustained. The volume also contains a global overview of the lessons derived from these experiences. It sheds light on two key theories: that vulnerability to climate change is best reduced by reducing poverty and promoting sustainable development first, or by reducing bio-physical risks from climate change. The publication also highlights the need to ensure that access to more precise climate change impact data is not used as an excuse to delay implementation of no regrets adaptation measures.
This comprehensive handbook provides a unique overview of the theory, methodologies and best practices in climate change communication from around the world. It fosters the exchange of information, ideas and experience gained in the execution of successful projects and initiatives, and discusses novel methodological approaches aimed at promoting a better understanding of climate change adaptation. Addressing a gap in the literature on climate change communication and pursuing an integrated approach, the handbook documents and disseminates the wealth of experience currently available in this field. Volume 3 of the handbook provides case studies from around the world, documenting and disseminating the wealth of experiences available.
This edited book responds to the need for a better understanding of how climate change affects North America and for the identification of processes, methods and tools that may help countries and communities to develop a more robust adaptive capacity. It showcases successful examples of how to manage the social, economic and environmental complexities posed by climate change. The book attempts to synthesize various branches of resilience and adaptation scholarship into a cohesive text that highlights field research and best practices that are shaping policy and practice in a wide geography from the coastal conditions of the Caribbean to the thawing landscape of the Arctic Circle.
Abstract: This paper develops a Structural Ricardian model to measure climate change impacts that explicitly models the choice of farm type in African agriculture. This two stage model first estimates the type of farm chosen and then the conditional incomes of each farm type after removing selection biases. The results indicate that increases in temperature encourage farmers to adopt mixed farming and avoid specialized farms such as crop-only or livestock-only farms. Increases in precipitation encourage farmers to shift from irrigated to rainfed crops. As temperatures increase, farm incomes from crop-only farms or livestock-only farms fall whereas incomes from mixed farms increase. With precipitation increases, farm incomes from irrigated farms fall whereas incomes from rainfed farms increase. Naturally, the Structural Ricardian model predicts much smaller impacts than a model that holds farm type fixed. With a hot dry climate scenario, the Structural Ricardian model predicts that farm income will fall 50 percent but the fixed farm type model predicts farm incomes will fall 75 percent.
Climate change adaptation is increasingly recognized ascomplementary part to climate change mitigation. Climatechange affects sea level, the extent of flood prone areas andprecipitation patterns among many others. To adapt to thesechanges, the tasks of municipalities and cities are to implementpolicies and strategies for changes in land use and coastalmanagement as part of their future development. It is ofvital importance to address the uncertainties of climate changescenarios when proposing adaptation measures that are sociallyviable and economically reasonable. The decision makingprocess, promoted here, is based on scientific excellence as wellon an integrated communication process. This book provides a comprehensive overview of key elementsrequired for effective analysis and assessment of climate changeimpacts, economic cost-benefit analysis, communication processesand creation and transfer of knowledge, governance issues andimplementation of related policies. It describes the resultsachieved by the BaltCICA (ahref="http://www.baltcica.org/"www.baltcica.org/a) project whosecontributors come from the scientific and public administrationcommunities. The regional cooperation has led to the implementationof climate change adaptation in several case studies. The BaltCICAproject developed concepts, methodologies and tools for climatechange adaptation that can be translated across other globalregions. Scientists and students working on the development of climatechange and adaptation strategies; public administrators inthe related fields on local, regional and state level includingenvironment, water management, civil defense; as well asprofessionals working with adaptation technologies, includingengineering, technological solutions, urban planning agencies andconstruction, will value this innovative book.
Wageningen Univerisity and Research Centre is known for its practical and societally relevant research in spatial development. Stakeholders currently put much emphasis on participatory processes in landscape planning procedures. This poses a special challenge for research. What role does research play in our present world characterised by complexity, competing claims and development needs, and an increased concern for climate change and environmental impact? In the book 'Knowledge in Action' we explore different types of transdisciplinary research that scientists engage in. Depending on the societal context and the interests of local citizens, researchers apply different research approaches to optimally incorporate the various points of view in their research and promote processes enhancing dialogue and shared results. In the book authors present their research experiences: their theoretical inspiration, the research methodology applied to consult, share and collaborate with societal actors in order to create options for change. The book includes several striking examples from The Netherlands (both successful and less effective), and also innovative examples from communities in Africa and Asia. The authors reflect on opportunities, problems and dilemma's they had to deal with. They especially address how far the role and theoretical perspectives of collaborative researchers can lead them in action research. Can they limit themselves to joint knowledge production and learning processes or should they engage in strategic positioning, advocacy and entrepreneurship to make it happen? The book discusses the issues that researchers should consider when they position their research activities within ongoing developments at landscape level. Read the book and judge for yourself.
This book provides a comprehensive yet accessible overview of landsystems vulnerability assessment in Asia - fundamental to theunderstanding of the link between global change, environmentalsustainability and human wellbeing. The extent and intensity ofhuman interactions with the environment have increasedspectacularly since the Industrial Revolution. Thus, the globalchange research community and development practitionersincreasingly recognize the need to address the adverse consequencesof changes taking place in the structure and function of thebiosphere and the implications for society. With a focus onAsia, this book provides an overview of the vulnerability of landsystems and the subsequent multiple stressors in this region. Thebook offers a discussion surrounding the potential causal processesthat affect land systems vulnerability and our capacity to copewith different perturbations. It also identifies factors that helpto integrate vulnerability assessment into policy anddecision-making. • Addresses the complex issues arising fromhuman–environment interactions that cannot be satisfactorilydealt with by core disciplinary methods alone. • Key coverage of a variety of topics from thevulnerability of smallholder agriculture and urban systems to theimpact of socioeconomic processes at the sub-regional level. • Coverage of the causal processes that affect landsystems vulnerability and capacity to cope with differentperturbations are documented. • Focus on integrating vulnerability assessment intopolicies and decision-making • Includes contributions from leading academics in thefield.
Adaptation is the poor cousin of the climate change challenge -the glamour of international debate is around global mitigationagreements, while the bottom-up activities of adaptation, carriedout in community halls and local government offices, are oftenoverlooked. Yet, as international forums fail to deliver reductionsin greenhouse gas emissions, the world is realising that effectiveadaptation will be essential across all sectors to deal with theunavoidable impacts of climate change. The need to understand howto adapt effectively, and to develop appropriate adaptation optionsand actions, is becoming increasingly urgent. This book reports the current state of knowledge on climatechange adaptation, and seeks to expose and debate key issues inadaptation research and practice. It is framed around a number ofcritical areas of adaptation theory and practice, including: Advances in adaptation thinking, Enabling frameworks and policy for adaptation, Engaging and communicating with practitioners, Key challenges in adaptation and development, Management of natural systems and agriculture under climatechange, Ensuring water security under a changing climate, Urban infrastructure and livelihoods, and The nexus between extremes, disaster management andadaptation. It includes contributions from many of the leading thinkers andpractitioners in adaptation today. The book is based on keycontributions from the First International Conference on ClimateChange Adaptation ‘Climate Adaptation Futures’, held onthe Gold Coast, Australia, in June 2010. That three-day meeting ofover 1000 researchers and practitioners in adaptation from 50countries was the first of its kind. Readership: The book is essential reading for a widerange of individuals involved in climate change adaptation,including: Researchers, Communication specialists, Decision-makers and policy makers (e.g. government staff, localcouncil staff), On-ground adaptation practitioners (e.g. aid agencies,government workers, NGOs), Postgraduate and graduate students, and Consultants.
This book provides an overview of recent developments and applications of the Land Use Scanner model, which has been used in spatial planning for well over a decade. Internationally recognized as among the best of its kind, this versatile model can be applied at a national level for trend extrapolation, scenario studies and optimization, yet can also be employed in a smaller-scale regional context, as demonstrated by the assortment of regional case studies included in the book. Alongside these practical examples from the Netherlands, readers will find discussion of more theoretical aspects of land-use models as well as an assessment of various studies that aim to develop the Land-Use Scanner model further. Spanning the divide between the abstractions of land-use modelling and the imperatives of policy making, this is a cutting-edge account of the way in which the Land-Use Scanner approach is able to interrogate a spectrum of issues that range from climate change to transportation efficiency. Aimed at planners, researchers and policy makers who need to stay abreast of the latest advances in land-use modelling techniques in the context of planning practice, the book guides the reader through the applications supported by current instrumentation. It affords the opportunity for a wide readership to benefit from the extensive and acknowledged expertise of Dutch planners, who have originated a host of much-used models.