The arthropods contain more species than any other animal group, but the evolutionary pathways which led to their current diversity are still an issue of controversy. Arthropod Relationships provides an overview of our current understanding, responding to the new data arising from sequencing DNA, the discovery of new Cambrian fossils as direct evidence of early arthropod history, and developmental genetics. These new areas of research have stimulated a reconsideration of classical morphology and embryology. Arthropod Relationships is the first synthesis of the current debate to emerge: not since the volume edited by Gupta was published in 1979 has the arthropod phylogeny debate been, considered in this depth and breadth. Leaders in the various branches of arthropod biology have contributed to this volume. Chapters focus progressively from the general issues to the specific problems involving particular groups, and thence to a consideration of embryology and genetics. This wide range of disciplines is drawn on to approach an understanding of arthropod relationships, and to provide the most timely account of arthropod phylogeny. This book should be read by evolutionary biologists, palaeontologists, developmental geneticists and invertebrate zoologists. It will have a special interest for post-graduate students working in these fields.
Compared to other arthropods, crustaceans are characterized by an unparalleled disparity of body plans. Traditionally, the specialization of arthropod segments and appendages into distinct body regions has served as a convenient basis for higher classification; however, many relationships within the phylum Arthropoda still remain controversial. Can Crustacea even be considered a monophyletic group? If so, then which are their closest relatives within the Arthropoda? The answers to questions such as these will play a key role in understanding patterns and processes in arthropod evolution, including the disappearance of certain body plans from the fossil record, as well as incidences of transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments. Crustacea and Arthropod Relationships, written by a team of internationally recognized experts, presents a wide variety of viewpoints, while offering an up-to-date summary of recent progress across several disciplines. With rich detail and vibrancy, it addresses the evolution and phylogenetic relationships of the Arthropoda based upon molecular, developmental, morphological, and paleontological evidence. Volume 16 is the first in the series to not be exclusively dedicated to discussions specific to crustaceans. While it is still crustaceo-centric, the focus of this volume has been extended to include other groups of arthropods along with the Crustacea. This wider focus offers challenging opportunities to evaluate higher-level relationships within the Arthropoda from a carcinologic perspective. This volume is dedicated to the career of Frederick R. Schram, the founding editor of CrustaceanIssues in 1983, in recognition of his many stimulating and wide-ranging contributions to the evolutionary biology of arthropods in general, and of crustaceans in particular.
Contributors Preface Acknowledgements 1. Immunology of the Skin, Stephen K. Wikel 2. Mouthparts and Feeding Mechanism of Haematophagous Arthropods, Douglas K. Bergman 3. Salivary Glad Physiology of Blood-feeding Arthropods, John R. Sauer et al 4. Pharmacology of Haematophagous Arthropod Saliva, Donald E. Champagne and Jesus G. Valenzuela 5. Arthropod Modulation of Host Immune Responses, Stephen K. Wikel et al 6. Digestion and Fate of the Vertebrate Bloodmeal in Insects, Michale J. Lehane 7. Immune Responses to Fleas, Bugs and Sucking Lice, Clar J. Jones 8. Immune Response to Mosquitoes and Flies, R. Mark Sanderman 9. Immunology of the Tick-Host Interface, Stephen K. Wikel 10. Immunology of Scabies, Larry G. Arlian 11. Immune Response to Mange Mites and Chiggers, William J. Wrenn 12. Immunology-based Control Blood-feeding Arthropodsd, Stephen K. Wikel et al 13. A Synthesis of Current Concepts Regarding the Immunology of the Host-Arthropod Interface, Stephen K. Wikel Index
Insects and Wildlife: Arthropods and their Relationships with Wild Vertebrate Animals provides a comprehensive overview of the interrelationships of insects and wildlife. It serves as an introduction to insects and other arthropods for wildlife management and other vertebrate biology students, and emphasizes the importance of insects to wild vertebrate animals. The book emphasizes how insects exert important influences on wildlife habitat suitability and wildlife population sustainability, including their direct and indirect effects on wildlife health. Among the important topics covered are: the importance of insects as food items for vertebrate animals; the role of arthropods as determinants of ecosystem health and productivity; the ability of arthropods to transmit disease-causing agents; an overview of representative disease-causing agents transmitted by arthropods; arthropods as pests and parasites of vertebrates; the hazards to wildlife associated with using using pesticides to protect against insect damage; insect management using techniques other than pesticides; the importance of insect conservation and how insects influence wildlife conservation.
More than two thirds of all living organisms described to date belong to the phylum Arthropoda. But their diversity, as measured in terms of species number, is also accompanied by an amazing disparity in terms of body form, developmental processes, and adaptations to every inhabitable place on Earth, from the deepest marine abysses to the earth surface and the air. The Arthropoda also include one of the most fashionable and extensively studied of all model organisms, the fruit-fly, whose name is not only linked forever to Mendelian and population genetics, but has more recently come back to centre stage as one of the most important and more extensively investigated models in developmental genetics. This approach has completely changed our appreciation of some of the most characteristic traits of arthropods as are the origin and evolution of segments, their regional and individual specialization, and the origin and evolution of the appendages. At approximately the same time as developmental genetics was eventually turning into the major agent in the birth of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), molecular phylogenetics was challenging the traditional views on arthropod phylogeny, including the relationships among the four major groups: insects, crustaceans, myriapods, and chelicerates. In the meantime, palaeontology was revealing an amazing number of extinct forms that on the one side have contributed to a radical revisitation of arthropod phylogeny, but on the other have provided evidence of a previously unexpected disparity of arthropod and arthropod-like forms that often challenge a clear-cut delimitation of the phylum.
Crustaceans, due to the great diversity of their body organization, segmentation patterns, tagmatization, limb types, larval forms, cleavage, and gastrulation modes, are highly desirable for the study of questions at the interface of evolution and development. Modern interest in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) rests on the molecular genetic approach and a variety of molecular techniques have proven fruitful when performed on crustaceans. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea presents a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the field, beginning with a discussion of the implications of the typological Bauplan and phylum concepts versus historical concepts such as ground pattern and monophylum for the formulation of conceptual questions in evo-devo. Following this, the authors present the results of Hox gene expression in various crustacean taxa, aspects of segment formation at the cellular and genetic levels, the formation of segmental structures such as neurons, ganglia, and limbs, and the role of morphological ontogenetic characters in resolving phylogenetic relationships. By covering so many general aspects of crustacean development, morphology, and evolution, Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea serves as an indispensable reference for developmental and evolutionary biologists investigating the role of genetics in evolution and development.
One of the leading textbooks in its field, Bringing Fossils to Life applies paleobiological principles to the fossil record while detailing the evolutionary history of major plant and animal phyla. It incorporates current research from biology, ecology, and population genetics, bridging the gap between purely theoretical paleobiological textbooks and those that describe only invertebrate paleobiology and that emphasize cataloguing live organisms instead of dead objects. For this third edition Donald R. Prothero has revised the art and research throughout, expanding the coverage of invertebrates and adding a discussion of new methodologies and a chapter on the origin and early evolution of life.
Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study by early ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to the natural history of climbing plants. Over the past quarter century, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, and liana are again recognized as important components of many forests, particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount of research on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeper understanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, as well as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics and functioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution of lianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, their global abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effects on the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperate forests.
Many recent controversies in arthropod evolution have been initiated by new fossil discoveries and new interpretations of early fossils. This book examines the role that these finds and ideas have played in understanding the evolutionary history of arthropods. The authors of the book's seven chapters have been at the forefront of this research. The book will be a vital resource for paleontologists, researchers on extant arthropods interested in fossil history, and evolutionists concerned with how different kinds of systematic data should be analyzed.
A significant addition to the field of fungus-insect relationships, this book presents an interesting array of approaches to the subject of evolutionary and ecological associations of insects and fungi, written by both mycologists and entomologists.The volume is indispensable as an introduction to modern approaches in the field, a reference on host associations, and a theoretical basis for future research.
Embryology and Phylogeny in Annelids and Arthropods describes the embryology of segmented invertebrates, utilizing morphological facts of embryonic development in the furtherance of speculations on phylogenetic relationships. This book begins with an introduction to embryology and phylogeny, followed by a discussion on the experimental embryology of animals groups, such as polychaetes, oligochaetes and leeches, onychophorans, myriapods, apterygote and pterygote insects, crustaceans, and chelicerates. The cleavage, gastrulation, and basic pattern of development of these invertebrates are also provided. This text concludes with a presentation of the onychophoran-myriapod-hexapod assemblage or Uniramia. This publication is recommended for experimental embryologists researching on the embryonic development in annelids and arthropods.
Describing and understanding the evolution of the diversity of bodyplans is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Taking a modern, integrated approach to this question, a group of leading researchers describe how modern techniques and disciplines have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution.
Gillott’s thorough yet clear writing style continues to keep Entomology near the top of the class as a text for senior undergraduates, and for graduate students and professionals seeking an introduction to specific entomological topics. The author’s long-held belief that an introductory entomology course should present a balanced treatment of the subject is reflected in the continued arrangement of the book in four sections: Evolution and Diversity, Anatomy and Physiology, Reproduction and Development, and Ecology. For the third edition, all chapters have been updated. This includes not only the addition of new information and concepts but also the reduction or exclusion of material no longer considered "mainstream", so as to keep the book at a reasonable size. Based on exciting discoveries made during the previous decade, the topics of insect evolutionary relationships, semiochemicals, gas exchange, immune responses (including those of parasites and parasitoids), flight, and the management of pests have received particular attention in the preparation of the third edition. Overall, more than 30 new or significantly revised figures have been incorporated.
Proceedings of the 7th Colloquium Crustacea Decapoda Mediterranea, held at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Portugal, 6-9 September 1999
This edited volume is provides an authoritative synthesis of knowledge about the history of life. All the major groups of organisms are treated, by the leading workers in their fields. With sections on: The Importance of Knowing the Tree of Life; The Origin and Radiation of Life on Earth; The Relationships of Green Plants; The Relationships of Fungi; and The Relationships of Animals. This book should prove indispensable for evolutionary biologists, taxonomists, ecologists interested in biodiversity, and as a baseline sourcebook for organismic biologists, botanists, and microbiologists. An essential reference in this fundamental area.
Flies (Dipteria) have had an important role in deepening scientists'understanding of modern biology and evolution. The study of flies has figured prominently in major advances in the fields of molecular evolution, physiology, genetics, phylogenetics, and ecology over the last century. This volume, with contributions from top scientists and scholars in the field, brings together diverse aspects of research and will be essential reading for entomologists and fly researchers.
Many recent controversies in arthropod evolution have been initiated by new fossil discoveries and new interpretations of early fossils. This book examines the role that these finds and ideas have played in understanding the evolutionary history of arthropods. The authors of the book's seven chapters have been at the forefront of this research. The book will be a vital resource for paleontologists, researchers on extant arthropods interested in fossil history, and evolutionists concerned with how different kinds of systematic data should be analyzed.

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