The arthropods contain more species than any other animal group, but the evolutionary pathways which led to their current diversity are still an issue of controversy. Arthropod Relationships provides an overview of our current understanding, responding to the new data arising from sequencing DNA, the discovery of new Cambrian fossils as direct evidence of early arthropod history, and developmental genetics. These new areas of research have stimulated a reconsideration of classical morphology and embryology. Arthropod Relationships is the first synthesis of the current debate to emerge: not since the volume edited by Gupta was published in 1979 has the arthropod phylogeny debate been, considered in this depth and breadth. Leaders in the various branches of arthropod biology have contributed to this volume. Chapters focus progressively from the general issues to the specific problems involving particular groups, and thence to a consideration of embryology and genetics. This wide range of disciplines is drawn on to approach an understanding of arthropod relationships, and to provide the most timely account of arthropod phylogeny. This book should be read by evolutionary biologists, palaeontologists, developmental geneticists and invertebrate zoologists. It will have a special interest for post-graduate students working in these fields.
Compared to other arthropods, crustaceans are characterized by an unparalleled disparity of body plans. Traditionally, the specialization of arthropod segments and appendages into distinct body regions has served as a convenient basis for higher classification; however, many relationships within the phylum Arthropoda still remain controversial. Can Crustacea even be considered a monophyletic group? If so, then which are their closest relatives within the Arthropoda? The answers to questions such as these will play a key role in understanding patterns and processes in arthropod evolution, including the disappearance of certain body plans from the fossil record, as well as incidences of transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments. Crustacea and Arthropod Relationships, written by a team of internationally recognized experts, presents a wide variety of viewpoints, while offering an up-to-date summary of recent progress across several disciplines. With rich detail and vibrancy, it addresses the evolution and phylogenetic relationships of the Arthropoda based upon molecular, developmental, morphological, and paleontological evidence. Volume 16 is the first in the series to not be exclusively dedicated to discussions specific to crustaceans. While it is still crustaceo-centric, the focus of this volume has been extended to include other groups of arthropods along with the Crustacea. This wider focus offers challenging opportunities to evaluate higher-level relationships within the Arthropoda from a carcinologic perspective. This volume is dedicated to the career of Frederick R. Schram, the founding editor of CrustaceanIssues in 1983, in recognition of his many stimulating and wide-ranging contributions to the evolutionary biology of arthropods in general, and of crustaceans in particular.
Contributors Preface Acknowledgements 1. Immunology of the Skin, Stephen K. Wikel 2. Mouthparts and Feeding Mechanism of Haematophagous Arthropods, Douglas K. Bergman 3. Salivary Glad Physiology of Blood-feeding Arthropods, John R. Sauer et al 4. Pharmacology of Haematophagous Arthropod Saliva, Donald E. Champagne and Jesus G. Valenzuela 5. Arthropod Modulation of Host Immune Responses, Stephen K. Wikel et al 6. Digestion and Fate of the Vertebrate Bloodmeal in Insects, Michale J. Lehane 7. Immune Responses to Fleas, Bugs and Sucking Lice, Clar J. Jones 8. Immune Response to Mosquitoes and Flies, R. Mark Sanderman 9. Immunology of the Tick-Host Interface, Stephen K. Wikel 10. Immunology of Scabies, Larry G. Arlian 11. Immune Response to Mange Mites and Chiggers, William J. Wrenn 12. Immunology-based Control Blood-feeding Arthropodsd, Stephen K. Wikel et al 13. A Synthesis of Current Concepts Regarding the Immunology of the Host-Arthropod Interface, Stephen K. Wikel Index
More than two thirds of all living organisms described to date belong to the phylum Arthropoda. But their diversity, as measured in terms of species number, is also accompanied by an amazing disparity in terms of body form, developmental processes, and adaptations to every inhabitable place on Earth, from the deepest marine abysses to the earth surface and the air. The Arthropoda also include one of the most fashionable and extensively studied of all model organisms, the fruit-fly, whose name is not only linked forever to Mendelian and population genetics, but has more recently come back to centre stage as one of the most important and more extensively investigated models in developmental genetics. This approach has completely changed our appreciation of some of the most characteristic traits of arthropods as are the origin and evolution of segments, their regional and individual specialization, and the origin and evolution of the appendages. At approximately the same time as developmental genetics was eventually turning into the major agent in the birth of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), molecular phylogenetics was challenging the traditional views on arthropod phylogeny, including the relationships among the four major groups: insects, crustaceans, myriapods, and chelicerates. In the meantime, palaeontology was revealing an amazing number of extinct forms that on the one side have contributed to a radical revisitation of arthropod phylogeny, but on the other have provided evidence of a previously unexpected disparity of arthropod and arthropod-like forms that often challenge a clear-cut delimitation of the phylum.
Crustaceans, due to the great diversity of their body organization, segmentation patterns, tagmatization, limb types, larval forms, cleavage, and gastrulation modes, are highly desirable for the study of questions at the interface of evolution and development. Modern interest in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) rests on the molecular genetic approach and a variety of molecular techniques have proven fruitful when performed on crustaceans. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea presents a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the field, beginning with a discussion of the implications of the typological Bauplan and phylum concepts versus historical concepts such as ground pattern and monophylum for the formulation of conceptual questions in evo-devo. Following this, the authors present the results of Hox gene expression in various crustacean taxa, aspects of segment formation at the cellular and genetic levels, the formation of segmental structures such as neurons, ganglia, and limbs, and the role of morphological ontogenetic characters in resolving phylogenetic relationships. By covering so many general aspects of crustacean development, morphology, and evolution, Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea serves as an indispensable reference for developmental and evolutionary biologists investigating the role of genetics in evolution and development.
One of the leading textbooks in its field, Bringing Fossils to Life applies paleobiological principles to the fossil record while detailing the evolutionary history of major plant and animal phyla. It incorporates current research from biology, ecology, and population genetics, bridging the gap between purely theoretical paleobiological textbooks and those that describe only invertebrate paleobiology and that emphasize cataloguing live organisms instead of dead objects. For this third edition Donald R. Prothero has revised the art and research throughout, expanding the coverage of invertebrates and adding a discussion of new methodologies and a chapter on the origin and early evolution of life.
Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study byearly ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to thenatural history of climbing plants. Over the past quartercentury, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, andliana are again recognized as important components of many forests,particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount ofresearch on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeperunderstanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, aswell as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics andfunctioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution oflianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, theirglobal abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effectson the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperateforests.
Parasitologie für Studium, Weiterbildung und Praxis. Der Klassiker der Veterinärparasitologie ist nicht nur ideal für die Prüfungsvorbereitung, sondern auch maximal praxisrelevant. - Das Buch ermöglicht leichtes und strukturiertes Lernen durch klare Gliederung des Stoffes und praktische Zusammenfassungen der Kapitel. - Alle relevanten Protozoen, Helminthen und Arthropoden werden als Ursachen parasitärer Erkrankungen oder als Überträger von Erregern dargestellt. - Tierartspezifische Übersichten zu Therapie- und Bekämpfungsmaßnahmen sorgen für schnelle Orientierung. Auch Zoonosen und der Befall von Lebensmitteln mit Parasiten werden behandelt. - Einprägsame Entwicklungszyklen sowie hervorragende Farbfotos der klinischen Symptome und pathologischen Veränderungen veranschaulichen den Inhalt. - Diagnostische Tafeln ermöglichen die schnelle Differenzierung der Entwicklungsstadien unter dem Mikroskop. - Alle Inhalte wurden vollständig aktualisiert und auf den Lehrplan abgestimmt. Parasitologie - gewusst wie
Gillott’s thorough yet clear writing style continues to keep Entomology near the top of the class as a text for senior undergraduates, and for graduate students and professionals seeking an introduction to specific entomological topics. The author’s long-held belief that an introductory entomology course should present a balanced treatment of the subject is reflected in the continued arrangement of the book in four sections: Evolution and Diversity, Anatomy and Physiology, Reproduction and Development, and Ecology. For the third edition, all chapters have been updated. This includes not only the addition of new information and concepts but also the reduction or exclusion of material no longer considered "mainstream", so as to keep the book at a reasonable size. Based on exciting discoveries made during the previous decade, the topics of insect evolutionary relationships, semiochemicals, gas exchange, immune responses (including those of parasites and parasitoids), flight, and the management of pests have received particular attention in the preparation of the third edition. Overall, more than 30 new or significantly revised figures have been incorporated.
Describing and understanding the evolution of the diversity of bodyplans is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Taking a modern, integrated approach to this question, a group of leading researchers describe how modern techniques and disciplines have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution.
This edited volume is provides an authoritative synthesis of knowledge about the history of life. All the major groups of organisms are treated, by the leading workers in their fields. With sections on: The Importance of Knowing the Tree of Life; The Origin and Radiation of Life on Earth; The Relationships of Green Plants; The Relationships of Fungi; and The Relationships of Animals. This book should prove indispensable for evolutionary biologists, taxonomists, ecologists interested in biodiversity, and as a baseline sourcebook for organismic biologists, botanists, and microbiologists. An essential reference in this fundamental area.
Flies (Dipteria) have had an important role in deepening scientists'understanding of modern biology and evolution. The study of flies has figured prominently in major advances in the fields of molecular evolution, physiology, genetics, phylogenetics, and ecology over the last century. This volume, with contributions from top scientists and scholars in the field, brings together diverse aspects of research and will be essential reading for entomologists and fly researchers.
This volume of Parasitology examines specifically parasite-insect Interaction.
Proceedings of the 7th Colloquium Crustacea Decapoda Mediterranea, held at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Portugal, 6-9 September 1999
Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases is a practical, up-to-date resource covering the most important and cutting-edge advances in the field. Presented by a seasoned educator in a concise, highly visual format, this innovative guide keeps you current with the latest advances in this ever-changing field. 80 case studies illustrate the clinical relevance of the major infectious disease chapters. Well-organized Major Infectious Diseases chapters break down content by etiologic agent and epidemiology, clinical signs and their pathophysiology, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, immunity, prevention, and public health implications. Over 80 case studies illustrate how the information provided can be applied in everyday practice. Logical approach to laboratory diagnosis guides you through all the steps needed to accurately diagnose and treat viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal, and algal diseases. Practical protocols provided by expert clinicians guide you in the management of canine and feline patients suspected to have infectious diseases, including handling, disinfection, isolation, and vaccination protocols. Over 500 full color images – geographic distribution maps, life cycle drawings, and hundreds of color photographs – visually illustrate and clarify complex issues. Easy-to-understand tables and boxes make content quickly accessible, eliminating the need to sort through dense text for critical information in the clinical setting.
The development of molecular tools has dramatically increased our knowledge of parasite diversity and the vectors that transmit them. From viruses and protists to arthropods and helminths, each branch of the Tree of Life offers an insight into significant, yet cryptic, biodiversity. Alongside this, the studies of host-parasite interactions and parasitism have influenced many scientific disciplines, such as biogeography and evolutionary ecology, by using comparative methods based on phylogenetic information to unravel shared evolutionary histories. Parasite Diversity and Diversification brings together two active fields of research, phylogenetics and evolutionary ecology, to reveal and explain the patterns of parasite diversity and the diversification of their hosts. This book will encourage students and researchers in the fields of ecology and evolution of parasitism, as well as animal and human health, to integrate phylogenetics into the investigation of parasitism in evolutionary ecology, health ecology, medicine and conservation.
Gregory Edgecombe has assembled premier specialists in the study of arthropods, each of whom addresses a major issue in arthropod diversity by reviewing evidence of key fossils from a common perspective and examining the interplay between extinct and extant species through inference of the structure of the arthropod evolutionary tree.With the most complete collection of modern perspectives on the history of Arthropoda, this volume advances the current debate on paleontology's role in discovering life's hierarchy. Of interest to specialists in a wide range of fields including paleontology, petroleum geology, oceanography, and entomology, Arthropod Fossils and Phylogeny will be the standard general reference on arthropod paleontology for years to come.
"An immensely useful manual with many attractive features: comprehensive and lucid keys, precise diagrams, annotated checklists and up-to-date references. ... there is no doubt that it should be seen as an example of the type of manual which is so badly needed in the study of the fauna of many shores around the world."Journal of Animal Ecology "Congratulations to the editors, contributors, and publisher for a job well done. The third edition has been rewritten, corrected, and enlarged, so that while retaining the basic organization of the earlier ones, it is more useful, informative and up-to-date. The meticulous scholarship of Smith and Carlton is just what the revision needed."Systematic Zoology "This revision should serve for many years. It is therefore particularly commendable that the editing has been meticulous, perhaps flawless. ... thanks are due to the many contributors for a job well done."The Quarterly Review of Biology "As the Pacific Coast intertidal zone undergoes increasingly profound changes, knowing the sentinel invertebrates can foretell the future of the sea, and hence, of our species. Jim Carlton's hefty new update of The Light & Smith Manual, the comprehensive compendium of who's who between the tides, is the best and quickest way to do so."Elliot A. Norse, President, Marine Conservation Biology Institute "This much-anticipated modernization of "Light's Manual" is an astonishing accomplishment, blending state-of-the-art taxonomy with profusely illustrated and user-friendly keys to who's whom on marine shores from its stated boundaries of mid-California through Oregon, and clearly, much further north. It's also an informative, well referenced read. Marine biologists should not leave home without it."Robert Paine, Professor Emeritus of Biology, University of Washington "At this time of environmental change and loss of biodiversity, species identification has never been more important. The fourth edition of Light and Smith is more than just a field guideit is a masterwork of research and description with a strong focus on morphological detail. No other book has such a broad scope, newly expanded to include even the most obscure taxa. The revised keys and beautiful anatomical illustrations make this classic guide more indispensable than ever. As taxonomists become extinct, there are fewer students to receive the vast body of knowledge accumulated by generations of careful study. I hope that the beauty and depth of this guide will inspire a generation of young scientists to continue this critical taxonomic work. It will have a place of honor in all marine labs."Paul K. Dayton, Scripps Institution of Oceanography"
Feeding on Non-Prey Resources by Natural Enemies Moshe Coll Reports on the consumption of non-prey food sources, particularly plant materials, by predators and parasitoids are common throughout the literature (reviewed recently by Naranjo and Gibson 1996, Coll 1998a, Coll and Guershon, 2002). Predators belonging to a variety of orders and families are known to feed on pollen and nectar, and adult parasitoids acquire nutrients from honeydew and floral and extrafloral nectar. A recent publication by Wäckers et al. (2005) discusses the p- visioning of plant resources to natural enemies from the perspective of the plant, exploring the evolutionary possibility that plants enhance their defenses by recru- ing enemies to food sources. The present volume, in contrast, presents primarily the enemies’ perspective, and as such is the first comprehensive review of the nut- tional importance of non-prey foods for insect predators and parasitoids. Although the ecological significance of feeding on non-prey foods has long been underappreciated, attempts have been made to manipulate nectar and pollen ava- ability in crop fields in order to enhance levels of biological pest control by natural enemies (van Emden, 1965; Hagen, 1986; Coll, 1998a). The importance of n- prey foods for the management of pest populations is also discussed in the book.

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