This book provides an accessible introduction to algebraic topology, a field at the intersection of topology, geometry and algebra, together with its applications. Moreover, it covers several related topics that are in fact important in the overall scheme of algebraic topology. Comprising eighteen chapters and two appendices, the book integrates various concepts of algebraic topology, supported by examples, exercises, applications and historical notes. Primarily intended as a textbook, the book offers a valuable resource for undergraduate, postgraduate and advanced mathematics students alike. Focusing more on the geometric than on algebraic aspects of the subject, as well as its natural development, the book conveys the basic language of modern algebraic topology by exploring homotopy, homology and cohomology theories, and examines a variety of spaces: spheres, projective spaces, classical groups and their quotient spaces, function spaces, polyhedra, topological groups, Lie groups and cell complexes, etc. The book studies a variety of maps, which are continuous functions between spaces. It also reveals the importance of algebraic topology in contemporary mathematics, theoretical physics, computer science, chemistry, economics, and the biological and medical sciences, and encourages students to engage in further study.
Das Buch bietet eine Einführung in die Topologie, Differentialtopologie und Differentialgeometrie. Es basiert auf Manuskripten, die in verschiedenen Vorlesungszyklen erprobt wurden. Im ersten Kapitel werden grundlegende Begriffe und Resultate aus der mengentheoretischen Topologie bereitgestellt. Eine Ausnahme hiervon bildet der Jordansche Kurvensatz, der für Polygonzüge bewiesen wird und eine erste Idee davon vermitteln soll, welcher Art tiefere topologische Probleme sind. Im zweiten Kapitel werden Mannigfaltigkeiten und Liesche Gruppen eingeführt und an einer Reihe von Beispielen veranschaulicht. Diskutiert werden auch Tangential- und Vektorraumbündel, Differentiale, Vektorfelder und Liesche Klammern von Vektorfeldern. Weiter vertieft wird diese Diskussion im dritten Kapitel, in dem die de Rhamsche Kohomologie und das orientierte Integral eingeführt und der Brouwersche Fixpunktsatz, der Jordan-Brouwersche Zerlegungssatz und die Integralformel von Stokes bewiesen werden. Das abschließende vierte Kapitel ist den Grundlagen der Differentialgeometrie gewidmet. Entlang der Entwicklungslinien, die die Geometrie der Kurven und Untermannigfaltigkeiten in Euklidischen Räumen durchlaufen hat, werden Zusammenhänge und Krümmung, die zentralen Konzepte der Differentialgeometrie, diskutiert. Den Höhepunkt bilden die Gaussgleichungen, die Version des theorema egregium von Gauss für Untermannigfaltigkeiten beliebiger Dimension und Kodimension. Das Buch richtet sich in erster Linie an Mathematik- und Physikstudenten im zweiten und dritten Studienjahr und ist als Vorlage für ein- oder zweisemestrige Vorlesungen geeignet.
This volume deals with the theory of finite topological spaces and its relationship with the homotopy and simple homotopy theory of polyhedra. The interaction between their intrinsic combinatorial and topological structures makes finite spaces a useful tool for studying problems in Topology, Algebra and Geometry from a new perspective. In particular, the methods developed in this manuscript are used to study Quillen's conjecture on the poset of p-subgroups of a finite group and the Andrews-Curtis conjecture on the 3-deformability of contractible two-dimensional complexes. This self-contained work constitutes the first detailed exposition on the algebraic topology of finite spaces. It is intended for topologists and combinatorialists, but it is also recommended for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students with a modest knowledge of Algebraic Topology.
This is an introductory textbook on general and algebraic topology, aimed at anyone with a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. It provides full proofs and includes many examples and exercises. The covered topics include: set theory and cardinal arithmetic; axiom of choice and Zorn's lemma; topological spaces and continuous functions; connectedness and compactness; Alexandrov compactification; quotient topologies; countability and separation axioms; prebasis and Alexander's theorem; the Tychonoff theorem and paracompactness; complete metric spaces and function spaces; Baire spaces; homotopy of maps; the fundamental group; the van Kampen theorem; covering spaces; Brouwer and Borsuk's theorems; free groups and free product of groups; and basic category theory. While it is very concrete at the beginning, abstract concepts are gradually introduced. It is suitable for anyone needing a basic, comprehensive introduction to general and algebraic topology and its applications.
This book surveys the fundamental ideas of algebraic topology. The first part covers the fundamental group, its definition and application in the study of covering spaces. The second part turns to homology theory including cohomology, cup products, cohomology operations and topological manifolds. The final part is devoted to Homotropy theory, including basic facts about homotropy groups and applications to obstruction theory.
Building on rudimentary knowledge of real analysis, point-set topology, and basic algebra, Basic Algebraic Topology provides plenty of material for a two-semester course in algebraic topology. The book first introduces the necessary fundamental concepts, such as relative homotopy, fibrations and cofibrations, category theory, cell complexes, and simplicial complexes. It then focuses on the fundamental group, covering spaces and elementary aspects of homology theory. It presents the central objects of study in topology visualization: manifolds. After developing the homology theory with coefficients, homology of the products, and cohomology algebra, the book returns to the study of manifolds, discussing Poincaré duality and the De Rham theorem. A brief introduction to cohomology of sheaves and Čech cohomology follows. The core of the text covers higher homotopy groups, Hurewicz’s isomorphism theorem, obstruction theory, Eilenberg-Mac Lane spaces, and Moore-Postnikov decomposition. The author then relates the homology of the total space of a fibration to that of the base and the fiber, with applications to characteristic classes and vector bundles. The book concludes with the basic theory of spectral sequences and several applications, including Serre’s seminal work on higher homotopy groups. Thoroughly classroom-tested, this self-contained text takes students all the way to becoming algebraic topologists. Historical remarks throughout the text make the subject more meaningful to students. Also suitable for researchers, the book provides references for further reading, presents full proofs of all results, and includes numerous exercises of varying levels.
Discover a unique and modern treatment of topology employing across-disciplinary approach Implemented recently to understand diverse topics, such as cellbiology, superconductors, and robot motion, topology has beentransformed from a theoretical field that highlights mathematicaltheory to a subject that plays a growing role in nearly all fieldsof scientific investigation. Moving from the concrete to theabstract, Topology and Its Applications displays both the beautyand utility of topology, first presenting the essentials oftopology followed by its emerging role within the new frontiers inresearch. Filling a gap between the teaching of topology and its modernuses in real-world phenomena, Topology and Its Applications isorganized around the mathematical theory of topology, a frameworkof rigorous theorems, and clear, elegant proofs. This book is the first of its kind to present applications incomputer graphics, economics, dynamical systems, condensed matterphysics, biology, robotics, chemistry, cosmology, material science,computational topology, and population modeling, as well as otherareas of science and engineering. Many of these applications arepresented in optional sections, allowing an instructor to customizethe presentation. The author presents a diversity of topological areas, includingpoint-set topology, geometric topology, differential topology, andalgebraic/combinatorial topology. Topics within these areasinclude: Open sets Compactness Homotopy Surface classification Index theory on surfaces Manifolds and complexes Topological groups The fundamental group and homology Special "core intuition" segments throughout the book brieflyexplain the basic intuition essential to understanding severaltopics. A generous number of figures and examples, many of whichcome from applications such as liquid crystals, space probe data,and computer graphics, are all available from the publisher's Website.
This introduction to topology provides separate, in-depth coverage of both general topology and algebraic topology. Includes many examples and figures. GENERAL TOPOLOGY. Set Theory and Logic. Topological Spaces and Continuous Functions. Connectedness and Compactness. Countability and Separation Axioms. The Tychonoff Theorem. Metrization Theorems and paracompactness. Complete Metric Spaces and Function Spaces. Baire Spaces and Dimension Theory. ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY. The Fundamental Group. Separation Theorems. The Seifert-van Kampen Theorem. Classification of Surfaces. Classification of Covering Spaces. Applications to Group Theory. For anyone needing a basic, thorough, introduction to general and algebraic topology and its applications.
The amount of algebraic topology a graduate student specializing in topology must learn can be intimidating. Moreover, by their second year of graduate studies, students must make the transition from understanding simple proofs line-by-line to understanding the overall structure of proofs of difficult theorems. To help students make this transition, the material in this book is presented in an increasingly sophisticated manner. It is intended to bridge the gap between algebraic and geometric topology, both by providing the algebraic tools that a geometric topologist needs and by concentrating on those areas of algebraic topology that are geometrically motivated. Prerequisites for using this book include basic set-theoretic topology, the definition of CW-complexes, some knowledge of the fundamental group/covering space theory, and the construction of singular homology. Most of this material is briefly reviewed at the beginning of the book. The topics discussed by the authors include typical material for first- and second-year graduate courses. The core of the exposition consists of chapters on homotopy groups and on spectral sequences. There is also material that would interest students of geometric topology (homology with local coefficients and obstruction theory) and algebraic topology (spectra and generalized homology), as well as preparation for more advanced topics such as algebraic \$K\$-theory and the s-cobordism theorem. A unique feature of the book is the inclusion, at the end of each chapter, of several projects that require students to present proofs of substantial theorems and to write notes accompanying their explanations. Working on these projects allows students to grapple with the ``big picture'', teaches them how to give mathematical lectures, and prepares them for participating in research seminars. The book is designed as a textbook for graduate students studying algebraic and geometric topology and homotopy theory. It will also be useful for students from other fields such as differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and homological algebra. The exposition in the text is clear; special cases are presented over complex general statements.
The book is primarily intended as a textbook on modern algebra for undergraduate mathematics students. It is also useful for those who are interested in supplementary reading at a higher level. The text is designed in such a way that it encourages independent thinking and motivates students towards further study. The book covers all major topics in group, ring, vector space and module theory that are usually contained in a standard modern algebra text. In addition, it studies semigroup, group action, Hopf's group, topological groups and Lie groups with their actions, applications of ring theory to algebraic geometry, and defines Zariski topology, as well as applications of module theory to structure theory of rings and homological algebra. Algebraic aspects of classical number theory and algebraic number theory are also discussed with an eye to developing modern cryptography. Topics on applications to algebraic topology, category theory, algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory, cryptography and theoretical computer science interlink the subject with different areas. Each chapter discusses individual topics, starting from the basics, with the help of illustrative examples. This comprehensive text with a broad variety of concepts, applications, examples, exercises and historical notes represents a valuable and unique resource.
Operads are mathematical devices which describe algebraic structures of many varieties and in various categories. Operads are particularly important in categories with a good notion of ``homotopy'' where they play a key role in organizing hierarchies of higher homotopies. Significant examples first appeared in the sixties though the formal definition and appropriate generality waited for the seventies. These early occurrences were in algebraic topology in the study of (iterated)loop spaces and their chain algebras. In the nineties, there was a renaissance and further development of the theory inspired by the discovery of new relationships with graph cohomology, representation theory, algebraic geometry, derived categories, Morse theory, symplectic and contact geometry,combinatorics, knot theory, moduli spaces, cyclic cohomology, and, not least, theoretical physics, especially string field theory and deformation quantization. The generalization of quadratic duality (e.g., Lie algebras as dual to co The book contains a detailed and comprehensive historical introduction describing the development of operad theory from the initial period when it was a rather specialized tool in homotopy theory to the present when operads have a wide range of applications inalgebra, topology, and mathematical physics. Many results and applications currently scattered in the literature are brought together here along with new results and insights. The basic definitions and constructions are carefully explained and include many details not found in any of the standardliterature. There is a chapter on topology, reviewing classical results with the emphasis on the \$W\$-construction and homotopy invariance. Another chapter describes the (co)homology of operad algebras, minimal models, and homotopy algebras. A chapter on geometry focuses on the configuration spaces and their compactifications. A final chapter deals with cyclic and modular operads and applications to graph complexes and moduli spaces of surfaces of arbitrary genus.
Dieses Buch behandelt hauptsächlich zwei Themenkreise: Der Bairesche Kategorie-Satz als Hilfsmittel für Existenzbeweise sowie Die "Dualität" zwischen Maß und Kategorie. Die Kategorie-Methode wird durch viele typische Anwendungen erläutert; die Analogie, die zwischen Maß und Kategorie besteht, wird nach den verschiedensten Richtungen hin genauer untersucht. Hierzu findet der Leser eine kurze Einführung in die Grundlagen der metrischen Topologie; außerdem werden grundlegende Eigenschaften des Lebesgue schen Maßes hergeleitet. Es zeigt sich, daß die Lebesguesche Integrationstheorie für unsere Zwecke nicht erforderlich ist, sondern daß das Riemannsche Integral ausreicht. Weiter werden einige Begriffe aus der allgemeinen Maßtheorie und Topologie eingeführt; dies geschieht jedoch nicht nur der größeren Allgemeinheit wegen. Es erübrigt sich fast zu erwähnen, daß sich die Bezeichnung "Kategorie" stets auf "Bairesche Kategorie" be zieht; sie hat nichts zu tun mit dem in der homologischen Algebra verwendeten Begriff der Kategorie. Beim Leser werden lediglich grundlegende Kenntnisse aus der Analysis und eine gewisse Vertrautheit mit der Mengenlehre vorausgesetzt. Für die hier untersuchten Probleme bietet sich in natürlicher Weise die mengentheoretische Formulierung an. Das vorlie gende Buch ist als Einführung in dieses Gebiet der Analysis gedacht. Man könnte es als Ergänzung zur üblichen Grundvorlesung über reelle Analysis, als Grundlage für ein Se minar oder auch zum selbständigen Studium verwenden. Bei diesem Buch handelt es sich vorwiegend um eine zusammenfassende Darstellung; jedoch finden sich in ihm auch einige Verfeinerungen bekannter Resultate, namentlich Satz 15.6 und Aussage 20.4. Das Literaturverzeichnis erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Häufig werden Werke zitiert, die weitere Literaturangaben enthalten.
Die Kategorientheorie deckt die innere Architektur der Mathematik auf. Dabei werden die strukturellen Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen mathematischen Disziplinen und ihren spezifischen Konstruktionen herausgearbeitet. Dieses Buch gibt eine systematische Einführung in die Grundbegriffe der Kategorientheorie. Zahlreiche ausführliche Erklärungstexte sowie die große Menge an Beispielen helfen beim Einstieg in diese verhältnismäßig abstrakte Theorie. Es werden viele konkrete Anwendungen besprochen, welche die Nützlichkeit der Kategorientheorie im mathematischen Alltag belegen. Jedes Kapitel wird mit einem motivierenden Text eingeleitet und mit einer großen Aufgabensammlung abgeschlossen. An Vorwissen muss der Leser lediglich ein paar Grundbegriffe des Mathematik-Studiums mitbringen. Die vorliegende zweite vollständig durchgesehene Auflage ist um ausführliche Lösungen zu ausgewählten Aufgaben ergänzt.
A clear exposition, with exercises, of the basic ideas of algebraic topology. Suitable for a two-semester course at the beginning graduate level, it assumes a knowledge of point set topology and basic algebra. Although categories and functors are introduced early in the text, excessive generality is avoided, and the author explains the geometric or analytic origins of abstract concepts as they are introduced.
To the Teacher. This book is designed to introduce a student to some of the important ideas of algebraic topology by emphasizing the re lations of these ideas with other areas of mathematics. Rather than choosing one point of view of modem topology (homotopy theory, simplicial complexes, singular theory, axiomatic homology, differ ential topology, etc.), we concentrate our attention on concrete prob lems in low dimensions, introducing only as much algebraic machin ery as necessary for the problems we meet. This makes it possible to see a wider variety of important features of the subject than is usual in a beginning text. The book is designed for students of mathematics or science who are not aiming to become practicing algebraic topol ogists-without, we hope, discouraging budding topologists. We also feel that this approach is in better harmony with the historical devel opment of the subject. What would we like a student to know after a first course in to pology (assuming we reject the answer: half of what one would like the student to know after a second course in topology)? Our answers to this have guided the choice of material, which includes: under standing the relation between homology and integration, first on plane domains, later on Riemann surfaces and in higher dimensions; wind ing numbers and degrees of mappings, fixed-point theorems; appli cations such as the Jordan curve theorem, invariance of domain; in dices of vector fields and Euler characteristics; fundamental groups