Virtually every area of research associated with sharks and their relatives has been strongly impacted by the revolutionary growth in technology. The questions we can now ask are very different than those reported even two decades ago. Modern immunological and genetic techniques, satellite telemetry and archival tagging, modern phylogenetic analysis, GIS, and bomb dating, are just a few of the techniques and procedures that have become a part of our investigative lexicon. A modern synthesis of the biology of Chondrichthyans, Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives, Second Edition discusses significant advances in the development and application of new molecular techniques to the understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among and between these groups. The book considers the effect of global changes on the status of sharks and their relatives, and how advances in technology and analytical techniques have changed not only how we approach problem solving and scientific investigations, but how we formulate questions. The book also introduces applications of new and novel laboratory devices, techniques, and field instruments. This second edition of the award winning and groundbreaking original exploration of the fundamental elements of the taxonomy, systematics, physiology, and ecology of sharks, skates, rays, and chimera, presents cohesive and integrated coverage of key topics and discusses technological advances used in modern shark research. Offering a well-rounded picture for students and researchers, and far above competitors in scope and research, this new volume holds a wealth of data on the current status of Chondrichthyan research and provides the basis and springboard for original research. Cover photo by Justin Gilligan
Since the award-winning first volume, The Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives, published in 2004, the field has witnessed tremendous developments in research, rapid advances in technology, and the emergence of new investigators beginning to explore issues of biodiversity, distribution, physiology, and ecology in ways that eluded more traditional studies. As an entirely new companion volume, Sharks and Their Relatives II: Biodiversity, Adaptive Physiology, and Conservation brings you up to speed on these significant changes, specifically examining how elasmobranch fishes – the sharks, skates, rays, and chimaeras – successfully survive in a wide range of habitats. Emphasizes Conservation of Threatened Species This multidisciplinary volume begins by examining elasmobranch biodiversity patterns and their integrated sensory systems. It then explores the physiological adaptations – from unique sensory modalities to compensatory mechanisms for physiological and environmental stress – that make these animals particularly well-suited for the range of habitats where they are found, in both oceanic and freshwater realms. Features Established Researchers and Introduces New Pioneers in the Field The book then considers the human interactions and anthropogenic effects on worldwide elasmobranch populations and the potential extinction risks posed by increasing threats from changes in habitat, changes in water chemistry, and growing commercial exploitation. This text truly is unrivaled in terms of coverage and readability, and it is a must-have reference for marine biologists, fishery scientists, oceanographers, and also marine, zoo, and aquarium veterinarians. To address subject areas and subdisciplines where coverage was absent or superficial in volume one, Jeffrey Carrier and associates have assembled in the current volume a collection of works that reveal patterns of biodiversity, the physiological attributes that contribute to elasmobranchs’ successful exploitation of oceanic and freshwater realms, and the unique issues associated with the interaction between elasmobranchs and humans, all of this with overarching attention to issues of conservation. "We begin with chapters examining biodiversity. We have chosen to approach this discussion by presenting elasmobranchs as inhabitants of the range of zoogeographic provinces, realizing that significant overlap may occur for more pelagic species. This realization was reflected in the dialogue that occurred during preparation of the book between our chapter authors, and the recognition that many species simply cannot be confined to a specific habitat or range of habitats. We then continue by examining some of the unique physiological adaptations that allow these animals to exploit the range of habitats where they are found, from unique sensory modalities to compensatory mechanisms for physiological and environmental stress. "Our concluding section presents some of the challenges faced by members of these groups. We have asked our authors to consider human interactions and anthropogenic effects on worldwide populations and the potential extinction risks posed from survival under increasing threats from changes in habitat, changes in water chemistry, and increasing commercial exploitation. Conservation of species under threat remains a theme throughout the book. "Our authors represent an international group of investigators including established scientists whose work has been widely published and respected, and emerging younger scientists who have exploited recent advances in technology to ask and answer new questions as well as offering new insights and interpretations to enduring problems in the fields of ecology and physiology. We have asked them to be speculative and challenging, and we have asked them to predict future areas for investigation in hopes that their work will both inspire and provoke additional studies of these fascinating animals." - from the Preface
The Biology of Sharks and Rays is a comprehensive resource on the biological and physiological characteristics of the cartilaginous fishes: sharks, rays, and chimaeras. In sixteen chapters, organized by theme, A. Peter Klimley covers a broad spectrum of topics, including taxonomy, morphology, ecology, and physiology. For example, he explains the body design of sharks and why the ridged, toothlike denticles that cover their entire bodies are present on only part of the rays’ bodies and are absent from those of chimaeras. Another chapter explores the anatomy of the jaws and the role of the muscles and teeth in jaw extension, seizure, and handling of prey. The chapters are richly illustrated with pictures of sharks, diagrams of sensory organs, drawings of the body postures of sharks during threat and reproductive displays, and maps showing the extent of the species’ foraging range and long-distance migrations. Each chapter commences with an anecdote from the author about his own personal experience with the topic, followed by thought-provoking questions and a list of recommended readings in the scientific literature. The book will be a useful textbook for advanced ichthyology students as well as an encyclopedic source for those seeking a greater understanding of these fascinating creatures.
Over the last decade, the study of shark biology has benefited from the development, refinement, and rapid expansion of novel techniques and advances in technology. These have given new insight into the fields of shark genetics, feeding, foraging, bioenergetics, imaging, age and growth, movement, migration, habitat preference, and habitat use. This pioneering book, written by experts in shark biology, examines technologies such as autonomous vehicle tracking, underwater video approaches, molecular genetics techniques, and accelerometry, among many others. Each detailed chapter offers new insights and promises for future studies of elasmobranch biology, provides an overview of appropriate uses of each technique, and can be readily extended to other aquatic fish and marine mammals and reptiles.
Sharks and their relatives, the rays and chimaeras, are the diverse group of cartilaginous fishes that have evolved over 400 million years. Historically considered of low economic value to large-scale fisheries, today many of these fishes have become the target of directed commercial and recreational fisheries around the world, and they are increasingly taken in the by-catch of fisheries targeting other species. This report emphasizes the widely-acknowledged need to improve shark fishery monitoring, expand biological research and take management action. It serves as an introduction to the ecology, status and conservation of the sharks and their relatives for a general audience. Shark fisheries can only be managed sustainably, and shark populations remain viable, with the introduction of new conservation and management initiatives.
The waters around Australia, the worldâe(tm)s smallest continent, are home to the greatest diversity of sharks and rays on Earth. Fully 100 of these sea creatures (along with their little-known relatives, the chimaerids) have been named or described since the first edition of this bookâe"the biggest revision of the Class Chondrichthyes since the time of Linneaus. This second edition of Sharks and Rays of Australia brings more than 300 of these species to life in newly commissioned, full-color illustrations. Here, in precisely painted detail, are the weird silvery ghost shark and the remarkably camouflaged ornate wobbegong; spurdogs and swell sharks; the primitive frilled shark and the blacktip, a fast swimmer capable of leaping out of the water like a dolphin. Peter Last and John Stevens review the major shake-ups in the elasmobranch family treeâe"sorting out, for instance, dogfishes and skatesâe"and include updated family keys, the latest information about species ranges, and new distribution maps. Extensively revised species descriptions reflect additional fisheries and newly gleaned life history and biological informationâe"all essential to conservation efforts as sharks die in commercial bycatches and end up on restaurant menus. An essential tool for conservation biologists trying to save threatened sharks, now under siege worldwide, this marvelous volume will also appeal to fish biologists, divers, naturalists, commercial and recreational fishermen, and anyone with an appreciation for these ancient evolutionary survivors.
The key aim of this book is to explore the global conservation and management of sharks. There has been a rapid decline in populations of many shark species, while new science has emerged of the critical role they play in marine ecosystems. However, the authors show that conservation law and policy have been slow to develop, with only a small number of iconic species being protected worldwide. The increase in fishing impact – primarily through shark finning and by-catch - has led to shark conservation receiving greater international attention in recent years. The book explores our current knowledge and status of the law and science in relation to sharks with a particular focus on improving frameworks for their conservation and management. Recent trends are analysed, including shark finning bans that have been put in place in several countries, the widening number of nations establishing shark sanctuaries and the growth of shark-based tourism. The efficacy of current listing processes for endangered species and fisheries regulations is also examined. Tourism is explored as an alternative to fishing and the risks and impacts associated with this industry are analysed. Contributors include leading authorities from universities and conservation organizations in North America, Europe and Australia. A common theme is to emphasise the importance of collaborative governance between various interest groups and the need for inter-disciplinary research and management approaches that are necessary to address the decline in sharks.
Which species of sharks live within 500 nautical miles of North American shores, and what do we know about them? Jos? I. Castro's The Sharks of North America is the first comprehensive book in sixty years to address these questions, and it does so with unrivaled authority and aesthetic detail. The 135 comprehensive species accounts summarize the present knowledge. Each begins with the etymology of a species' common and scientific names, followed by the description, identifying characteristics, geographic range, biology, reproduction, location of nurseries, growth and longevity, and relation to humans. These accounts synthesize decades of research and first-hand examination of sharks collected in fisheries and research operations across the continent. They are thorough, current, and dispel many myths and misunderstandings found in the scientific and popular literature. Each species is illustrated by one or more original profile figures in color, augmented by images of the snout, upper and lower teeth, and dermal denticles. The stunning color illustrations have been painted directly from freshly dead sharks or Castro's photographs of live or fresh specimens. Their anatomical accuracy and true-to-life coloration are unmatched. The detailed pen and ink drawings of the snout and teeth are crucial aids to species identification, as are the exquisite scanning electron microphotographs of dermal denticles. The Sharks of North America will serve as the standard reference on sharks for the twenty-first century and is certain to become the primary source of information for anyone interested in sharks, from professional biologists and conservationists to students, informed laypersons, and fishermen.
This book is the first user-friendly regional guide devoted to ants—the “little things that run the world.” Lavishly illustrated with more than 500 line drawings, 300-plus photographs, and regional distribution maps as composite illustrations for every species, this guide will introduce amateur and professional naturalists and biologists, teachers and students, and environmental managers and pest-control professionals to more than 140 ant species found in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. The detailed drawings and species descriptions, together with the high-magnification photographs, will allow anyone to identify and learn about ants and their diversity, ecology, life histories, and beauty. In addition, the book includes sections on collecting ants, ant ecology and evolution, natural history, and patterns of geographic distribution and diversity to help readers gain a greater understanding and appreciation of ants.
Inspired by the International White Shark Symposium in 2010, Global Perspectives on the Biology and Life History of the White Shark incorporates the most important contemporary research findings into a single peer-reviewed book. This beautifully illustrated reference represents a historic change in the context of White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) research. Once considered one of the most poorly understood and difficult sharks to study, this timely book recognizes a new sophisticated focus on the White Shark, raising its status from obscurity to enlightenment. The Global Perspectives on the Biology and Life History of the White Shark celebrates the White Shark as the most studied shark in the sea. Within the chapters one can find new insights into a vast range of topics, such as behavior, physiology, migration patterns, habitat preferences, daily activity patterns, molecular genetics, reproductive biology and new research methods. The book also delves into population monitoring and policy options for managers and researchers.
Immunity studies in sharks over the past three decades have produced some remarkable discoveries. If one message rings true, it is that alternative animal model systems, such as sharks and their relatives, have contributed very substantially to a better understanding of the development evolution of our own immune system. Immunobiology of the Shark describes the cellular, genetic, and molecular specifics of immune systems in sharks. Diverse approaches were employed to study the immunobiology of the shark from basic microscopic observations to detailed genome annotation. The book also raises a series of fascinating questions, which can be addressed experimentally using today’s technology. This book will be a valuable resource for mainstream immunologists, comparative immunologists, geneticists, ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and investigators engaged in shark research. The book also aims to illustrate the magnificence of these animals as model systems and underscores the importance of their study to further understand their complex, and often enigmatic, biology.
Now available in paperback, the first comprehensive reference on Great White sharks separates fact from fiction and presents real evidence of the ecology and behavior of these remarkable animals. The volume begins with the evolution of the white shark and its relatives and continues with sections on its anatomy, behavior, ecology, distribution, population dynamics, and interactions with humans. Included in the volume are many illustrations, maps, diagrams, graphs and photos. Covers all biological aspects of Great White sharks Includes contributions from an international team of leading authorities Heavily illustrated with maps, diagrams, graphs, and photos
Fish Physiology: Physiology of Elasmobranch Fishes, Volume 34A is a useful reference for fish physiologists, biologists, ecologists, and conservation biologists. Following an increase in research on elasmobranchs due to the plight of sharks in today’s oceans, this volume compares elasmobranchs to other groups of fish, highlights areas of interest for future research, and offers perspective on future problems. Covering measurements and lab-and-field based studies of large pelagic sharks, this volume is a natural addition to the renowned Fish Physiology series. Provides needed comprehensive content on the physiology of elasmobranchs Offers a systems approach between structure and interaction with the environment and internal physiology Contains contributions by leading experts in their respective fields, under the guidance of internationally recognized and highly respected editors Highlights areas of interest for future research, including perspective on future problems
An illustrated introduction to sharks that lived during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
After his most klutzy move ever, falling into a pool of sharks, things for Tristan Hunt begin to look up. Tristan is invited to an ocean-themed summer camp in the Florida Keys where he discovers that he and the other young teens there have very special and rare talents when it comes to the ocean. After the camp receives a distress call from ocean animals, Tristan and his new friends get pulled into a daring rescue in the Bahamas. With the help of sharks, dolphins, a quick-escape artist octopus, and some seabird bombers, the campers must use their young talents in an attempt to outwit an evil shark-finning, reef-blasting billionaire.
Immunity studies in sharks over the past three decades have produced some remarkable discoveries. If one message rings true, it is that alternative animal model systems, such as sharks and their relatives, have contributed very substantially to a better understanding of the development evolution of our own immune system. Immunobiology of the Shark describes the cellular, genetic, and molecular specifics of immune systems in sharks. Diverse approaches were employed to study the immunobiology of the shark from basic microscopic observations to detailed genome annotation. The book also raises a series of fascinating questions, which can be addressed experimentally using today’s technology. This book will be a valuable resource for mainstream immunologists, comparative immunologists, geneticists, ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and investigators engaged in shark research. The book also aims to illustrate the magnificence of these animals as model systems and underscores the importance of their study to further understand their complex, and often enigmatic, biology.
This book is an up-to-date account of the world's most primitive andfeared predators. It covers their evolution, their powerful bodies andamazing senses, and how they swim, hunt, feed, breed, hibernate,migrate and survive in the aquatic environment. It is fully illustrated with stunning images made possible by thelatest advances in underwater photography, as well as cutaway diagrams,maps and charts. There are also detailed profiles of a wide rangeof shark species, including the great white, tiger shark, thresher,megamouth, and the greatest fish on the planet, the whale shark.
Pinnipeds are a fascinating group of marine mammals that play a crucial role as apex predators and sentinels of the functioning and health of marine ecosystems. They are found in the most extreme environments from the Polar regions to the tropics. Pinnipeds are comprised of about 34 species, and of those at least 25% live permanently in tropical zones. This book reviews and updates current research on the biology, marine ecology, bio-monitoring, and conservation of tropical pinniped populations, including their behavior, anthropogenic stressors, and health. It also looks at challenges to be faced for the conservation of tropical pinnipeds, many of which are threatened species.
The second edition of The Diversity of Fishes represents a major revision of the world’s most widely adopted ichthyology textbook. Expanded and updated, the second edition is illustrated throughout with striking color photographs depicting the spectacular evolutionary adaptations of the most ecologically and taxonomically diverse vertebrate group. The text incorporates the latest advances in the biology of fishes, covering taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, biogeography, ecology, and behavior. A new chapter on genetics and molecular ecology of fishes has been added, and conservation is emphasized throughout. Hundreds of new and redrawn illustrations augment readable text, and every chapter has been revised to reflect the discoveries and greater understanding achieved during the past decade. Written by a team of internationally-recognized authorities, the first edition of The Diversity of Fishes was received with enthusiasm and praise, and incorporated into ichthyology and fish biology classes around the globe, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The second edition is a substantial update of an already classic reference and text. Companion resources site This book is accompanied by a resources site: www.wiley.com/go/helfman The site is being constantly updated by the author team and provides: · Related videos selected by the authors · Updates to the book since publication · Instructor resources · A chance to send in feedback

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