The 92nd Infantry (“Buffalo”) Division was the last segregated (all-black) U.S. Army division and the only black division to fight in World War II in Europe. The few media references to the division have reflected generally unfavorable contemporary evaluations by white commanders. The present work reflects an analysis of numerous records and interviews that refute the negative impressions and demonstrate that these 13,500 soldiers gained their share of victories under hardships no others were expected to meet.
Numbering 4,000 select officers and men, Combat Team 370 was part of n Europe during World War II the 92nd Infantry Division, the only all-Negro division to fight in Europe during World War II. In Black Warriors: The Buffalo Soldiers of World War II, author Ivan J. Houston recounts his experiences, when, as a nineteen-year-old California college student, he entered the US Army and served with the 3rd Battalion, 370th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Division of the US Fifth Army from 1943 to 1945. Drawn from minute-by-minute records of the unit’s activities compiled by Houston during his deployment in Italy, this account describes both the historic encounters and the achievements of his fellow black soldiers during this breakthrough period in American military history. It tells of how the Buffalo Soldiers fought alongside other American troops, including Japanese Americans and soldiers from Great Britain, Brazil, South Africa, and India. With photos and maps included, Black Warriors: The Buffalo Soldiers of World War II provides a compelling, firsthand account of the segregated Buffalo Soldiers’ experiences while they fought not only the power of the Nazi war machine but also racism and the widely held belief they were not up to the task. Their achievements prove otherwise.
This is a true account of the events that occurred in Tullio Bruno Bertini's life between 1939 and 1946. Tullio was born in Boston in 1930. He arrived in Italy with his mother and father on August 1, 1939 after completing the third grade. As a nine year old boy Tullio was in a different culture and found himself trapped in Italy. Even though he was forced to live under Fascist nazi rule, he managed to attend an Italian school, become involved in village life and even learn a new language. In September 1944, he and his family were liberated by the 92nd Infantry Division of the U.S. Fifth Army which was comprised entirely of black soldiers.
The author draws on her father's account of the war and her extensive interviews with other veterans of the 92nd Division to describe the experiences of a naive southern white officer and his segregated unit on an intimate level. During the war, the protocol that required the assignment of southern white officers to command black units, both in Europe and in the Pacific theater, was often problematic, but Johnston seemed more successful than most, earning the trust and respect of his men at the same time that he learned to trust and respect them. Gene Johnston and the African American soldiers were transformed by the war and upon their return helped transform the nation. The 92nd Division of the Fifth Army was the only African American infantry division to see combat in Europe during 1944 and 1945, suffering more than 3,200 casualties. Members of this unit, known as Buffalo Soldiers, endured racial violence on the home front and experienced racism abroad. Engaged in combat for nine months, they were under the command of southern white infantry officers like their captain, Eugene E. Johnston.
Ausgezeichnet mit dem National Book Award. Kansas im Jahre 1857: Hier, im Mittleren Westen der USA, lebt der junge Sklave Henry Shackleford. Hier tobt auch der Krieg zwischen überzeugten Sklavenhaltern und bibeltreuen Abolitionisten besonders wüst. John Brown ist einer derjenigen, die beseelt davon sind, Gottes Willen durchzusetzen und die Schwarzen in die Freiheit zu führen. Als er zufällig in einer Kneipe auf Henrys grausamen Master trifft – einen weithin bekannten und berüchtigten Sklavenhalter –, kommt es zu einer gewalttätigen Auseinandersetzung, in deren Folge beide fliehen müssen: sowohl John Brown als auch der junge Henry, der irrtümlicherweise für ein Mädchen gehalten wird und schnell begreift, dass dies seine Vorteile hat ...
Simone C. Drake spent the first several decades of her life learning how to love and protect herself, a black woman, from the systems designed to facilitate her harm and marginalization. But when she gave birth to the first of her three sons, she quickly learned that black boys would need protection from these very same systems—systems dead set on the static, homogenous representations of black masculinity perpetuated in the media and our cultural discourse. In When We Imagine Grace, Drake borrows from Toni Morrison’s Beloved to bring imagination to the center of black masculinity studies—allowing individual black men to exempt themselves and their fates from a hateful, ignorant society and open themselves up as active agents at the center of their own stories. Against a backdrop of crisis, Drake brings forth the narratives of black men who have imagined grace for themselves. We meet African American cowboy, Nat Love, and Drake’s own grandfather, who served in the first black military unit to fight in World War II. Synthesizing black feminist and black masculinity studies, Drake analyzes black fathers and daughters, the valorization of black criminals, the black entrepreneurial pursuits of Marcus Garvey, Berry Gordy, and Jay-Z, and the denigration and celebration of gay black men: Cornelius Eady, Antoine Dodson, and Kehinde Wiley. With a powerful command of its subjects and a passionate dedication to hope, When We Imagine Grace gives us a new way of seeing and knowing black masculinity—sophisticated in concept and bracingly vivid in telling.
Die kurze Episode der "Wehrmacht" hat zu einer ungeheuren militärischen Kraftentfaltung des Deutschen Reiches geführt, zu überwältigenden Siegen und katastrophalen Niederlagen, zugleich zur Mitverantwortung für eine verbrecherische Kriegführung, wie sie in der deutschen Geschichte ohne Beispiel ist. Der Band bietet zunächst einen Überblick über die Wehrmacht im Dritten Reich, ihre Führungsprinzipien, Gliederung, Ausrüstung, Ausbildung und Fronterfahrung. Im zweiten Teil wird erkennbar, wie sich die militarisierte "Volksgemeinschaft" der Deutschen im Zweiten Weltkrieg unter dem Druck der totalen Mobilmachung veränderte. Der dritte Teil analysiert die militärische Kriegführung vom "Blitzkrieg" bis zum Untergang von Reich und Wehrmacht. Der Ausblick auf den Umgang mit diesem schwierigen Erbe in der Bundesrepublik zeigt, wie tief der Bruch in der deutschen Militärgeschichte gewesen ist.
Provides information on the black soldiers who served in the Union Army regiments and how they contributed to the final victory in the Civil War and the eventual emancipation of the slaves.
Based on the historical incident of an unspeakable massacre at the site of Sant'Anna Di Stazzema, a small village in Tuscany, and on the experiences of the famed Buffalo soldiers from the 92nd Division in Italy during World War II, Miracle at Sant'Anna is a singular evocation of war, cruelty, passion, and heroism. It is the story of four American Negro soldiers, a band of partisans, and an Italian boy who encounter a miracle - though perhaps the true miracle lies in themselves. Traversing class, race, and geography, Miracle at Sant'Anna is above all a hymn to the brotherhood of man and the power to do good that lives in each of us
Fighting in the Jim Crow Army is filled with first-hand accounts of everyday life in 1940s America. The soldiers of the 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions speak of segregation in the military and racial attitudes in army facilities stateside and abroad. The individual battles of black soldiers reveal a compelling tale of discrimination, triumph, resistance, and camaraderie. What emerges from the multitude of voices is a complex and powerful story of individuals who served their country and subsequently made demands to be recognized as full-fledged citizens. Morehouse, whose father served in the 93rd Infantry Division, has built a rich historical account around personal interviews and correspondence with soldiers, National Archive documents, and military archive materials. Augmented with historical and recent photographs, Fighting in the Jim Crow Army combines individual recollections with official histories to form a vivid picture of life in the segregated Army. In the historiography of World War II very little has emerged from the perspective of the black foot soldier. Morehouse allows the participants to tell the tale of the watershed event of their participation in World War II as well as the ongoing black freedom struggle.
In the shadow of Monte Cassino on January 21–22, 1944, the U.S. Army’s 36th “Texas” Division tried to cross Italy’s Rapido River. The rout of this former National Guard unit from Texas was one of the worst defeats Americans suffered on the battlefields of World War II, one that prompted veterans to present charges of incompetent leadership before Congress. In Bloody River, first published in 1970, Martin Blumenson presents his view of how the “personal equation” figured into the debacle. Focusing on the generals responsible for the ill-fated attack, Blumenson traces key points in the personal profiles of the diffident 36th Division commander Fred L. Walker; Gen. Mark “Wayne” Clark, the imperious commander of American ground forces; and the tactful and tactically gifted former cavalry officer Gen. Geoffrey T. Keyes, commander of II Corps and Walker’s immediate superior. Walker, serving under the younger Clark and Keyes, witnessed the destruction of villages and the exhaustion of the non-Regular Army soldiers in his division. Blumenson argues that Walker, relatively far down the chain of command, saw his soldiers’ and the civilians’ suffering and lost confidence and respect for his superiors and constantly questioned their fitness to devise appropriate strategy and tactics. Despite reports of the severe situation in the Rapido Valley, General Clark, responsible for ensuring the success of the Anzio landing, would not cancel the 36th Division’s supporting attack across the Rapido. In two days, the two front-line infantry regiments of the division suffered severe casualties, as did the attached units of engineers, quartermaster troops, and artillerymen. Meanwhile, General Clark’s Anzio landing was accomplished with relatively little resistance. Blumenson argues that Walker’s pessimism about the Rapido attack plan may have permeated his troops and robbed them of their will to win. This concise survey of the command situations that led to the Rapido tragedy should be of interest to all readers who wish to learn the high-priced lessons of war in affordable and accessible form.
Zu Beginn des Krieges gegen die Sowjetunion konnte die Wehrmacht rund 600 000 Mann verbündeter Truppen einsetzen, später kamen zahlreiche ausländische Freiwillige und »Hilfswillige« hinzu. Auf dem Höhepunkt des Zweiten Weltkrieges war an der Ostfront schließlich jeder dritte Uniformträger auf deutscher Seite ein Ausländer. Hitlers Parole vom »Kampf gegen den Bolschewismus« fand überall in Europa Widerhall - bei überzeugten Faschisten ebenso wie bei Angehörigen osteuropäischer Völker, die ihre Unabhängigkeit von der UdSSR anstrebten. Viele von ihnen kämpften nicht nur an der Front, sondern ließen sich auch in die Verbrechen der Wehrmacht und der Waffen-SS verstricken. Von ihren Heimatländern wegen Verrats abgeurteilt und vergessen, wurde ihr Einsatz von den Historikern im Kalten Krieg meist übersehen oder verschwiegen, von Rechtsradikalen dagegen glorifiziert. Rolf-Dieter Müller vermittelt auf der Basis neuerer Forschungen erstmals einen systematischen Überblick über die verschiedenen Motive, die Hitlers Verbündete und ausländische Freiwillige an der Ostfront kämpfen ließen. Zahlreiche Fotos, Karten und Dokumente ergänzen diese anschaulich geschriebene Darstellung.
Based on the historical incident of an unspeakable massacre at the site of Sant'Anna Di Stazzema, a small village in Tuscany, and on the experiences of the famed Buffalo soldiers from the 92nd Division in Italy during World War II, MIRACLE AT SAINT. ANNA is a singular evocation of war, cruelty, passion, and heroism. It is the story of four American Negro soldiers, a band of partisans, and an Italian boy who encounter a miracle - though perhaps the true miracle lies in themselves.Traversing class, race, and geography, MIRACLE AT SAINT. ANNA is above all a hymn to the brotherhood of man and the power to do good that lives in each of us.
It was the sweet-smelling, flowering magnolia tree dominating the grounds near a rural railroad stop that transformed the South Jersey settlement of Greenland into the tiny borough of Magnolia. But while it may have been named for a tree, it was community spirit that inspired Magnolia’s official slogan, One Square Mile of Friendliness. Magnolia celebrates that spirit through an impressive collection of rare photographs. These include Dr. Leslie Lyon, who accepted chickens as payment for house calls during the Depression, the state police substation that protected the region from organized crime during Prohibition, and the home of Aunt Nell, who was always there to lend a hand to those in need. Also included are images of the borough’s early citizens; schools; churches; police, fire, and ambulance squads; businesses; and community activities.