The 92nd Infantry (Buffalo) Division was the last segregated (all-black) U.S. Army division and the only black division to fight in World War II in Europe. The few media references to the division have reflected generally unfavorable contemporary evaluations by white commanders. The present work reflects an analysis of numerous records and interviews that refute the negative impressions and demonstrate that these 13,500 soldiers gained their share of victories under hardships no others were expected to meet.
The author draws on her father's account of the war and her extensive interviews with other veterans of the 92nd Division to describe the experiences of a naive southern white officer and his segregated unit on an intimate level. During the war, the protocol that required the assignment of southern white officers to command black units, both in Europe and in the Pacific theater, was often problematic, but Johnston seemed more successful than most, earning the trust and respect of his men at the same time that he learned to trust and respect them. Gene Johnston and the African American soldiers were transformed by the war and upon their return helped transform the nation. The 92nd Division of the Fifth Army was the only African American infantry division to see combat in Europe during 1944 and 1945, suffering more than 3,200 casualties. Members of this unit, known as Buffalo Soldiers, endured racial violence on the home front and experienced racism abroad. Engaged in combat for nine months, they were under the command of southern white infantry officers like their captain, Eugene E. Johnston.
The Buffalo Saga chronicles a Buffalo Soldier's nexus of the dynamics of race and war. World War II army's 92nd Infantry Division, known as the Buffalo Soldiers, was the only division strength unit made up of African Americans to fight in the European theater. This was an all-Black unit although the highest-ranking officers were white. The 92nd was assigned to northern Italy, where they fought against German and Italian troops. They served with great distinction from late 1944 until the end of the war, with many killed and wounded. These men were great heroes and great Americans who waged a fight for freedom abroad even as they were denied freedom at home. After the war, they returned to a still segregated United States of America.
This work focuses on the all black 92nd Infantry Division in the Italian Campaign in World War II and the poor combat performance of the division in Italy. An introduction provides an overall view of the Italian Campaign and the role of the 92nd Infantry Division. The author then examines the reasons for the division's troubles on and off the battlefield, such as the low morale among the soldiers because of racial segregation, the limited facilities provided for them, and their lack of trust in their leadership. All of these issues are explored at length. Information on the early life and military training and experience of General Ned Almond is provided, along with the stories of Vernon Baker and John Fox, who emerged as leaders but endured a long struggle for recognition. The author concludes this work on a personal note by telling of his involvement as principal investigator of Acting Secretary of the Army John Shannon's study of why no African American received the Medal of Honor in World War II (a situation that was rectified in the late 1990s: See Elliott V. Converse, Daniel K. Gibran et al., The Exclusion of Black Soldiers from the Medal of Honor in World War II, McFarland 1997, $29.95).
This is a true account of the events that occurred in Tullio Bruno Bertini's life between 1939 and 1946. Tullio was born in Boston in 1930. He arrived in Italy with his mother and father on August 1, 1939 after completing the third grade. As a nine year old boy Tullio was in a different culture and found himself trapped in Italy. Even though he was forced to live under Fascist nazi rule, he managed to attend an Italian school, become involved in village life and even learn a new language. In September 1944, he and his family were liberated by the 92nd Infantry Division of the U.S. Fifth Army which was comprised entirely of black soldiers.
Numbering 4,000 select officers and men, Combat Team 370 was part of n Europe during World War II the 92nd Infantry Division, the only all-Negro division to fight in Europe during World War II. In Black Warriors: The Buffalo Soldiers of World War II, author Ivan J. Houston recounts his experiences, when, as a nineteen-year-old California college student, he entered the US Army and served with the 3rd Battalion, 370th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Division of the US Fifth Army from 1943 to 1945. Drawn from minute-by-minute records of the unit’s activities compiled by Houston during his deployment in Italy, this account describes both the historic encounters and the achievements of his fellow black soldiers during this breakthrough period in American military history. It tells of how the Buffalo Soldiers fought alongside other American troops, including Japanese Americans and soldiers from Great Britain, Brazil, South Africa, and India. With photos and maps included, Black Warriors: The Buffalo Soldiers of World War II provides a compelling, firsthand account of the segregated Buffalo Soldiers’ experiences while they fought not only the power of the Nazi war machine but also racism and the widely held belief they were not up to the task. Their achievements prove otherwise.
Based on the historical incident of an unspeakable massacre at the site of Sant'Anna Di Stazzema, a small village in Tuscany, and on the experiences of the famed Buffalo soldiers from the 92nd Division in Italy during World War II, MIRACLE AT SAINT. ANNA is a singular evocation of war, cruelty, passion, and heroism. It is the story of four American Negro soldiers, a band of partisans, and an Italian boy who encounter a miracle - though perhaps the true miracle lies in themselves.Traversing class, race, and geography, MIRACLE AT SAINT. ANNA is above all a hymn to the brotherhood of man and the power to do good that lives in each of us.
Look out for McBride's new book, Five-Carat Soul From the New York Times bestselling author of The Good Lord Bird, winner of the 2013 National Book Award for Fiction, and Kill 'Em and Leave, a James Brown biography. James McBride’s powerful memoir, The Color of Water, was a groundbreaking literary phenomenon that transcended racial and religious boundaries, garnering unprecedented acclaim and topping bestseller lists for more than two years. Now McBride turns his extraordinary gift for storytelling to fiction—in a universal tale of courage and redemption inspired by a little-known historic event. In Miracle at St. Anna, toward the end of World War II, four Buffalo Soldiers from the Army’s Negro 92nd Division find themselves separated from their unit and behind enemy lines. Risking their lives for a country in which they are treated with less respect than the enemy they are fighting, they discover humanity in the small Tuscan village of St. Anna di Stazzema—in the peasants who shelter them, in the unspoken affection of an orphaned child, in a newfound faith in fellow man. And even in the face of unspeakable tragedy, they—and we—learn to see the small miracles of life. This acclaimed novel is now a major motion picture directed by Spike Lee.
In 1941, the U.S. Army activated the 758th Tank Battalion, the first all-black armored unit. By December 1944 they were fighting the Axis in Northern Italy, from the Ligurian Sea through the Po Valley and into the Apennine Mountains, where they helped breach the Gothic Line--the Germans' last major defensive line of the Italian Campaign. After the war the 758th was deactivated but was reformed as the 64th Tank Battalion, keeping their distinguished insignia, a tusked elephant head over the motto "We Pierce." They entered the Korean War still segregated but returned fully integrated (though discrimination continued internally). Through the years, they fought with almost every American tank--the Stuart, the Sherman, the Pershing, the Patton and today's Abrams. Victorious over two fascist (and racist) regimes, many black servicemen returned home to what they hoped would be a more tolerant nation. Most were bitterly disappointed--segregation was still the law of the land. For many, disappointment became a determination to fight discrimination with the same resolve that had defeated the Axis.
An anthology focuses on the careers and accomplishments of black soldiers, the lives they developed for themselves, their relationships to their officers, their specialized roles, and the discrimination they faced from the very whites they were trying to protect. Simultaneous.
Early black infantry regiments were nicknamed Buffalo Soldiers by Native Americans, symbolizing the respect they had for the African-American soldier's bravery and valor. For more than 150 years these descendants of kings and queens, chiefs, leaders, and people of Africa have distinguished themselves with desire, dedication, and discipline. Ollen Hunt, one of the last Buffalo Soldiers, writes in this book about what America has done for him, and what he has done for America. His story is one of desire, dedication and discipline; of bravery and valor. Throughout his life Ollen has distinguished himself: in the Civilian Conservation Corp, US Army, business, husband and father, and community leader. He has been a true soldier in every aspect of his life. He's shown that regardless of humble beginnings, prejudice, war, and other handicaps and hardships of life, a man can succeed if he adopts the attitude of the early Buffalo Soldier's slogan: deeds, not words! Buffalo Soldier is an uplifting biography and an example of hope for young and old alike.
Narrative history at its richest–the little-known story of the Allies' effort to break the German defenses in Northern Italy. Told through the eyes of the multinational force that fought it.
The history of the 24th Infantry regiment in Korea is a difficult one, both for the veterans of the unit & for the Army. This book tells both what happened to the 24th Infantry, & why it happened. The Army must be aware of the corrosive effects of segregation & the racial prejudices that accompanied it. The consequences of the system crippled the trust & mutual confidence so necessary among the soldiers & leaders of combat units & weakened the bonds that held the 24th together, producing profound effects on the battlefield. Tables, maps & illustrations.
Fighting in the Jim Crow Army is filled with first-hand accounts of everyday life in 1940s America. The soldiers of the 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions speak of segregation in the military and racial attitudes in army facilities stateside and abroad. The individual battles of black soldiers reveal a compelling tale of discrimination, triumph, resistance, and camaraderie. What emerges from the multitude of voices is a complex and powerful story of individuals who served their country and subsequently made demands to be recognized as full-fledged citizens. Morehouse, whose father served in the 93rd Infantry Division, has built a rich historical account around personal interviews and correspondence with soldiers, National Archive documents, and military archive materials. Augmented with historical and recent photographs, Fighting in the Jim Crow Army combines individual recollections with official histories to form a vivid picture of life in the segregated Army. In the historiography of World War II very little has emerged from the perspective of the black foot soldier. Morehouse allows the participants to tell the tale of the watershed event of their participation in World War II as well as the ongoing black freedom struggle.
Provides information on the black soldiers who served in the Union Army regiments and how they contributed to the final victory in the Civil War and the eventual emancipation of the slaves.
Set in West Germany in 1989 before the fall of the Berlin Wall, Buffalo Soldiers follows the misadventures of specialist Ray Elwood (Joaquin Pheonix), scammer, con-artist and US Army Base Battalion clerk. Elwood runs a blackmarket operation behind the back of Supply and Logistics Commander Lieutenant Colonel Wallace Berman (Ed Harris), that is until the military brass send in battle-hardened Commanding Sgt. Robert Lee (Scott Glenn) to close down Elwood's illicit operation. Things become still more complex when Elwood learns that his new love Robyn (Anna Paquin) is Sgt. Lee's daughter. The novel deals with the issues of warfare when there is no war and peacetime casualties. In the tradition of MASH it is funny and dark, exciting and thrilling. 'This book may well find a place on the shelf with Joseph Heller's Catch-22... It takes a fine novelist to tell such a sordid story so beautifully - and a brave one to hold out no hope for redemption but the jolting effect of a cold-eyed look at the truth' New York Times Book Review
After the war, Willis Atkins receives no hero's welcome at his new post in Georgia - until he meets Dolores Williams. A tragic romance and multi-generational saga spanning the 1940s to the 1990s. First-Sergeant Willis Atkins survived the war in Europe only to encounter violent racism at his new post in rural Georgia. As Truman integrates the Army and the war in Korea ignites, he falls for a defiant and outspoken nurse while managing a ramshackle cadre of black cavalrymen. Decades later, as his heart begins to fail, he reflects on those tumultuous years as he struggles to inspire his rebellious grand-daughter and a troubled inner-city boy. Revised and expanded edition, February 28th 2017
Nearly forgotten by history, this is the story of the Wereth Eleven, African-American soldiers who fought courageously for freedom in WWII—only to be ruthlessly executed by Nazi troops during the Battle of the Bulge. Their story was almost forgotten by history. Now known as the Wereth Eleven, these brave African-American soldiers left their homes to join the Allied effort on the front lines of WWII. As members of the 333rd Field Artillery Battalion, they provided crucial fire support at the Siege of Bastogne. Among the few who managed to escape the Nazi’s devastating Ardennes Offensive, they found refuge in the small village of Wereth, Belgium. A farmer and supporter of the Allies took the exhausted and half-starved men into his home. When Nazi authorities learned of their whereabouts, they did not take the soldiers prisoner, but subjected them to torture and execution in a nearby field. Despite their bravery and sacrifice, these eleven soldiers were omitted from the final Congressional War Crimes report of 1949. For seventy years, their files—marked secret—gathered dust in the National Archive. But in 1994, at the site of their execution, a memorial was dedicated to the Wereth Eleven and all African-American soldiers who fought in Europe. Drawing on firsthand interviews with family members and fellow soldiers, The Lost Eleven tells the complete story of these nearly forgotten soldiers, their valor in battle and their tragic end. INCLUDES PHOTOS From the Hardcover edition.