The 92nd Infantry (“Buffalo”) Division was the last segregated (all-black) U.S. Army division and the only black division to fight in World War II in Europe. The few media references to the division have reflected generally unfavorable contemporary evaluations by white commanders. The present work reflects an analysis of numerous records and interviews that refute the negative impressions and demonstrate that these 13,500 soldiers gained their share of victories under hardships no others were expected to meet.
This work focuses on the all black 92nd Infantry Division in the Italian Campaign in World War II and the poor combat performance of the division in Italy. An introduction provides an overall view of the Italian Campaign and the role of the 92nd Infantry Division. The author then examines the reasons for the division’s troubles on and off the battlefield, such as the low morale among the soldiers because of racial segregation, the limited facilities provided for them, and their lack of trust in their leadership. All of these issues are explored at length. Information on the early life and military training and experience of General Ned Almond is provided, along with the stories of Vernon Baker and John Fox, who emerged as leaders but endured a long struggle for recognition. The author concludes this work on a personal note by telling of his involvement as principal investigator of Acting Secretary of the Army John Shannon’s study of why no African American received the Medal of Honor in World War II (a situation that was rectified in the late 1990s: See Elliott V. Converse, Daniel K. Gibran et al., The Exclusion of Black Soldiers from the Medal of Honor in World War II, McFarland 1997, $29.95).
The author draws on her father's account of the war and her extensive interviews with other veterans of the 92nd Division to describe the experiences of a naive southern white officer and his segregated unit on an intimate level. During the war, the protocol that required the assignment of southern white officers to command black units, both in Europe and in the Pacific theater, was often problematic, but Johnston seemed more successful than most, earning the trust and respect of his men at the same time that he learned to trust and respect them. Gene Johnston and the African American soldiers were transformed by the war and upon their return helped transform the nation. The 92nd Division of the Fifth Army was the only African American infantry division to see combat in Europe during 1944 and 1945, suffering more than 3,200 casualties. Members of this unit, known as Buffalo Soldiers, endured racial violence on the home front and experienced racism abroad. Engaged in combat for nine months, they were under the command of southern white infantry officers like their captain, Eugene E. Johnston.
The Buffalo Saga chronicles a Buffalo Soldier's nexus of the dynamics of race and war. World War II army's 92nd Infantry Division, known as the Buffalo Soldiers, was the only division strength unit made up of African Americans to fight in the European theater. This was an all-Black unit although the highest-ranking officers were white. The 92nd was assigned to northern Italy, where they fought against German and Italian troops. They served with great distinction from late 1944 until the end of the war, with many killed and wounded. These men were great heroes and great Americans who waged a fight for freedom abroad even as they were denied freedom at home. After the war, they returned to a still segregated United States of America.
Numbering 4,000 select officers and men, Combat Team 370 was part of n Europe during World War II the 92nd Infantry Division, the only all-Negro division to fight in Europe during World War II. In Black Warriors: The Buffalo Soldiers of World War II, author Ivan J. Houston recounts his experiences, when, as a nineteen-year-old California college student, he entered the US Army and served with the 3rd Battalion, 370th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Division of the US Fifth Army from 1943 to 1945. Drawn from minute-by-minute records of the unit’s activities compiled by Houston during his deployment in Italy, this account describes both the historic encounters and the achievements of his fellow black soldiers during this breakthrough period in American military history. It tells of how the Buffalo Soldiers fought alongside other American troops, including Japanese Americans and soldiers from Great Britain, Brazil, South Africa, and India. With photos and maps included, Black Warriors: The Buffalo Soldiers of World War II provides a compelling, firsthand account of the segregated Buffalo Soldiers’ experiences while they fought not only the power of the Nazi war machine but also racism and the widely held belief they were not up to the task. Their achievements prove otherwise.
Based on the historical incident of an unspeakable massacre at the site of Sant'Anna Di Stazzema, a small village in Tuscany, and on the experiences of the famed Buffalo soldiers from the 92nd Division in Italy during World War II, Miracle at Sant'Anna is a singular evocation of war, cruelty, passion, and heroism. It is the story of four American Negro soldiers, a band of partisans, and an Italian boy who encounter a miracle - though perhaps the true miracle lies in themselves. Traversing class, race, and geography, Miracle at Sant'Anna is above all a hymn to the brotherhood of man and the power to do good that lives in each of us
Provides information on the black soldiers who served in the Union Army regiments and how they contributed to the final victory in the Civil War and the eventual emancipation of the slaves.
An anthology focuses on the careers and accomplishments of black soldiers, the lives they developed for themselves, their relationships to their officers, their specialized roles, and the discrimination they faced from the very whites they were trying to protect. Simultaneous.
In 1941, the U.S. Army activated the 758th Tank Battalion, the first all-black armored unit. By December 1944 they were fighting the Axis in Northern Italy, from the Ligurian Sea through the Po Valley and into the Apennine Mountains, where they helped breach the Gothic Line--the Germans' last major defensive line of the Italian Campaign. After the war the 758th was deactivated but was reformed as the 64th Tank Battalion, keeping their distinguished insignia, a tusked elephant head over the motto "We Pierce." They entered the Korean War still segregated but returned fully integrated (though discrimination continued internally). Through the years, they fought with almost every American tank--the Stuart, the Sherman, the Pershing, the Patton and today's Abrams. Victorious over two fascist (and racist) regimes, many black servicemen returned home to what they hoped would be a more tolerant nation. Most were bitterly disappointed--segregation was still the law of the land. For many, disappointment became a determination to fight discrimination with the same resolve that had defeated the Axis.
Fighting in the Jim Crow Army is filled with first-hand accounts of everyday life in 1940s America. The soldiers of the 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions speak of segregation in the military and racial attitudes in army facilities stateside and abroad. The individual battles of black soldiers reveal a compelling tale of discrimination, triumph, resistance, and camaraderie. What emerges from the multitude of voices is a complex and powerful story of individuals who served their country and subsequently made demands to be recognized as full-fledged citizens. Morehouse, whose father served in the 93rd Infantry Division, has built a rich historical account around personal interviews and correspondence with soldiers, National Archive documents, and military archive materials. Augmented with historical and recent photographs, Fighting in the Jim Crow Army combines individual recollections with official histories to form a vivid picture of life in the segregated Army. In the historiography of World War II very little has emerged from the perspective of the black foot soldier. Morehouse allows the participants to tell the tale of the watershed event of their participation in World War II as well as the ongoing black freedom struggle.
After the war, Willis Atkins receives no hero's welcome at his new post in Georgia - until he meets Dolores Williams. A tragic romance and multi-generational saga spanning the 1940s to the 1990s. First-Sergeant Willis Atkins survived the war in Europe only to encounter violent racism at his new post in rural Georgia. As Truman integrates the Army and the war in Korea ignites, he falls for a defiant and outspoken nurse while managing a ramshackle cadre of black cavalrymen. Decades later, as his heart begins to fail, he reflects on those tumultuous years as he struggles to inspire his rebellious grand-daughter and a troubled inner-city boy. Revised and expanded edition, February 28th 2017
They were U.S. Army soldiers. Just a few years earlier, some had been slaves. Several thousand African Americans served as soldiers in the Indian Wars and in the Cuban campaign of the Spanish-American War in the latter part of the nineteenth century. They were known as buffalo soldiers, believed to have been named by Indians who had seen a similarity between the coarse hair and dark skin of the soldiers and the coats of the buffalo. Twenty-three of these men won the nation's highest award for personal bravery, the Medal of Honor. Black Valor brings the lives of these soldiers into sharp focus. Their remarkable stories are told in the collected biography. Derived from extensive historical research, Black Valor will enrich and inspire students with its tales of trials and courage.
Women in the United States military have received more recognition than ever in recent years, but women also played vital roles in battles and campaigns of previous generations. Cathy Williams served as Pvt. William Cathay from 1866 to 1868 with the famed Buffalo Soldiers who patrolled the 900-mile Santa Fe Trail. Tucker traces her life from her birth as a slave near Independence, Missouri, to her service in Company A, 38th U.S. Infantry, one of the six black units formed following the Civil War. Cathy Williams remains the only known African American woman to have served as a Buffalo Soldier in the Indian Wars. Her remarkable story continues to represent a triumph of the human spirit.
From a Navajo code talker to a Tuskegee pilot, Takaki examines the many contributions and sacrifices of America's minorities--blacks, Chinese, Native Americans and others--during World War II. Photos.
Italy, November 1944. The "forgotten front" of the European war has the Allies bogged down in mud, snow and ice before the formidable Nazi Gothic Line north of Florence, and Italian natives are desperate. Advancing steadily towards Italy are the forces of Tito and Stalin. The author uses actual accounts in the form of previously unpublished G.I. letters, wartime journals and other historical sources to tell the story of the military, political and espionage efforts by the Western Allies that culminated in the early surrender of Axis forces in all of Italy on May 2, 1945.
Offers more than 250 alphabetically arranged entries covering the contributions of African American soldiers, from pre-Revolutionary fighting against French armies to combat against the forces of Saddam Hussein.
A collection of short first-person narratives by the members of a company caught in the frontline in the first World War.