One of the most notorious works of modern times, as well as one of the most influential, Capital is an incisive critique of private property and the social relations it generates. Living in exile in England, where this work was largely written, Marx drew on a wide-ranging knowledge of its society to support his analysis and generate fresh insights. Arguing that capitalism would create an ever-increasing division in wealth and welfare, he predicted its abolition and replacement by a system with common ownership of the means of production. Capital rapidly acquired readership among the leaders of social democratic parties, particularly in Russia and Germany, and ultimately throughout the world, to become a work described by Marx's friend and collaborator Friedrich Engels as 'the Bible of the Working Class'
Language and Neoliberalism examines the ways in which neoliberalism, or the ideology of market rule, finds expression in language. In this groundbreaking original study, Holborow shows at once the misleading character of ideological meaning and the underlying social reality from which that meaning emerges. In universities, it is now the norm to use terms like entrepreneurial and business partnerships. How have these terms become a core component of education and gained such force? Markets have become, metaphorically, a power in their own right. They now tell governments how to act and warn them against too much public spending. Post-crash, the capitalist market continues to be crisis-prone, and in that context the neoliberal ideology remains contested. Free of jargon and assuming no specialist knowledge, this book will strike a chord internationally by showing how neoliberal ideology has, literally, gone global in language. Drawing on Vološinov and Bakhtin, Williams and Gramsci, and introducing concepts from Marxist political economy, Language and Neoliberalism is essential reading for all interested in the intersection of linguistics/applied linguistics and politics.
This book builds on the idea that peer-to-peer infrastructures are gradually becoming the general conditions of work, economy, and society. Using a four-scenario approach, the authors seek to simplify possible outcomes and to explore relevant trajectories of the current techno-economic paradigm within and beyond capitalism.
In the European Union (EU), competition policy occupies a central place amongst other EU public policies and is the first truly supranational public policy regulating market competition. One of the stated objectives of EU competition policy is to prevent excessive concentration of economic power in the hands of a few. This book investigates the political economy of EU competition policy by taking the European telecommunications industry as a case study. Baskoy argues that the EU competition policy has failed to achieve its objectives of preventing excessive market concentration in the telecommunications industry over the past quarter-century. He takes the controversial view that EU competition policy foremost promotes an industrial policy that fosters the profitability of European firms. Moreover, Baskoy argues that EU competition policy is short of adequate theoretical and conceptual capacities to comprehend the working dynamics of market competition and the market behavior of firms. This exceptional book will be of interest to scholars of Politics, Economics, Business, and International Relations and Policies.
In "Time for Change" entfaltet Yanis Varoufakis die Grundlagen seines Denkens – indem er seiner Tochter in allgemeinverständlicher Sprache die Welt der Wirtschaft erklärt. Behutsam, Schritt für Schritt und doch voller Leidenschaft bringt er ihr und uns seine kritische Perspektive auf die europäische Finanzpolitik nahe.
In this major, paradigm-shifting work, Kojin Karatani systematically re-reads Marx's version of world history, shifting the focus of critique from modes of production to modes of exchange. Karatani seeks to understand both Capital-Nation-State, the interlocking system that is the dominant form of modern global society, and the possibilities for superseding it. In The Structure of World History, he traces different modes of exchange, including the pooling of resources that characterizes nomadic tribes, the gift exchange systems developed after the adoption of fixed-settlement agriculture, the exchange of obedience for protection that arises with the emergence of the state, the commodity exchanges that characterize capitalism, and, finally, a future mode of exchange based on the return of gift exchange, albeit modified for the contemporary moment. He argues that this final stage—marking the overcoming of capital, nation, and state—is best understood in light of Kant's writings on eternal peace. The Structure of World History is in many ways the capstone of Karatani's brilliant career, yet it also signals new directions in his thought.
This book, now in its third edition, provides an elementary introduction to the history of economic thought. A chapter is devoted to each of the major developments in the history of the discipline, before a concluding chapter in which the authors draw together some of the key strands and comment on some major works and textbooks in the history of economic ideas. They also reflect on the changes in economic thinking within the general context of the philosophy of science. This new edition continues to offer the clear and concise coverage of the main schools of thought and paradigm shifts in the field that has become the volume’s trademark. The book has been thoroughly updated throughout in order to reflect changes in the landscape of the field. Details on key thinkers, and aspects of the story such as the evolution of scholarship on growth and development, have been added or expanded, whilst not compromising on the book’s concise approach. Key updates include: Biographical- and bibliographical information is brought up to date throughout the text North American economists John Kenneth Galbraith and Kenneth Ewart Boulding make their first appearance in this edition Information on developments in institutional economics, addressing in particular the works of 2009 Nobel prize winner Elinor Ostrom). This book has become well known for its innovative coverage of the economic thinking of mainland Europe, whilst also addressing Anglo-American trends. It provides a short and highly readable overview of the evolution of economic thought, usable in courses where the history of economic thought constitutes only a small part or required background reading. It continues to be an extremely useful, much needed text for all introductory economics courses in the field.
"For decades, government, industry, and the mainstream media have extolled the virtues of biotechnology. Their dominant message -- that biotechnology can improve everything from our health and diet to our environment and economy -- is unmistakably celebratory. We hear about biotechnology's power to reverse environmental degradation, help medical researchers identify disease genes, and increase industrial efficiency, output, and jobs. Government and industry rarely tell us about biotechnology's negative side effects. Not only are genetically engineered crops still failing to deliver consistently higher yields; there is also mounting evidence that genetically engineered organisms come with a host of safety and environmental risks. Focusing on agriculture, Resistance Is Fertile challenges the dominant rhetoric surrounding biotechnology by offering a critical analysis of the role of capital and the state in the development of this technoscience. In particular, Wilhelm Peekhaus analyzes the major issues around which opponents of agricultural biotechnology in Canada are mobilizing -- namely, the enclosure of the biological commons and the knowledge commons, which together form the BioCommons. What emerges is an empirically and theoretically informed analysis of topics such as Canada's regulatory regime, the corporate control of seeds, the intellectual property system, and attempts to construct and control public discussions about agricultural biotechnology."--Publisher's description.
Freie Märkte, smarte junge Erfinder und Wagniskapital treiben die Wirtschaft voran; der Staat stört dabei nur und muss daher nach Kräften zurückgedrängt werden. Wie ein Mantra wird dieser oberste Glaubensartikel des Neoliberalismus seit Jahrzehnten wiederholt – aber stimmt er auch? Die Ökonomin Mariana Mazzucato, die seit Jahren über den Zusammenhang zwischen Innovation und Wachstum forscht, beweist das Gegenteil: Wann und wo immer technologische Innovationen zu wirtschaftlichem Aufschwung und Wohlstand geführt haben, hatte ein aktiver Staat die Hand im Spiel. Von der Elektrifizierung bis zum Internet – Motor der Entwicklung, oft bis zur Markteinführung, war stets der Staat. Apples Welterfolg gründet auf Technologien, die sämtlich durch die öffentliche Hand gefördert wurden; innovative Medikamente, für die die Pharmaindustrie ihren Kunden gern hohe Entwicklungskosten in Rechnung stellt, stammen fast ausnahmslos aus staatlicher Forschung. Innovationen und nachhaltiges Wachstum, das derzeit alle fordern, werden also kaum von der Börse kommen. Viel eher von einem Staat, der seine angestammte Rolle neu besetzt, sein einzigartiges Kapital nutzt und mit langem Atem Zukunftstechnologien wie den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien vorantreibt. Ein brandaktuelles Buch, das die aktuelle Diskussion über die Zukunft der Wirtschaft und die Rolle des Staates vom Kopf auf die Füße stellt.
Walter Benjamin beschreibt in dem Aufsatz Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit die geschichtlichen, sozialen und ästhetischen Prozesse, die mit der technischen Reproduzierbarkeit des Kunstwerkes zusammenhängen. In die Reihe der kunstsoziologischen Arbeiten Benjamins gehören auch die beiden hier zum ersten Mal in Buchform veröffentlichten Texte: Kleine Geschichte der Photographie (1931) und Eduard Fuchs, der Sammler und der Historiker (1937). Sie erhärten Benjamins Einsichten am Einzelfall.
Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.
As the first book-length exploration of internationally distributed, multi-director episode films, Omnibus Films fills a considerable gap in the history of world cinema and aims to expand contemporary understandings of authorship, genre, narrative, and tr
The four volume set consists of a collection of materials - introduction to editions of Marx's works, articles, book excerpts, reviews, letters - on Marx's Das Kapital in English, French and German written between 1867, that is the year of publication of Volume 1, and 1914, when it may be said that critical appraisal of Marx's work was completed and Marx was undeniably recognized as a member of the economists', and more generally the social scientists', community. -- The material is organized under four main headings: I Debate on the First Volume of Das Kapital; II The Second Volume of Das Kapital and the Debate on the Third Volume; III Critical Appraisal of MArx's Work, 1899-1914. I; IV Critical Appraisals of Marx's Work, 1899-1914. II.
Auf der Titelblattrückseite: 3. Aufl., auf dem vorderen Buchdeckel: 5. Aufl.
Agent-based modelling on a computer appears to have a special role to play in the development of social science. It offers a means of discovering general and applicable social theory, and grounding it in precise assumptions and derivations, whilst addressing those elements of individual cognition that are central to human society. However, there are important questions to be asked and difficulties to overcome in achieving this potential. What differentiates agent-based modelling from traditional computer modelling? Which model types should be used under which circumstances? If it is appropriate to use a complex model, how can it be validated? Is social simulation research to adopt a realist epistemology, or can it operate within a social constructionist framework? What are the sociological concepts of norms and norm processing that could either be used for planned implementation or for identifying equivalents of social norms among co-operative agents? Can sustainability be achieved more easily in a hierarchical agent society than in a society of isolated agents? What examples are there of hybrid forms of interaction between humans and artificial agents? These are some of the sociological questions that are addressed.