With a focus on children's mathematical thinking, this second edition adds new material on the mathematical principles underlying children's strategies, a new online video that illustrates student teacher interaction, and examines the relationship between CGI and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.
"With the collaboration of a number of dedicated teachers and their students, Susan Empson and Linda Levi have produced a volume that is faithful to the basic principles of CGI while at the same time covering new ground with insight and innovation." -Thomas P. Carpenter This highly anticipated follow-up volume to the landmark Children's Mathematics: Cognitively Guided Instruction addresses the urgent need to help teachers understand and teach fraction concepts. Fractions remain one of the key stumbling blocks in math education, and here Empson and Levi lay a foundation for understanding fractions and decimals in ways that build conceptual learning. They show how the same kinds of intuitive knowledge and sense making that provides the basis for children's learning of whole number arithmetic can be extended to fractions and decimals. Just as they did in Children's Mathematics and Thinking Mathematically, Empson and Levi provide important insights into children's thinking and alternative approaches to solving problems. Three themes appear throughout the book: building meaning for fractions and decimals through discussing and solving word problems the progression of children's strategies for solving fraction word problems and equations from direct modeling through relational thinking designing instruction that capitalizes on students' relational thinking strategies to integrate algebra into teaching and learning fractions. With illuminating examples of student work, classroom vignettes, "Teacher Commentaries" from the field, sample problems and instructional guides provided in each chapter, you'll have all the tools you need to teach fractions and decimals with understanding and confidence.
Contained in this Guide is suggestions for implementing a Professional Development Program, a selected annotated bibliography, and a selection of resources such as sample workshop agendas and worksheets.
In this book the authors reveal how children's developing knowledge of the powerful unifying ideas of mathematics can deepen their understanding of arithmetic
Traditionally, small-group math instruction has been used as a format for reaching children who struggle to understand. Math coach Kassia Omohundro Wedekind uses small-group instruction as the centerpiece of her math workshop approach, engaging all students in rigorous "math exchanges." The key characteristics of these mathematical conversations are that they are: 1) short, focused sessions that bring all mathematical minds together, 2) responsive to the needs of the specific group of mathematicians, and 3) designed for meaningful, guided reflection. As in reading and writing workshop, students in Kassia's math workshop are becoming self-directed and independent while participating in a classroom community of learners. Through the math exchanges, students focus on number sense and the big ideas of mathematics. Teachers guide the conversations with small groups of students, mediating talk and thinking as students share problem-solving strategies, discuss how math works, and move toward more effective and efficient approaches and greater mathematical understanding. Although grounded in theory and research, Math Exchanges is written for practicing teachers and answers such questions as the following: How can I use a math workshop approach and follow a certain textbook or set of standards? How should I form small groups? and How often should I meet with small groups? What should I focus on in small groups? How can I tell if my groups are making progress? What do small-group math exchanges look like, sound like, and feel like?
Strengthen mathematical understandings and academic vocabulary with standards-based strategies! With straightforward language and examples, the authors help teachers develop specialized understanding and knowledge of strategies for supporting a high level of mathematics learning along with language acquisition for ELLs. Providing specific suggestions for teaching standards-based mathematics, this resource: Demonstrates how to incorporate ELL supports and strategies through sample lessons Uses concrete materials and visuals to connect mathematical concepts with language development Focuses on essential mathematical vocabulary Includes brief research summaries with rationales for recommended practices
Presents prevalent cases of maths instruction drawn from research of classroom lessons. The "Mathematical Tasks Framework", developed by the authors, offers teachers the means to evaluate instructional decisions, choice of materials and learning outcomes.
CREATIVITY AND THE ARTS WITH YOUNG CHILDREN, Third Edition, is written for early childhood educators as well as those who work with children from birth through age eight. The text focuses on helping educators make the vital connection to the arts--including music, movement, drama, and the visual arts--throughout all areas of the classroom and curriculum, and on developing creative teachers who will be able to foster an artistic environment. Observations and photos of teachers and children demonstrate practical ways the arts can be used to help children reach their potential. Educators will find many ideas for open-ended activities that are important for the development of young children, and which will encourage them to think in new ways. Discussion of professional standards and recommendations allows teachers to be cognizant of goals that are important in the early years. Thorough in its coverage, the text speaks to children with special needs and cultural diversity, leaving readers with a complete information resource regarding arts in the young child's classroom. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Studies of teachers in the U.S. often document insufficient subject matter knowledge in mathematics. Yet, these studies give few examples of the knowledge teachers need to support teaching, particularly the kind of teaching demanded by recent reforms in mathematics education. Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics describes the nature and development of the knowledge that elementary teachers need to become accomplished mathematics teachers, and suggests why such knowledge seems more common in China than in the United States, despite the fact that Chinese teachers have less formal education than their U.S. counterparts. The anniversary edition of this bestselling volume includes the original studies that compare U.S and Chinese elementary school teachers’ mathematical understanding and offers a powerful framework for grasping the mathematical content necessary to understand and develop the thinking of school children. Highlighting notable changes in the field and the author’s work, this new edition includes an updated preface, introduction, and key journal articles that frame and contextualize this seminal work.
Raising students' math achievement doesn't mean ripping up your planning book and starting over. In Accessible Mathematics Steven Leinwand (author of Sensible Mathematics) shows how small shifts in the good teaching you already do can make a big difference in student learning. Steve focuses on the crucial issue of classroom instruction. He scours the research and visits highly effective classrooms for practical examples of small adjustments to your teaching that lead to deeper student learning in math. Some of his 10 classroom-tested teaching shifts may surprise you and others will validate your thinking. But all of them will improve your students' performance. Thoroughly practical and ever-aware of the limits of teachers' time, Steve gives you everything you need to put his commonsense ideas to use immediately. His extensive planning advice will help you streamline your teaching to get more from everything you do. Classroom examples from every grade level model teaching language and instructional moves. And his suggestions for professional learning help increase your effectiveness through the power of collaboration. Steven Leinwand shares your priority: raising the mathematical understanding and achievement of every one of your students. Read Accessible Mathematics, try his 10 suggestions in your practice, and discover how minor shifts in your teaching can put student learning into high gear.
In this important book for pre- and in-service teachers, early math experts Douglas Clements and Julie Sarama show how "learning trajectories" help diagnose a child’s level of mathematical understanding and provide guidance for teaching. By focusing on the inherent delight and curiosity behind young children’s mathematical reasoning, learning trajectories ultimately make teaching more joyous. They help teachers understand the varying levels of knowledge exhibited by individual students, which in turn allows them to better meet the learning needs of all children. Using straightforward, no-nonsense language, this book summarizes the current research about how children learn mathematics, and how to build on what children already know to realize more effective teaching. This second edition of Learning and Teaching Early Math remains the definitive, research-based resource to help teachers understand the learning trajectories of early mathematics and become quintessential professionals. Updates to the new edition include: • Explicit connections between Learning Trajectories and the new Common Core State Standards. • New coverage of patterns and patterning. • Incorporation of hundreds of recent research studies.
One of the boys in the group responded, “That’s so smart! That’s so smart! That’s what we should do!” Complex Instruction (CI) is a response to the paradox that group work offers much potential but often creates circumstances where few students seem to learn. CI is a set of ideas and strategies that address the problems that confound group work, but that create powerful learning for children. This book offers guidance to readers on how to use these strategies and ideas. The authors describe the lessons they learned using group work, explain how complex instruction helps unsuccessful students and analyse how to design assignments that support group learning - using group-worthy tasks - giving readers examples of good tasks and help in adapting math problems from their own curricula.
English language learners share a basic need—to engage, and be engaged, in meaningful mathematics. Through guiding principles and instructional tools, together with classroom vignettes and video clips, this book shows how to go beyond good teaching to support ELLs in learning challenging mathematics while developing language skill. Position your students to share the valuable knowledge that they bring to the classroom as they actively build and communicate their understanding. The design of this book is interactive and requires the reader to move back and forth between the chapters and online resources at www.nctm.org/more4u. Occasionally, the reader is asked to stop and reflect before reading further in a chapter. At other times, the reader is asked to view video clips of teaching practices for ELLs or to refer to graphic organizers, observation and analysis protocols, links to resources, and other supplementary materials. The authors encourage the reader to use this resource in professional development.
Not all mathematics discussions are alike. It's one thing to ask students to share how they solved a problem, to get ideas out on the table so that their thinking becomes visible; but knowing what to do with students' ideas--where to go with them--can be a daunting task. Intentional Talk provides teachers with a framework for planning and facilitating purposeful mathematics discussions that enrich and deepen student learning. According to Elham Kazemi and Allison Hintz, the critical first step is to identify a discussion's goal and then understand how to structure and facilitate the conversation to meet that goal. Through detailed vignettes from both primary and upper elementary classrooms, the authors provide a window into what teachers are thinking as they lead discussions and make important pedagogical and mathematical decisions along the way. Additionally, the authors examine students' roles as both listeners and talkers and, in the process, offer a number of strategies for improving student participation and learning. A collection of planning templates included in the appendix helps teachers apply the right structure to discussions in their own classrooms. Intentional Talk provides the perfect bridge between student engagement and conceptual understanding in mathematical discussions.
This practical book provides pre- and inservice teachers with an understanding of how math can be learned through play. The author helps teachers to recognize the mathematical learning that occurs during play, to develop strategies for mathematizing that play, and to design formal lessons that make connections between mathematics and play. Common Core State Standards are addressed throughout the text to demonstrate the ways in which play is critical to standards-based mathematics teaching, and to help teachers become more familiar with these standards. Classroom examples illustrate that, unlike most formal tasks, play offers children opportunities to solve nonroutine problems and to demonstrate a variety of mathematical ways of thinkingsuch as perseverance and attention to precision. This book will help put play back into the early childhood classroom where it belongs. Book Features: Makes explicit connections to play and the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics. Offers many examples of free play activities in which mathematics can be highlighted, as well as formal lessons that are inspired by play. Provides strategies for making assessments more playful, helping teachers meet increasing demands for assessment data while also reducing child stress. Includes highlight boxes with recommended resources, questions for reflection, key research findings, vocabulary, lesson plan templates, and more. This is one of those books that I wish I had written. It is smart, readable, relevant, and authentically focused on children. From the Foreword by Elizabeth Graue, Sorenson Professor of Early Childhood Education, University of Wisconsin In this deceptively easy-to-read book, Amy Parks explains two things that could make a world of difference in early childhood and elementary classrooms: Mathematics isnt something in a workbookits a fascinating part of the real world; And playing in school isnt a luxuryits an essential context for learning about all sorts of things, including mathematics. Through vignettes of children learning mathematics as they play, Parks helps teachers recognize their answerability to the moment, eschewing someone elses determination of best practice in favor of what works with actual children eager to learn mathematics. Rebecca New, School of Education, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Each teacher and student brings many identities to the classroom. What is their impact on the student’s learning and the teacher’s teaching of mathematics? This book invites K–8 teachers to reflect on their own and their students’ multiple identities. Rich possibilities for learning result when teachers draw on these identities to offer high-quality, equity-based teaching to all students. Reflecting on identity and re-envisioning learning and teaching through this lens especially benefits students who have been marginalized by race, class, ethnicity, or gender. The authors encourage teachers to reframe instruction by using five equity-based mathematics teaching practices: Going deep with mathematics; leveraging multiple mathematical competencies; affirming mathematics learners’ identities; challenging spaces of marginality; and drawing on multiple resources of knowledge. Special features of the book: Classroom vignettes, lessons, and assessments showing equity-based practices Tools for teachers’ self-reflection and professional development, including a mathematics learning autobiography and teacher identity activity at nctm.org/more4u Suggestions for partnering with parents and community organisations End-of-chapter discussion questions
First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.
The Standards for Mathematical Practice promise to elevate students' learning of math from knowledge to application and bring rigor to math classrooms. Here, the authors unpack each of the eight Practices and provide a wealth of practical ideas and activities to help teachers quickly integrate them into their existing math program.
Development of Mathematical Cognition: Neural Substrates and Genetic Influences reviews advances in extant imaging modalities and the application of brain stimulation techniques for improving mathematical learning. It goes on to explore the role genetics and environmental influences have in the development of math abilities and disabilities. Focusing on the neural substrates and genetic factors associated with both the typical and atypical development of mathematical thinking and learning, this second volume in the Mathematical Cognition and Learning series integrates the latest in innovative measures and methodological advances from the top researchers in the field. Provides details about new progress made in the study of neural correlates of numerical and arithmetic cognition Addresses recent work in quantitative and molecular genetics Works to improve instruction in numerical, arithmetical, and algebraic thinking and learning Informs policy to help increase the level of mathematical proficiency among the general public
During the past 30 years, researchers have made exciting progress in the science of learning (i.e., how people learn) and the science of instruction (i.e., how to help people learn). This second edition of the Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction is intended to provide an overview of these research advances. With chapters written by leading researchers from around the world, this volume examines learning and instruction in a variety of learning environments including in classrooms and out of classrooms, and with a variety of learners including K-16 students and adult learners. Contributors to this volume demonstrate how and why educational practice should be guided by research evidence concerning what works in instruction. The Handbook is written at a level that is appropriate for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners interested in an evidence-based approach to learning and instruction. The book is divided into two sections: learning and instruction. The learning section consists of chapters on how people learn in reading, writing, mathematics, science, history, second language, and physical education, as well as how people acquire the knowledge and processes required for critical thinking, studying, self-regulation, and motivation. The instruction section consists of chapters on effective instructional methods—feedback, examples, questioning, tutoring, visualizations, simulations, inquiry, discussion, collaboration, peer modeling, and adaptive instruction. Each chapter in this second edition of the Handbook has been thoroughly revised to integrate recent advances in the field of educational psychology. Two chapters have been added to reflect advances in both helping students develop learning strategies and using technology to individualize instruction. As with the first edition, this updated volume showcases the best research being done on learning and instruction by traversing a broad array of academic domains, learning constructs, and instructional methods.