K.C. Nicolaou - Winner of the Nemitsas Prize 2014 in Chemistry This book is a must for every synthetic chemist. With didactic skill and clarity, K. C. Nicolaou and E. Sorensen present the most remarkable and ingenious total syntheses from outstanding synthetic organic chemists. To make the complex strategies more accessible, especially to the novice, each total synthesis is analyzed retrosynthetically. The authors then carefully explain each synthetic step and give hints on alternative methods and potential pitfalls. Numerous references to useful reviews and the original literature make this book an indispensable source of further information. Special emphasis is placed on the skillful use of graphics and schemes: Retrosynthetic analyses, reaction sequences, and stereochemically crucial steps are presented in boxed sections within the text. For easy reference, key intermediates are also shown in the margins. Graduate students and researchers alike will find this book a gold mine of useful information essential for their daily work. Every synthetic organic chemist will want to have a copy on his or her desk.
A wonderful tool for learning and teaching, and a must-have for all current and future organic, medicinal and biological chemists. --Book Jacket.
Classics in Total Synthesis II is the long awaited sequel to Classics in Total Synthesis, a book that has made its mark as a superb tool for educating students and practitioners alike in the art of organic synthesis since its introduction in 1996. In this highly welcomed new volume, K. C. Nicolaou and Scott A. Snyder discuss in detail the most impressive accomplishments in natural product total synthesis during the 1990s and the first years of the 21st century. While all of the features that made the first volume of Classics so popular and unique as a teaching tool have been maintained, in this new treatise the authors seek to present the latest techniques and advances in organic synthesis as they beautifully describe the works of some of the most renowned synthetic organic chemists of our time. ? domino reactions, cascade sequences, biomimetic strategies, and asymmetric catalysis are systematically developed through the chosen synthesis ? cutting edge synthetic technologies are discussed in terms of mechanism and scope ? new reactions, such as olefin metathesis, are presented in mini-review style ? abundant references are given for further reading Graduate students, educators, and researchers in the fields of synthetic and medicinal chemistry will wish to have a copy of this book in their collection as an indispensable companion that both augments and supplements the original Classics in Total Synthesis. From reviews of "Classics in Total Synthesis": "... a volume, (..) which any chemist with an interest in synthetic organic chemistry will wish to acquire." JACS "...this superb book (..) will be an essential purchase for many organic chemists." Nature
Synthesis is at the core of organic chemistry. In order for compounds to be studied—be it as drugs, materials, or because of their physical properties— they have to be prepared, often in multistep synthetic sequences. Thus, the target compound is at the outset of synthesis planning. Synthesis involves creating the target compound from smaller, readily available building blocks. Immediately, questions arise: From which bui- ing blocks? In which sequence? By which reactions? Nature creates many highly complex “natural products” via reaction cascades, in which an asso- ment of starting compounds present within the cell is transformed by speci c (for each target structure) combinations of modular enzymes in speci c - quences into the target compounds [1, 2]. To mimic this ef ciency is the dream of an ideal synthesis . However, we are at present so far from - alising such a “one-pot” operation that actual synthesis has to be achieved via a sequence of individual discrete steps. Thus, we are left with the task of planning each synthesis individually in an optimal fashion. Synthesis planning must be conducted with regard for certain speci - tions, some of which are due to the structure of the target molecule, and some of which relate to external parameters such as costs, environmental compatibility, or novelty. We will not consider these external aspects in this context. Planning of a synthesis is based on a pool of information regarding chemical reactions that can be executed reliably and in high chemical yield.
This two-colored textbook presents not only synthetic ways to design organic compounds, it also contains a compilation of the most important total synthesis of the last 50 years with a comparative view of multiple designs for the same targets. It explains different tactics and strategies, making it easy to apply to many problems, regardless of the synthetic question in hand. Following a historical view of the evolution of synthesis, the book goes on to look at principles and issues impacting synthesis and design as well as principles and issues of methods. The sections on comparative design cover classics in terpenes and alkaloid synthesis, while a further section covers such miscellaneous syntheses as Maytansine, Palytoxin, Brevetoxin B and Indinavir. The whole is rounded off with a look at future perspectives and, what makes this textbook extraordinairy, with personal recollections of the chemists, who synthesized these fascinating compounds. With its attractive layout highlighting key parts and tactics using a second color, this is a useful tool for organic chemists, lecturers and students in chemistry, as well as those working in the chemical industry. "I think, as will many organic chemists, that the Hudlicky book will be the Bible of synthetic organic chemistry, the past, the present and the future. A hallmark publication." (Victor Snieckus)
A hands-on guide to assist in the planning and execution of synthetic reactions in the laboratory Despite the maturity of organic chemistry, it can still be very challenging to identify optimal methods for synthetic transformations that perform as well in real-world manufacturing processes as they do in the laboratory. This detailed and accessible guide attempts to address this vexing issue and deliver proven methodologies practicing synthetic chemists will find valuable for identifying reaction conditions that work reliably over the broadest possible range of substrates. Practical Synthetic Organic Chemistry: Provides a practical guide to strategically planning and executing chemical syntheses for the bench chemist in industry Discusses information that is not common knowledge beyond the boundaries of process chemistry groups, such as the synthetic routes of selected contemporary pharmaceutical drugs and practical solvents, as well as green chemistry concepts Highlights key reactions, including substitutions, additions, eliminations, rearrangements, oxidations, and reductions Addresses basic principles, mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of the methodology, and techniques for achieving laboratory success Incorporating such an extraordinary wealth of information on organic chemistry and its related fields into one complete volume distinguishes Practical Synthetic Organic Chemistry as an incomparable desktop reference for professionals—and an invaluable study aid for students.
Kurti and Czako have produced an indispensable tool for specialists and non-specialists in organic chemistry. This innovative reference work includes 250 organic reactions and their strategic use in the synthesis of complex natural and unnatural products. Reactions are thoroughly discussed in a convenient, two-page layout--using full color. Its comprehensive coverage, superb organization, quality of presentation, and wealth of references, make this a necessity for every organic chemist. * The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding * 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples * An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names * Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works * Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools * Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
An indispensable reference for any practicing synthetic organic or medicinal chemist, this book continues the tradition of Greene’s as comprehensive in the overall scope of coverage, providing the most relevant and useful examples to illustrate each methodology. • Presents valuable material, on the application of protective groups in organic chemistry, that is not easily found by casual searching • Helps chemists to plan, investigate, and carry out organic syntheses in an efficient manner • Adds over 2800 new references to update since the publication of the last edition • Reviews of the prior edition: "An essential bible for the library or personal bookshelf of chemists performing complex synthesis." (CHOICE, May 2007) "...the most up-to-date compilation available...should be an integral part of all institutional libraries...it is also highly recommended that individuals...maintain their own copy..." (Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, March 8, 2007) "...continues to be a comprehensive guide to the techniques for the formation and cleavage of protective groups." (Journal of the American Chemical Society, January 31, 2007)
Written by world-renowned and best-selling experts, Nobel Laureate E. J. Corey and Laszlo Kurti, Enantioselective Chemical Synthesis offers an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the field's progress; the processes and tools for key formations; future development for complex, stereocontrolled (enantiomeric or diastereoisomeric) molecules; and valuable examples of multi-step syntheses. Utilizing a color-coded scheme to illustrate chemical transformations, Enantioselective Chemical Synthesis provides clear explanation and guidance through vital asymmetrical syntheses and insight into the next steps for the field. Researchers, professionals, and academics will benefit from this valuable, thorough, and unique resource. In Part I, the authors present clearly, comprehensively and concisely the most useful enantioselective processes available to synthetic chemists. Part II provides an extensive discussion of the most logical ways to apply these new enantioselective methods to the planning of syntheses of stereochemically complex molecules. This hitherto neglected area is essential for the advancement of enantioselective synthesis to a more rational and powerful level. Part III describes in detail many reaction sequences which have been used successfully for the construction of a wide variety of complex target molecules Clearly explains stereochemical synthesis in theory and practice Provides a handy tool box for scientists wishing to understand and apply chiral chemical synthesis Describes almost 50 real life examples of asymmetric synthesis in practice and examines how the chiral centers were introduced at key synthetic stages
K.C. Nicolaou - Winner of the Nemitsas Prize 2014 in Chemistry Here, the best-selling author and renowned researcher, K. C. Nicolaou, presents around 40 natural products that all have an enormous impact on our everyday life. Printed in full color throughout with a host of pictures, this book is written in the author's very enjoyable and distinct style, such that each chapter is full of interesting and entertaining information on the facts, stories and people behind the scenes. Molecules covered span the healthy and useful, as well as the much-needed and extremely toxic, including Aspirin, urea, camphor, morphine, strychnine, penicillin, vitamin B12, Taxol, Brevetoxin and quinine. A veritable pleasure to read.
Intended for students of intermediate organic chemistry, this text shows how to write a reasonable mechanism for an organic chemical transformation. The discussion is organized by types of mechanisms and the conditions under which the reaction is executed, rather than by the overall reaction as is the case in most textbooks. Each chapter discusses common mechanistic pathways and suggests practical tips for drawing them. Worked problems are included in the discussion of each mechanism, and "common error alerts" are scattered throughout the text to warn readers about pitfalls and misconceptions that bedevil students. Each chapter is capped by a large problem set.
While modem techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry changed the ways of data acquisition and greatly extended the capabilities of these methods, the basic parameters, such as chemical shifts, coupling constants, and fragmentation pathways remain the same. This explains the ongoing success of the earlier editions of this book. However, since the amount of available data has considerably increased over the years, we decided to prepare an entirely new manuscript. It follows the same basic concepts, i. e. , it provides a representative, albeit limited set of reference data for the interpretation of 13C NMR, 1 H NMR, IR, mass, and UV Nis spectra. On the other hand, the book has undergone a number of changes. The amount of reference data has been doubled at least (especially for MS and IR) and the order and selection of data for the various spectroscopic methods is now arranged strictly in the same way. In addition, the the enclosed compact disc contains programs for estimating NMR chemical shifts and generating isomers based on structural information. Unfortunately, our teachers and colleagues, Prof. Wilhelm Simon and Prof. Thomas Clerc are no longer among us, and Prof. Joseph Seibl has retired years ago. Their contributions to developing the concept and the earlier editions of this work cannot be overemphasized. We also thank numerous colleagues who helped us in many different ways to complete the manuscript. Weare particularly indebted to Dr.
In contrast to other books on this topic, the editor has chosen a top selection of target molecules not previously covered, many of them taken from chemical biology and including syntheses from bioorganic chemistry. Inspiration not only for organic chemists but also bioorganic chemists in industry and academia to develop their own synthesis routes.
One approach to organic synthesis is retrosynthetic analysis. With this approach a chemist will start with the structure of their target molecule and progressively cut bonds to create simpler molecules. Reversing this process gives a synthetic route to the target molecule from simpler starting materials. This “disconnection” approach to synthesis is now a fundamental part of every organic synthesis course. Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition introduces this important technique, to help students to design their own organic syntheses. There are forty chapters: those on the synthesis of given types of molecules alternate with strategy chapters in which the methods just learnt are placed in a wider context. The synthesis chapters cover many ways of making each type of molecule starting with simple aromatic and aliphatic compounds with one functional group and progressing to molecules with many functional groups. The strategy chapters cover questions of selectivity, protection, stereochemistry, and develop more advanced thinking via reagents specifically designed for difficult problems. Examples are drawn from pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, natural products, pheromones, perfumery and flavouring compounds, dyestuffs, monomers, and intermediates used in more advanced synthetic work. Reasons for wishing to synthesise each compound are given. This second edition has been fully revised and updated with a modern look. Recent examples and techniques are included and illustrated additional material has been added to take the student to the level required by the sequel, “Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control”. Several chapters contain extensive new material based on courses that the authors give to chemists in the pharmaceutical industry. Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd edition provides a full course in retrosynthetic analysis for chemistry and biochemistry students and a refresher for organic chemists working in industry and academia.
This book introduces the major methods of creating carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bonds, along with functional group interconversions.
Ensemble methods have been called the most influential development in Data Mining and Machine Learning in the past decade. They combine multiple models into one usually more accurate than the best of its components. Ensembles can provide a critical boost to industrial challenges -- from investment timing to drug discovery, and fraud detection to recommendation systems -- where predictive accuracy is more vital than model interpretability. Ensembles are useful with all modeling algorithms, but this book focuses on decision trees to explain them most clearly. After describing trees and their strengths and weaknesses, the authors provide an overview of regularization -- today understood to be a key reason for the superior performance of modern ensembling algorithms. The book continues with a clear description of two recent developments: Importance Sampling (IS) and Rule Ensembles (RE). IS reveals classic ensemble methods -- bagging, random forests, and boosting -- to be special cases of a single algorithm, thereby showing how to improve their accuracy and speed. REs are linear rule models derived from decision tree ensembles. They are the most interpretable version of ensembles, which is essential to applications such as credit scoring and fault diagnosis. Lastly, the authors explain the paradox of how ensembles achieve greater accuracy on new data despite their (apparently much greater) complexity. This book is aimed at novice and advanced analytic researchers and practitioners -- especially in Engineering, Statistics, and Computer Science. Those with little exposure to ensembles will learn why and how to employ this breakthrough method, and advanced practitioners will gain insight into building even more powerful models. Throughout, snippets of code in R are provided to illustrate the algorithms described and to encourage the reader to try the techniques. The authors are industry experts in data mining and machine learning who are also adjunct professors and popular speakers. Although early pioneers in discovering and using ensembles, they here distill and clarify the recent groundbreaking work of leading academics (such as Jerome Friedman) to bring the benefits of ensembles to practitioners. Table of Contents: Ensembles Discovered / Predictive Learning and Decision Trees / Model Complexity, Model Selection and Regularization / Importance Sampling and the Classic Ensemble Methods / Rule Ensembles and Interpretation Statistics / Ensemble Complexity
Polymer Syntheses, Volume II presents detailed laboratory instructions for the preparation of different types of polymers. This book provides information pertinent to useful polymer synthesis. Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of resins derived from urea, melamine, or benzoguanamine. This text then examines the reaction of formaldehyde with hydrogen chloride, which has been shown to lead to the spontaneous production of carcinogen bis(chloromethyl) ether. Other chapters consider the topic of silicone resins or polyorganosiloxanes, as well as the uses of vinyl ether polymers in lacquer resins, adhesives, plasticizers, paints, and copolymer compositions. This book discusses as well the methods of polymerization of acrylic and of methacrylic acid. The final chapter deals with the health and safety aspects of the production of the monomer vinyl chloride. This book is a valuable resource for industrial and polymer chemists. Students of polymer chemistry will also find this book useful.
The first book of its kind to describe the art of NMR using everyday examples. This textbook will not only fascinate students wanting to learn about the topic, but also those experienced analytical chemists who are still inspired by their profession. The contents provide for easy reading by using natural products that everyone knows, such as caffeine, backed by an attractive layout with many pictures to visualize the topics. In addition, an in-depth analytical part makes the book a valuable teaching tool, or for self-learning using the questions and answers at the end of each chapter.