This second edition of Classroom Discourse Analysis continues to make techniques widely used in the field of discourse analysis accessible to a broad audience and illustrates their practical application in the study of classroom talk, ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in discourse analysis, applied linguistics, and anthropology and education. Grounded in a unique tripartite "dimensional approach," individual chapters investigate interactional resources that model forms of discourse analysis teachers may practice in their own classrooms while other chapters provide students with a thorough understanding of how to actually collect and analyse data. The presence of a number of pedagogical features, including activities and exercises and a comprehensive glossary help to enhance students‘ understanding of these key tools in classroom discourse analysis research. Features new to this edition reflect current developments in the field, including: increased coverage of peer interaction in the classroom greater connecting analysis to curricular and policy mandates and standards-based reform movements sample excerpts from actual student classroom discourse analysis assignments a new chapter on the repertoire approach, an increasingly popular method of analysis of particular relevance to today’s multilingual classrooms
This book offers a model of classroom discourse analysis that uses systemic functional linguistic theory and associated genre theory to develop a view of classroom episodes as 'curriculum genres', some of which operate in turn as part of larger unities of work called 'curriculum macrogenres'. Drawing on Bernstein's work, Christie argues that two registers operate in pedagogic discourse: a regulative register, to do with the goals and directions of the discourse; and an instructional register, to do with the particular 'content' or knowledge at issue. Each can be shown to be realized in distinctive clusters of choices in the grammar. The operation of the regulative register determines the initiation, pacing, sequencing and evaluation of the overall pedagogic activity. The book sets out the its methodology in detail by reference to a number of classroom texts, and a range of school subjects. Overall, schools emerge as sites of symbolic control in a culture.
This volume gives intellectual space to a range of current perspectives on classroom discourse research and provides a forum for conversations about the research process. Classroom discourse researchers from different theoretical perspectives provide five separate analyses of the same instructional unit in a high school biology class, using the same set of data. Interwoven with the five research reports are several conversations among the editors and researchers regarding specific aspects of the research process. These conversations illuminate some of the actual decisions that researchers make when looking at data and crafting their analyses. This book is intended for graduate students, researchers, and teacher educators across the fields of applied linguistics and education who are interested in studying classroom discourse and, more generally, language-in-use. With its focus on both the research process and the outcomes of research, as well as on the theory-method relationship, this book is relevant for courses in research methodology, language in education, applied linguistics, discourse analysis, language development, and multiculturalism in the classroom.
Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics consists of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, designed for those entering postgraduate studies and language professionals returning to academic study. The books take an innovative "practice to theory" approach, with a ‘back to front’ structure which takes the reader from real life problems and issues in the field, then enters into a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns. The final section concludes by tying the practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include tasks with commentaries, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated further reading section. This book looks particularly at the relationship between language, interaction and learning. Providing a comprehensive account of current perspectives on classroom discourse, the book aims to promote a fuller understanding of interaction, regarded as being central to effective teaching and introduces the concept of classroom interactional competence (CIC). The case is made in this book for a need not only to describe classroom discourse, but to ensure that teachers and learners develop the kind of interactional competence which will result in more engaged, dynamic classrooms where learners are actively involved in the learning process. This approach makes an invaluable resource for language teachers, as well as students of language and education, and language acquisition within the field of applied linguistics.
This book in the NCRLL Collection provides an introductory discussion of discourse analysis of language and literacy events in classrooms. The authors introduce approaches to discourse analysis in a way that redefines traditional topics and provokes the imagination of researchers. For those who have limited knowledge of discourse analysis, this book will help generate new questions about literacy events in classrooms. For those familiar with this research perspective, it will map diverse new approaches. “Offers examples of classroom discourse with analyses that researchers and practitioners can use as the basis for pursuing their own analyses.” —Rob Tierney, Dean, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia “On Discourse Analysis provokes us to rethink discourse analytic approaches as generative tools that can open up new ways of seeing language and literacy events in classrooms. The authors richly illustrate the complexity and potential of discourse analysis studies with cases that orient us to foreground the local with broader cultural, historical, and social relations in ways that make evident what it means to be human. On Discourse Analysis provides a fresh approach to discourse analysis studies.” —Kris Gutierrez, University of California at Los Angeles
Offering an interdisciplinary approach, The Handbook of Classroom Discourse and Interaction presents a series of contributions written by educators and applied linguists that explores the latest research methodologies and theories related to classroom language. • Organized to facilitate a critical understanding of how and why various research traditions differ and how they overlap theoretically and methodologically • Discusses key issues in the future development of research in critical areas of education and applied linguistics • Provides empirically-based analysis of classroom talk to illustrate theoretical claims and methodologies • Includes multimodal transcripts, an emerging trend in education and applied linguistics, particularly in conversation analysis and sociocultural theory
This accessible 'how to' text is about classroom interaction – how to study it and how to use that knowledge to improve teaching and learning. Actually showing what critical, constructionist, sociocultural perspectives on teaching, learning, and schooling are and what they can do, it makes discourse analysis understandable and useful to teachers and other nonlinguists. Using Discourse Analysis to Improve Classroom Interaction: offers teachers the powerful tools of discourse analysis as a way of understanding the complex dynamics of human interaction that constitute effective, equitable teaching and learning guides readers step-by-step through how to build their interactional awareness to improve their teaching includes 'Try It Out' exercises to engage readers in learning how to respond to the social dynamics of their classrooms for the purpose of improving classroom interaction. Proceeding from simple illustrations to more complex layering of analytical concepts, short segments of talk, transcribed to highlight important points, are used to explain and illustrate the concepts. By the time readers get to the complicated issues addressed in this text they are ready to deal with some of teaching’s toughest challenges, and have the tools to build positive relationships among their students so that all can participate equally in the classroom.
A discourse analysis that is not based on grammar is likely to end up as a running commentary on a text, whereas a grammar-based one tends to treat text as a finished product rather than an on-going process. This book offers an approach to discourse analysis that is both grammar-based and oriented towards text as process. It proposes a model called TEXT TYPE within the framework of Hallidayan systemic-functional linguistics, which views grammatical choices in a text not as elements that combine to form a clause structure, but as semantic features that link successive clauses into an unfolding phase. It then demonstrates the model in actual analyses of 10 texts transcribed from 10 class hours' audio-recorded EFL classroom discourse, which in turn leads to the establishment of a dynamic system network that can be applied to future analyses of the process of EFL classroom discourse. The book also uncovers interesting details about EFL classroom teaching and learning in the Chinese context, including variations in the classroom environment, features of the interaction process, and discourse strategies of the teachers and students. It will be essential reading for academics and postgraduates working in the fields of discourse analysis, second language acquisition and systemic functional linguistics.
Introducing language use and interaction as the basis of good teaching and learning, this invaluable book equips teachers and researchers with the tools to analyze classroom discourse and move towards more effective instruction. Presenting an overview of existing approaches to describing and analyzing classroom discourse, Steve Walsh identifies the principal characteristics of classroom language in the contexts of second language classrooms, primary and secondary classrooms, and higher education settings. A distinct feature of the book are the classroom recordings and reflective feedback interviews from a sample group of teachers that Walsh uses to put forward SETT (Self Evaluation of Teacher Talk) as a framework for examining discourse within the classroom. This framework is used to identify different modes of discourse, which are employed by teachers and students, to increase awareness of the importance of interaction, and to maximize learning opportunities. This book will appeal to applied linguists, teachers and researchers of TESOL, as well as practitioners on MEd or taught doctorate programmes.
Gender is a hotly debated topic in the field of education. The role that language plays in educational contexts especially in the classroom has long been acknowledged. Innovatively combining approaches in the analysis of classroom discourse this book offers rich empirical findings as well as being theoretically interesting and valuable.
The authors present a social linguistic/social interactional approach to the discourse analysis of classroom language and literacy events. Building on recent theories in interactional sociolinguistics, literary theory, social anthropology, critical discourse analysis, and the New Literacy Studies, they describe a microethnographic approach to discourse analysis that provides a reflexive and recursive research process that continually questions what counts as knowledge in and of the interactions among teachers and students. The approach combines attention to how people use language and other systems of communication in constructing classroom events with attention to social, cultural, and political processes. The focus of attention is on actual people acting and reacting to each other, creating and recreating the worlds in which they live. One contribution of the microethnographic approach is to highlight the conception of people as complex, multi-dimensional actors who together use what is given by culture, language, social, and economic capital to create new meanings, social relationships and possibilities, and to recreate culture and language. The approach presented by the authors does not separate methodological, theoretical, and epistemological issues. Instead, they argue that research always involves a dialectical relationship among the object of the research, the theoretical frameworks and methodologies driving the research, and the situations within which the research is being conducted. Discourse Analysis and the Study of Classroom Language and Literacy Events: A Microethnographic Perspective: *introduces key constructs and the intellectual and disciplinary foundations of the microethnographic approach; *addresses the use of this approach to gain insight into three often discussed issues in research on classroom literacy events--classroom literacy events as cultural action, the social construction of identity, and power relations in and through classroom literacy events; *presents transcripts of classroom literacy events to illustrate how theoretical constructs, the research issue, the research site, methods, research techniques, and previous studies of discourse analysis come together to constitute a discourse analysis; and *discusses the complexity of "locating" microethnographic discourse analysis studies within the field of literacy studies and within broader intellectual movements. This volume is of broad interest and will be widely welcomed by scholars and students in the field language and literacy studies, educational researchers focusing on analysis of classroom discourse, educational sociolinguists, and sociologists and anthropologists focusing on face-to-face interaction and language use.
Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies, grade: 2,3, Saarland University (Anglistik, Amerikanistik und Anglophone Kulturen), course: Hauptseminar: Language and Power, language: English, abstract: This paper, like any other conversation analysis, is "an approach to the analysis of spoken discourse that looks at the way in which people manage their everyday conversational interactions" (Paltridge 2006:107). The kind of spoken discourse to be analysed here is classroom discourse. There are many different "aspects of spoken discourse" (2006:107) that help to analyse a conversation such as sequences, turn taking, code-switching, feedback, repair, openings and closings, to name just a few. This paper will take a closer look at some of these aspects and in particular at opening sequences and repair. But I will first of all give a short introduction on the structure of lessons as a basis for the following chapters.
This book’s innovative approach proposes Language for Teaching Purposes as a distinct field of enquiry and practice within Language for Specific Purposes. It uses robust theoretical and empirical evidence to demonstrate the specificity of language used by teachers teaching language, and the complex decisions teachers make around language choice and use in language classrooms. These complexities are shown to affect Non-native Speaker Language Teachers in particular so that their language needs must be met in teacher training programmes. Set in the Anglophone foreign language teaching world, this book will appeal to anyone involved in teacher training, language teaching or the investigation of classroom discourse.
Sociocultural approaches to second language acquisition and pedagogy acquisition are the two biggest areas of research in applied linguistics and need to be anchored in studies. This text addresses the central issues in these fields. Pauline Gibbons at University of Technology, Sydney.
This textbook shows how classroom discourse can be applied to develop and improve teaching. Combining examples from everyday practice with theoretical approaches, it provides a comprehensive account of current perspectives on classroom discourse.
This book offers a close investigation of interactional practices in L2 classrooms. With an emphasis on the multimodal and multilingual resources, this is an essential study for researchers and postgraduate students in TESOL and Applied Linguistics.
This edited book is about the rationale, practice and classroom implementation of English-medium instruction courses in Chinese universities. It specifically focuses on classroom discourse analysis across different disciplines and settings. The main themes of this book are: describing the state educational policies toward English-medium instruction at the tertiary level; distinguishing English-medium instruction from mainstream foreign language learning; analyzing curricula and discourse at the classroom level and evaluating the learning effectiveness of these courses. This book covers the widespread implementation of English-medium courses in China across different disciplines, and it provides a window for researchers and practitioners from other parts of the world to see the curriculum design,?lesson planning, discourse features and teacher-student interaction in English-medium classrooms in China. Contributors to this volume consists of a panel of highly respected researchers in the fields of bilingual education, English-medium instruction, classroom discourse analysis and language program evaluation. Chapters include, Balance of Content and Language in English-Medium Instruction Classrooms English-Medium Instruction in a Math Classroom: An Observation Study of Classroom Discourse Asking and answering questions in EMI classrooms: What is the Cognitive and Syntactic Complexity Level?
When Courtney Cazden wrote Classroom Discourse, she provided such a cogent picture of what the research tells us about classroom language that the book quickly became a classic and shaped an entire field of study. Although other books since have addressed classroom language, none has matched Cazden's scope and vision. Now, thirteen years later, we've witnessed such significant changes in social and intellectual life that the subject of classroom discourse is more important than ever. So Cazden has revisited her classic text and integrated current perspectives and research. New features include: a new rationale for the importance of student-teacher talk: the importance of oral as well as written communication skills in today's occupations and current conceptions of knowledge and the way it is acquired rich new examples of talk in K-12 classrooms - math as well as language arts - with transcriptions and analyses new findings from teacher researchers as well as university researchers new emphasis on achieving greater equity in what students learn new material on the kind of interactions computers offer new section on learning new forms of discourse as a significant educational goal for all students. Readers will emerge from the book with a better understanding of the significance of quality teacher-student talk and some of the most important research and researchers.