This book offers a model of classroom discourse analysis that uses systemic functional linguistic theory and associated genre theory to develop a view of classroom episodes as 'curriculum genres', some of which operate in turn as part of larger unities of work called 'curriculum macrogenres'. Drawing on Bernstein's work, Christie argues that two registers operate in pedagogic discourse: a regulative register, to do with the goals and directions of the discourse; and an instructional register, to do with the particular 'content' or knowledge at issue. Each can be shown to be realized in distinctive clusters of choices in the grammar. The operation of the regulative register determines the initiation, pacing, sequencing and evaluation of the overall pedagogic activity. The book sets out the its methodology in detail by reference to a number of classroom texts, and a range of school subjects. Overall, schools emerge as sites of symbolic control in a culture.
This second edition of Classroom Discourse Analysis continues to make techniques widely used in the field of discourse analysis accessible to a broad audience and illustrates their practical application in the study of classroom talk, ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in discourse analysis, applied linguistics, and anthropology and education. Grounded in a unique tripartite "dimensional approach," individual chapters investigate interactional resources that model forms of discourse analysis teachers may practice in their own classrooms while other chapters provide students with a thorough understanding of how to actually collect and analyse data. The presence of a number of pedagogical features, including activities and exercises and a comprehensive glossary help to enhance students‘ understanding of these key tools in classroom discourse analysis research. Features new to this edition reflect current developments in the field, including: increased coverage of peer interaction in the classroom greater connecting analysis to curricular and policy mandates and standards-based reform movements sample excerpts from actual student classroom discourse analysis assignments a new chapter on the repertoire approach, an increasingly popular method of analysis of particular relevance to today’s multilingual classrooms
This book offers a model of classroom discourse analysis that uses systemic functional linguistic theory and associated genre theory to develop a view of classroom episodes as 'curriculum genres', some of which operate in turn as part of larger unities of work called 'curriculum macrogenres'. Drawing on Bernstein's work, Christie argues that two registers operate in pedagogic discourse: a regulative register, to do with the goals and directions of the discourse; and an instructional register, to do with the particular 'content' or knowledge at issue. Each can be shown to be realized in distinctive clusters of choices in the grammar. The operation of the regulative register determines the initiation, pacing, sequencing and evaluation of the overall pedagogic activity. The book sets out the its methodology in detail by reference to a number of classroom texts, and a range of school subjects. Overall, schools emerge as sites of symbolic control in a culture.
This volume gives intellectual space to a range of current perspectives on classroom discourse research and provides a forum for conversations about the research process. Classroom discourse researchers from different theoretical perspectives provide five separate analyses of the same instructional unit in a high school biology class, using the same set of data. Interwoven with the five research reports are several conversations among the editors and researchers regarding specific aspects of the research process. These conversations illuminate some of the actual decisions that researchers make when looking at data and crafting their analyses. This book is intended for graduate students, researchers, and teacher educators across the fields of applied linguistics and education who are interested in studying classroom discourse and, more generally, language-in-use. With its focus on both the research process and the outcomes of research, as well as on the theory-method relationship, this book is relevant for courses in research methodology, language in education, applied linguistics, discourse analysis, language development, and multiculturalism in the classroom.
Das Handbuch geht aus von der Zweiteilung linguistisch-kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Gegenstände in "Text" und "Gespräch" und unterscheidet zwischen einer "Textlinguistik" (1. Halbband) und einer "Gesprächslinguistik" (2. Halbband). Die beiden Halbbände des Handbuchs sind so gestaltet, dass sie sich in ihrer Gliederung weitgehend entsprechen. Dadurch sollen die bei aller Unterschiedlichkeit bestehenden Zusammenhänge zwischen schriftkonstituierter monologischer Kommunikation (Text) und mündlich konstituierter dialogischer Kommunikation (Gespräch) deutlicher hervortreten und die Orientierung des Benutzers erleichtert werden. Die Hauptaufgaben des Handbuchs bestehen darin, den Forschungsstand und die Forschungsentwicklung in diesem komplexen Gebiet auf internationaler Ebene zu repräsentieren, die grundlegenden text- und gesprächsbezogenen Methoden zu explizieren, die wesentlichen Aspekte der Konstitution und der Typologisierung von Texten und Gesprächen zu behandeln sowie den Bezug der Text- und Gesprächslinguistik zu anderen Disziplinen und bestimmten Praxisfeldern darzustellen.
Highlights the importance of classroom discourse to any second language teacher education programmeReflective practice is central to teacher education and development, yet is something that many teachers struggle with. Can reflective practice be refocused by asking teachers to place classroom interaction and discourse at the centre of their reflections?In this accessible textbook, Steve Walsh explains why it is essential to put an understanding of classroom discourse at the centre of any second language teacher education programme, whether it is a formal programme under the guidance of a teacher educator or a more informal, self-directed programme of teacher development. He argues that in order to improve their professional practice, language teachers need to gain a detailed, up-close understanding of their local context by focusing on the complex relationship between teacher language, classroom interaction and learning. In order to do this he revisits and reconceptualises the notion of reflective practice by giving teachers appropriate tools which allow them to reflect on and improve their professional practice. This thought-provoking book not only stimulates debate on classroom discourse and reflective practice, but also contains practical exercises and advice which will be invaluable to both new and experienced language teachers as well as to researchers in applied linguistics.Task commentaries, a glossary of technical terms and an annotated list of further reading are also included.
Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies, grade: 2,3, Saarland University (Anglistik, Amerikanistik und Anglophone Kulturen), course: Hauptseminar: Language and Power, language: English, abstract: This paper, like any other conversation analysis, is "an approach to the analysis of spoken discourse that looks at the way in which people manage their everyday conversational interactions" (Paltridge 2006:107). The kind of spoken discourse to be analysed here is classroom discourse. There are many different "aspects of spoken discourse" (2006:107) that help to analyse a conversation such as sequences, turn taking, code-switching, feedback, repair, openings and closings, to name just a few. This paper will take a closer look at some of these aspects and in particular at opening sequences and repair. But I will first of all give a short introduction on the structure of lessons as a basis for the following chapters.
Originally published as The Continuum Companion to Discourse Analysis, this book is designed to be the essential one-volume resource for advanced students and academics. This companion offers a comprehensive and accessible reference resource to research in contemporary discourse studies. In 21 chapters written by leading figures in the field, the volume provides readers with an authoritative overview of key terms, methods and current research topics and directions. It offers both a survey of current research and gives more practical guidance for advanced study in the area. The volume covers all the most important issues, concepts, movements and approaches in the field and features a glossary of key terms in the area of discourse analysis. It is the complete resource for postgraduate students and researchers working within discourse studies, applied linguistics, TESOL and the social sciences.
The authors present a social linguistic/social interactional approach to the discourse analysis of classroom language and literacy events. Building on recent theories in interactional sociolinguistics, literary theory, social anthropology, critical discourse analysis, and the New Literacy Studies, they describe a microethnographic approach to discourse analysis that provides a reflexive and recursive research process that continually questions what counts as knowledge in and of the interactions among teachers and students. The approach combines attention to how people use language and other systems of communication in constructing classroom events with attention to social, cultural, and political processes. The focus of attention is on actual people acting and reacting to each other, creating and recreating the worlds in which they live. One contribution of the microethnographic approach is to highlight the conception of people as complex, multi-dimensional actors who together use what is given by culture, language, social, and economic capital to create new meanings, social relationships and possibilities, and to recreate culture and language. The approach presented by the authors does not separate methodological, theoretical, and epistemological issues. Instead, they argue that research always involves a dialectical relationship among the object of the research, the theoretical frameworks and methodologies driving the research, and the situations within which the research is being conducted. Discourse Analysis and the Study of Classroom Language and Literacy Events: A Microethnographic Perspective: *introduces key constructs and the intellectual and disciplinary foundations of the microethnographic approach; *addresses the use of this approach to gain insight into three often discussed issues in research on classroom literacy events--classroom literacy events as cultural action, the social construction of identity, and power relations in and through classroom literacy events; *presents transcripts of classroom literacy events to illustrate how theoretical constructs, the research issue, the research site, methods, research techniques, and previous studies of discourse analysis come together to constitute a discourse analysis; and *discusses the complexity of "locating" microethnographic discourse analysis studies within the field of literacy studies and within broader intellectual movements. This volume is of broad interest and will be widely welcomed by scholars and students in the field language and literacy studies, educational researchers focusing on analysis of classroom discourse, educational sociolinguists, and sociologists and anthropologists focusing on face-to-face interaction and language use.
This accessible 'how to' text is about classroom interaction – how to study it and how to use that knowledge to improve teaching and learning. Actually showing what critical, constructionist, sociocultural perspectives on teaching, learning, and schooling are and what they can do, it makes discourse analysis understandable and useful to teachers and other nonlinguists. Using Discourse Analysis to Improve Classroom Interaction: offers teachers the powerful tools of discourse analysis as a way of understanding the complex dynamics of human interaction that constitute effective, equitable teaching and learning guides readers step-by-step through how to build their interactional awareness to improve their teaching includes 'Try It Out' exercises to engage readers in learning how to respond to the social dynamics of their classrooms for the purpose of improving classroom interaction. Proceeding from simple illustrations to more complex layering of analytical concepts, short segments of talk, transcribed to highlight important points, are used to explain and illustrate the concepts. By the time readers get to the complicated issues addressed in this text they are ready to deal with some of teaching’s toughest challenges, and have the tools to build positive relationships among their students so that all can participate equally in the classroom.
This book, addressed to experienced and novice language educators, provides an up-to-date overview of sociolinguistics, reflecting changes in the global situation and the continuing evolution of the field and its relevance to language education around the world. Topics covered include nationalism and popular culture, style and identity, creole languages, critical language awareness, gender and ethnicity, multimodal literacies, classroom discourse, and ideologies and power. Whether considering the role of English as an international language or innovative initiatives in Indigenous language revitalization, in every context of the world sociolinguistic perspectives highlight the fluid and flexible use of language in communities and classrooms, and the importance of teacher practices that open up spaces of awareness and acceptance of --and access to--the widest possible communicative repertoire for students.
A new approach to discourse analysis that is both grammar-based and oriented towards text as process.
Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics consists of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, designed for those entering postgraduate studies and language professionals returning to academic study. The books take an innovative "practice to theory" approach, with a ‘back to front’ structure which takes the reader from real life problems and issues in the field, then enters into a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns. The final section concludes by tying the practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include tasks with commentaries, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated further reading section. This book looks particularly at the relationship between language, interaction and learning. Providing a comprehensive account of current perspectives on classroom discourse, the book aims to promote a fuller understanding of interaction, regarded as being central to effective teaching and introduces the concept of classroom interactional competence (CIC). The case is made in this book for a need not only to describe classroom discourse, but to ensure that teachers and learners develop the kind of interactional competence which will result in more engaged, dynamic classrooms where learners are actively involved in the learning process. This approach makes an invaluable resource for language teachers, as well as students of language and education, and language acquisition within the field of applied linguistics.
This study analyses examples of classroom discourse, one of the most important influences on students? experience in schools, in EFL classes. The central idea of the author?s enquiry is to compare classroom discourse in two secondary schools in two European countries, namely Austria on the one hand, and Spain on the other hand. The focus of the study is on EFL classes taught by a team of a non-native speaker teacher and a native speaker assistant. The purposes of this study are to gain insights into classroom communication, to compare classroom discourse in two different countries to see whether culturally specific rules of classroom communication might apply, and to investigate the contact situation of two different (if existent) communication strategies in classroom discourse. Therefore, the study aims to answer the following research question: Do the cultural modes of classroom communication in EFL classes (taught by a team of a teacher and an assistant) differ from each other? The data needed for this study were collected by means of video-recording; audio-portions were transcribed; and the data was analysed using methods of Conversational Analysis. The author focuses in particular on turn-taking, the occurrence of the IRE / IRF sequence and simultaneous speech, as well as restarts and pauses. The analysis shows how certain conversational structures, such as simultaneous speech or the IRE / IRF sequence, work in classroom discourse. The results hint at different cultural modes of classroom communication, the main differences concerning the presence of the teacher in the discourse, the degree of smoothness with which the discourse proceeds and the students? degree of involvement in communication. Furthermore, the data shows that different communication strategies are indeed used in classes taught by a team. Interaction with an assistant might increase students? talking time and might, if the assistant is given enough freedom, also result in more fluent student discourse. In addition, the data suggests that some communication strategies are preferable in the context of EFL teaching with the aim of enhancing communicative competence, namely not interfering with regard to content, not selecting next speakers, and offering open discussion activities.
This book in the NCRLL Collection provides an introductory discussion of discourse analysis of language and literacy events in classrooms. The authors introduce approaches to discourse analysis in a way that redefines traditional topics and provokes the imagination of researchers. For those who have limited knowledge of discourse analysis, this book will help generate new questions about literacy events in classrooms. For those familiar with this research perspective, it will map diverse new approaches. “Offers examples of classroom discourse with analyses that researchers and practitioners can use as the basis for pursuing their own analyses.” —Rob Tierney, Dean, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia “On Discourse Analysis provokes us to rethink discourse analytic approaches as generative tools that can open up new ways of seeing language and literacy events in classrooms. The authors richly illustrate the complexity and potential of discourse analysis studies with cases that orient us to foreground the local with broader cultural, historical, and social relations in ways that make evident what it means to be human. On Discourse Analysis provides a fresh approach to discourse analysis studies.” —Kris Gutierrez, University of California at Los Angeles
"The Handbook of Classroom Discourse and Interaction is an authoritative reference work exploring the latest research, methodologies, and theories related to classroom language, teaching, and learning"--
Inhaltsangabe:Introduction: In our world of internationalisation and globalisation, teaching and learning take place in a transnational and global context. It is a proven fact that children spend significant periods of their lives in school and it is widely acknowledged among teachers as well as researchers that classroom discourse plays a crucial part in the process of learning. Language, after all, is which the business of schooling is primarily accomplished in. Learning takes place to a great extent when interacting with fellow students or the teacher. Therefore, classroom language studies, investigating what classroom discourse actually looks like (instead of stating what it should be), are of great importance. Nowadays language studies are to be seen as social and cultural practises embedded in a comprehensive and potentially global process . The study of classroom language and interaction is central to the study of classroom learning. Analysing classroom discourse in order to highlight its characteristic features, therefore, constitutes a worthwhile task since its findings may be used to improve teaching. In this way teachers might become more aware of the way teachers and learners jointly create learning opportunities, and subsequently classroom discourse might be adjusted in order to enhance learning. Interestingly in this respect is Walsh s reference to teachers interactional awareness, characterised as the use of meta-language, critical self-evaluation and more conscious interactive decision making. A detailed analysis of classroom discourse possibly helps heighten teachers awareness with regard to classroom interaction. In conclusion, the increased importance of language in our multicultural societies calls for a detailed investigation of features of classroom discourse with the overall aim of improving teaching and consequently learning. Analyzing classroom discourse is at the heart of the study presented here. The central idea of my enquiry is to compare classroom discourse in two countries. Comparatively studying classroom discourse in two countries will reveal different pedagogical traditions and their underlying social values. The focus of my study is on classes of English as a foreign language taught by a team of a non-native teacher and a native assistant. This analysis of teacher-assistant collaboration, a frequent yet under-researched form of practice, will also help to improve teaching. More background information on my [...]
Introducing language use and interaction as the basis of good teaching and learning, this invaluable book equips teachers and researchers with the tools to analyze classroom discourse and move towards more effective instruction. Presenting an overview of existing approaches to describing and analyzing classroom discourse, Steve Walsh identifies the principal characteristics of classroom language in the contexts of second language classrooms, primary and secondary classrooms, and higher education settings. A distinct feature of the book are the classroom recordings and reflective feedback interviews from a sample group of teachers that Walsh uses to put forward SETT (Self Evaluation of Teacher Talk) as a framework for examining discourse within the classroom. This framework is used to identify different modes of discourse, which are employed by teachers and students, to increase awareness of the importance of interaction, and to maximize learning opportunities. This book will appeal to applied linguists, teachers and researchers of TESOL, as well as practitioners on MEd or taught doctorate programmes.

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