Existing climate change governance regimes in the US and the EU contain complex mixtures of regulatory, market, voluntary, and research-based strategies. The EU has adopted an approach to climate change that is based on mandatory greenhouse gas emission reductions; it is grounded in 'hard' law measures and accompanied by 'soft' law measures at the regional and Member State level. In contrast, until recently, the US federal government has carefully avoided mandatory emission reduction obligations and focused instead on employing a variety of 'soft' measures to encourage - rather than mandate - greenhouse gas emission reductions in an economically sound, market-driven manner. These macro level differences are critical yet they mask equally important transatlantic policy convergences. The US and the EU are pivotal players in the development of the international climate change regime. How these two entities structure climate change laws and policies profoundly influences the shape and success of climate change laws and policies at multiple levels of governance. This book suggests that the overall structures and processes of climate change law and policy-making in the US and the EU are intricately linked to international policy-making and, thus, the long-term success of global efforts to address climate change. Accordingly, the book analyses the content and process of climate change law and policy-making in the US and the EU to reveal policy convergences and divergences, and to examine how these convergences and divergences impact the ability of the global community to structure a sustainable, effective and equitable long-term climate strategy.
Pioneers in an emergent field, the authors of Climate Change Law and Policy have created a modular and accessible text with extensive web resources. Designed for 2- and 3-credit courses, discussion, commentary, and exercises are integrated into every chapter. Tracing key legal developments, the scope of this landmark text spans international, United States, foreign, state and local, and nongovernmental efforts to address climate change. A concise text that takes a global view, Climate Change Law and Policy features: accessible and modular format that can adapt to a variety of teaching objectives timely coverage of key legal developments in climate change control around the world discussion of the role of non-nation-state actors in forming climate change policy, including cities, corporations, NGO's, and individuals draws from commentary of leading experts on each topic exercises in each chapter based on major law and policy issues extensive web resources, including updates and links
Climate change poses fundamental and varied challenges to all communities across the globe. The adaptation and mitigation strategies proposed by governments and non-governmental organisations are likely to require radical and fundamental shifts in socio-political structures, technological and economic systems, organisational forms, and modes of regulation. The sheer volume of law and policy emanating from the international level makes it uncertain which type of regulatory or policy framework is likely to have a positive impact. The success or failure of proposed measures will depend on their acceptability within the local constituencies within which they are sought to be applied. Therefore there is an urgent need to better comprehend and theorise the role of cultural legitimacy in the choice and effectiveness of international legal and policy interventions aimed at tackling the impact of climate change. The book brings together experts to present perspectives from different disciplines on the issue of international climate change law and policy. Beginning from the premise that legitimacy critiques of international climate change regulation have the capacity to positively influence policy trends and legal choices, the book showcases innovative ideas from across the disciplines and investigate the link between the efficacy of international legal and policy mechanisms on climate change and cultural legitimacy. The book includes chapters on with a theoretical basis as well as specific case-studies from around the globe. The topics covered include: land use planning as a tool of enhancing cultural legitimacy, indigenous peoples in international environmental negotiations, transnational advocacy networks, community-based forestry management and culture and voluntary social movements.
This casebook examines climate change law using primary source materials, commentary and problem exercises. Climate science and policy are integrated into each section of the book. Reducing global and U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change receive approximately equal treatment. Mitigation is covered in chapters on the probable post-Kyoto regime, energy law and policy, national and state law, theory and practice of economic instruments (such as cap and trade and carbon taxes), and carbon sequestration. Adaptation is addressed in ecosystem, sectoral, regional, and human settlement chapters.
Climate change policy inevitably has two core components: the goals, and the means chosen to pursue those goals. Decisions on goals and means necessarily have distributional consequences. Any policy choice generates winners and losers. While this outcome cannot be avoided - even doing nothing leads to distributional consequences - policymakers can, through the choice, design and implementation of policies, shape to some extent the distribution of the burdens of mitigation and adaptation to climate change. In greater depth than any previous legal study in the field, this book deals with the way in which the European Union (EU) has dealt with climate change and with the distribution of the benefits and costs of climate change mitigation policies among affected parties. With extraordinary thoroughness the author assesses the legality of choices made (particularly concerning mitigation targets and timelines), and examines the role that legal principles can play in the adoption, interpretation, and judicial testing of distributional choices. His analysis of the tension between such choices and EU law is bolstered by an exploration of emerging legal principles which could provide additional guidance in this challenging and controversial area. Among the core issues dealt with are the following: relationship among mitigation, adaptation, and sustainable development; regulations as means to make distributional choices distributional choices between generations and the principle of intergenerational justice distributional choices concerning firms and individuals the participation of affected parties in distributional choices access to justice in EU courts to challenge violations of procedural environmental rights the role of legal principles in making, evaluating and testing distributional choices the principle of proportionality with its tests of appropriateness and necessity; the principle of equality; the precautionary principle; the principle of prevention; the polluter pays principle; A concluding chapter offers deeply informed recommendations regarding the design of EU climate change law, including a preliminary assessment of EU wide personal carbon trading. In its insightful illumination of how the inevitable trade-offs, weaknesses, inconsistencies and ambiguities in the way law deals with distributional choices renders them vulnerable to external pressures, this book will be of enormous value to regulators and policymakers concerned with effective, efficient, and fair climate change measures. As a critical assessment of existing EU climate change laws and policies, and as a systematic analysis of the problem of burden sharing, this book will also prove highly valuable to academics in environmental fields of study.
A deepening understanding of the importance of climate change has caused a recent and rapid increase in the number of climate change or climate-related laws. Trends in Climate Change Legislation offers an astute analysis of the political, institutional and economic factors that have motivated this surge, placing it into context.
Climate Change and the Oceans investigates the effects of climate change on the ocean environment and its implications for maritime activities, both globally and within the Asia Pacific region. This detailed work draws together informed opinion from a range of disciplines to examine the impacts of climate change on marine and coastal areas and review legal and policy responses to the rapidly changing ocean environment. Issues including the effects on fisheries and marine biodiversity in the Asia Pacific region, maritime security, global shipping, marine jurisdiction and marine geo-engineering are also explored. Examining the multiple impacts of climate change on the oceans and ocean based solutions to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change, this thought-provoking book will prove invaluable to academics, researchers and students in the fields of law, environment, ecology and political science. Oceans and marine environmental policymakers will also find this to be an essential resource.
This work analyses fairness dimensions of the climate regime. A central issue in international law and policy is how countries of the world should allocate the burden of addressing global climate change. With the link between human activities and climate change clearly established, and the first impacts of climate change being felt, there is a renewed sense of urgency in addressing the problem. On the basis of an overview of science and the development of the climate regime, this book seeks to identify the elements of a working consensus on fairness principles that could be used to solve the seemingly intractable problem of assigning responsibility for combating climate change. The book demonstrates how an analysis of fairness dimensions of climate change - grounded in practical developments and illustrated with reference to the key issues - can add value to our understanding of the options for international climate law and policy.
'The phenomenon of anthropogenic climate change has become of critical importance to all countries. However, while the majority of developing countries contribute the least to global greenhouse gas emissions, they will generally bear the major burden of the social, environmental and economic impacts of climate change imposed upon them by developed countries. This cutting-edge book contains outstanding contributions by scholars from around the world on the need to expand the range of legal and policy mechanisms and strategies required to bridge the gaps between the north and the south to achieve global climate justice.' - Ben Boer, University of Sydney and former Co-director of the IUCN Academy of Environmental Law This timely book examines the legal and policy challenges in international, regional and national settings, faced by developing countries in mitigating and adapting to climate change. With contributions from over twenty international scholars from developing and developed countries, the book tackles both long-standing concerns and current controversies. It considers the positions of developing countries in the negotiation of a new international legal regime to replace the Kyoto Protocol and canvasses various domestic issues, including implementation of CDM projects, governance of adaptation measures and regulation of the biofuels industry. Through a unique focus on the developing world, this book makes a significant contribution to understanding current challenges and future directions of climate law.
A synthesis of the relevant agreements, customary norms and ongoing discussions on the international law on climate change.
Existing climate change governance regimes in the US and the EU contain complex mixtures of regulatory, market, voluntary, and research-based strategies. The EU has adopted an approach to climate change that is based on mandatory greenhouse gas emission reductions; it is grounded in 'hard' law measures and accompanied by 'soft' law measures at the regional and Member State level. In contrast, until recently, the US federal government has carefully avoided mandatory emission reduction obligations and focused instead on employing a variety of 'soft' measures to encourage - rather than mandate - greenhouse gas emission reductions in an economically sound, market-driven manner. These macro level differences are critical yet they mask equally important transatlantic policy convergences. The US and the EU are pivotal players in the development of the international climate change regime. How these two entities structure climate change laws and policies profoundly influences the shape and success of climate change laws and policies at multiple levels of governance. This book suggests that the overall structures and processes of climate change law and policy-making in the US and the EU are intricately linked to international policy-making and, thus, the long-term success of global efforts to address climate change. Accordingly, the book analyses the content and process of climate change law and policy-making in the US and the EU to reveal policy convergences and divergences, and to examine how these convergences and divergences impact the ability of the global community to structure a sustainable, effective and equitable long-term climate strategy.
Adapting to the likely impacts of climate change requires technological innovation as well as behavioural and attitudinal change. This book addresses challenges across sector interests and considers whether existing regulatory and governance frameworks are supportive, adaptable or barriers to necessary change.
'This book is a useful addition to our literature on climate change law, with its focus on climate change at the local level. It examines how local governments, municipalities and city authorities address climate change through law and policy, and the problems/constraints faced in mitigation and adaptation at the local level. The 15 contributors have thoughtfully and critically analysed the issues from intellectual as well as practical perspectives, drawing on the experiences of North America as well as the EU, China, Australia and South Africa. The reader is left with deeper insights and suggestions for the way forward.' – Irene Lin Heng Lye, National University of Singapore 'This volume offers a thorough exploration of the challenges and opportunities for local governments in many parts of the world to mitigate and adapt to climate change.' – Laura Watchmann, LEED AP-ND, Executive Director, NALGEP 'As the international climate consensus is fading, the focus has shifted from the global to the local. This book is timely and ground-breaking as it frames a new subject of legal study and proves the dramatic surge of local climate action. A must-read.' – Klaus Bosselmann, University of Auckland, New Zealand Local Climate Change Law examines the role of local government, especially within cities, in addressing climate change through legal, policy, planning and other tools. This timely study offers a multi-jurisdictional perspective, featuring international contributors who examine both theoretical and practical dimensions of how localities are addressing climate mitigation and adaptation in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, South Africa and the United States, as well as considering the place of localities in global climate law agreements and transnational networks. Written from a multi-disciplinary perspective, this book will appeal to academics, post graduate and undergraduate students in law and political science, local and national government policy makers and politicians, as well as practising local government lawyers. Anyone with a general interest in environmental issues will also find much to interest them in this insightful study.
"Climate Change : Changing Dimensions of Law And Policy" analyzes the global legal response to Climate change. Different chapters have thrown light on the policies, rules, regulations issued by different countries especially India on Climate Change. It covers the adequacy, deficiencies and challenges associated with Climate Change policy. Book is written in a simple language to cater to the mainstream readers. First chapter talks about development of international climate change regime ad India's role in international Climate change discourse. Subsequent chapters highlight global response to climate change by discussing various policies and legislation on Solid waste, Renewable energy, solar policy etc. Finally, book brings the response of civil sector to climate change. It discusses Green Consumerism and response of mainstream India especially the middle class to climate change policies
Climate Change already having serious impacts on the lives of millions of people across the world. These impacts are not only ecological, but also social, economic and legal. Among the most significant of such impacts is climate change-induced migration. The implications of this on human rights raise pressing questions, which require serious scholarly reflection. Drawing together experts in this field, Climate Change, Migration and Human Rights offers a fresh perspective on human rights law and policy issues in the climate change regime by examining the interrelationships between various aspects of human rights, climate change and migration. Three key themes are explored: understanding the concepts of human dignity, human rights and human security; the theoretical nexus between human rights, climate change and migration or displacement; and the practical implications and challenges for lawyers and policy-makers of protecting human dignity in the face of climate change and displacement. The book also includes a series of case studies from Alaska, Bangladesh, Kenya and the Pacific islands which aim to improve our understanding of the theoretical and practical implications of climate change for human rights and migration. This book will be of great interest to scholars of environmental law and policy, human rights law, climate change, and migration and refugee studies.
This Study explores arguments about the impact of climate change on human rights, examining the international legal frameworks governing human rights and climate change and identifying the relevant synergies and tensions between them. It considers arguments about (i) the human rights impacts of climate change at a macro level and how these impacts are spread disparately across countries; (ii) how climate change impacts human rights enjoyment within states and the equity and discrimination dimensions of those disparate impacts; and (iii) the role of international legal frameworks and mechanisms, including human rights instruments, particularly in the context of supporting developing countries’ adaptation efforts. The Study surveys the interface of human rights and climate change from the perspective of public international law. It builds upon the work that has been carried out on this interface by reviewing the legal issues it raises and complementing existing analyses by providing a comprehensive legal overview of the area and a focus on obligations upon States and other actors connected with climate change. The objective has therefore been to contribute to the global debate on climate change and human rights by offering a review of the legal dimensions of this interface as well as a survey of the sources of public international law potentially relevant to climate change and human rights in order to facilitate an understanding of what is meant, in legal terms, by “human rights impacts of climate change” and help identify ways in which international law can respond to this interaction.

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