The Application of International Law by the International Court of Justice, Judge Abdul G. Koroma; Prevention and International Law,M. Mohamed Bennouna; International Dispute Resolution, With Specific Attention to China,Christine Chinkin
The past forty years have seen a wide proliferation of disputes under international law concerning cultural heritage. These have included the restitution of stolen art objects or the protection of monuments. Unlike other fields of international law, international cultural heritage law does not have an ad hoc mechanism of dispute settlement. As a result, controversies are to be settled through negotiation or, if it fails, through existing dispute resolution means. This can result in similar cases being settled in different ways, thereby bringing about an incoherent and fragmentary enforcement of the law. This book offers a comprehensive and innovative analysis of the settlement of cultural heritage disputes. This examination is two-fold. First, it assesses the existing legal framework and the available dispute settlement means. Second, it explores the feasibility of two solutions for overcoming the lack of a specialized forum. The first is the establishment of a new international court. The second concerns existing judicial and extra-judicial fora and their interaction through the practice of 'cross-fertilization'. The book focuses on the substance of such interaction, and identifies a number of culturally-sensitive parameters (the 'common rules of adjudication'). It argues that existing judicial and non-judicial fora should adopt a cross-fertilizing perspective to use and disseminate jurisprudence containing these common rules of adjudication. It sets out how such an approach would enhance the effectiveness and coherence of decision-making processes and would be conducive to the development of a lex culturalis. This can be defined as a composite body of rules designed to protect cultural heritage by excluding the mechanical application of the norms established for standard business transactions of ordinary goods.
This volume contains the report of the International Law Commission on the work of its fifty-fourth session (29 April - 7 June and 22 July - 16 August 2002). The issues discussed at that session included: reservations to treaties, diplomatic protection, unilateral acts of States, state responsibility, and international liability for injurious consequences arising out of acts not prohibited by international law, and responsibilities of international organisations.
This book assesses whether a new category of religious actors has been constructed within international law. Religious actors, through their interpretations of the religion(s) they are associated with, uphold and promote, or indeed may transform, potentially oppressive structures or discriminatory patterns. This study moves beyond the concern that religious texts and practices may be incompatible with international law, to provide an innovative analysis of how religious actors themselves are accountable under international law for the interpretations they choose to put forward. The book defines religious actors as comprising religious states, international organizations, and non-state entities that assume the role of interpreting religion and so claim a 'special' legitimacy anchored in tradition or charisma. Cutting across the state / non-state divide, this definition allows the full remit of religious bodies to be investigated. It analyses the crucial question of whether religious actors do in fact operate under different international legal norms to non-religious states, international organizations, or companies. To that end, the Holy See-Vatican, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and churches and religious organizations under the European Convention on Human Rights regime are examined in detail as case studies. The study ultimately establishes that religious actors cannot be seen to form an autonomous legal category under international law: they do not enjoy special or exclusive rights, nor incur lesser obligations, when compared to their respective non-religious peers. Going forward, it concludes that a process of two-sided legitimation may be at stake: religious actors will need to provide evidence for the legality of their religious interpretations to strengthen their legitimacy, and international law itself may benefit from religious actors fostering its legitimacy in different cultural contexts.
The Law of Open Societies — Private Ordering and Public Regulation of International Relations. General Course on Private International Law by J. Basedow, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law.
The Treaty of Lisbon (2009) has brought foreign direct investment (FDI) within the scope of the European Union's common commercial policy (CCP). In light of this development, this book analyses the internal and external dimension of EU law and policy in the field of FDI. It takes four perspectives: (i) the operation of the internal market mechanism to direct investment; (ii) the implications of the Lisbon amendments to the CCP under Article 207 TFEU for the Union's competence and practice in the field of FDI; (iii) the interaction between EU law and Member States' bilateral investment treaties (BITs) with third countries; (iv) the interplay between EU law and BITs that are currently in force between two Member States (intra-EU BITs). The book focuses on the extent to which the European Union operates as a Single Market for EU and non-EU investors. In doing so, it analyses the EU and international regulatory framework on the admission, treatment and protection of FDI within, to and from the Single European Market. It uses close jurisprudential analysis and examines the context, purpose and evolution of EU legal integration in the field of FDI. It thereby traces the principles underlying the European international economic order in the field of FDI.
The vast majority of all international judicial decisions have been issued since 1990. This increasing activity of international courts over the past two decades is one of the most significant developments within the international law. It has repercussions on all levels of governance and has challenged received understandings of the nature and legitimacy of international courts. It was previously held that international courts are simply instruments of dispute settlement, whose activities are justified by the consent of the states that created them, and in whose name they decide. However, this understanding ignores other important judicial functions, underrates problems of legitimacy, and prevents a full assessment of how international adjudication functions, and the impact that it has demonstrably had. This book proposes a public law theory of international adjudication, which argues that international courts are multifunctional actors who exercise public authority and therefore require democratic legitimacy. It establishes this theory on the basis of three main building blocks: multifunctionality, the notion of an international public authority, and democracy. The book aims to answer the core question of the legitimacy of international adjudication: in whose name do international courts decide? It lays out the specific problem of the legitimacy of international adjudication, and reconstructs the common critiques of international courts. It develops a concept of democracy for international courts that makes it possible to constructively show how their legitimacy is derived. It argues that ultimately international courts make their decisions, even if they do not know it, in the name of the peoples and the citizens of the international community.
The international community has long grappled with the issue of safeguarding the environment and encouraging sustainable development, often with little result. The 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development was an emphatic attempt to address this issue, setting down 27 key principles for the international community to follow. These principles define the rights of people to sustainable development, and the responsibilities of states to safeguard the common environment. The Rio Declaration established that long term economic progress required a connection to environmental protection. It was designed as an authoritative and comprehensive statement of the principles of sustainable development law, an instrument to take stock of the past international and domestic practice, a guide for the design of new multilateral environmental regimes, and as a reference for litigation. This commentary provides an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the principles of the Declaration, written by over thirty inter-disciplinary contributors, including both leading practitioners and academics. Each principle is analysed in light of its origins and rationale. The book investigates each principle's travaux préparatoires setting out the main points of controversy and the position of different countries or groups. It analyses the scope and dimensions of each principle, providing an in-depth understanding of its legal effects, including whether it can be relied before a domestic or international court. It also assesses the impact of the principles on subsequent soft law and treaty development, as well as domestic and international jurisprudence. The authors demonstrate the ways in which the principles interact with each other, and finally provide a detailed analysis of the shortcomings and future potential of each principle. This book will be of vital importance to practitioners, scholars, and students of international environomental law and sustainable development.
States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.
This books maps out the territory of international law and religion challenging receiving traditions in fundamental aspects. On the one hand, the connection of international law and religion has been little explored. On the other, most of current research on international legal thought presents international law as the very victory of secularization. By questioning that narrative of secularization this book approaches these traditions from a new perspective. From the Middle Ages' early conceptualizations of rights and law to contemporary political theory, the chapters bring to life debates concerning the interaction of the meaning of the legal and the sacred. The contributors approach their chapters from an array of different backgrounds and perspectives but with the common objective of investigating the mutually shaping relationship of religion and law. The collaborative endeavour that this volume offers makes available substantial knowledge on the question of international law and religion.
The Global Horizon of Private International Law, by J. H. A. van Loon, Former Secretary General of The Hague Conference.L'arbitrage dans l'espace OHADA, par P.-G. Pougou�, professeur �m�rite � l'universit� de Yaound� II.The Quest for Legal Certainty in International Civil Cases, by T. Kruger, Professor at the University of Antwerp.
The Environment, Risk and Liability in International Law explains the important role liability plays in risk management and environmental protection in the realm of International Law.
This student-friendly textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to globalization studies and the European Union within a multipolar world. It provides its readers with critical analysis of the key concepts of multilateral global and regional governance and Europe’s role in the world; and this in an accessible and intelligible fashion. This volume collects contributions by eminent scholars from world class universities from five different continents. As such, this unique exercise in transnational multi-disciplinary cooperation, provides extensive coverage of the main issues pertaining to multilateral cooperation - notably its history, troubles, legitimacy challenges and efficiency questions - from a variety of national perspectives. The book covers the major issues confronting students of European and global studies, amongst which: pressing security challenges, new forms of institutionalized cooperation, shifting international trade flows, the notion of responsibility to protect, social imbalances and environmental emergencies, the need for less contingent forms of legitimacy for global regulation, as well as global public opinion and transnational civil society networks. Each chapter includes a summary of its salient points; methodological indications; illuminating illustrations; and a suggested list for further reading. This textbook strives to help students develop a better and more secure grasp of the innovative balance between interdisciplinary openness and disciplinary rigor when engaging with global governance studies, comparative regionalism, normative studies, international political economy or international law.
Since its inception, the European Union (EU) has revised its foundational treaties several times, resulting in national ratification processes involving different actors, with varying success. This book focuses on the politics of ratification of EU Treaties and reviews the processes of ratification of EU primary legislation. Existing research and academic debate on EU constitutional politics have almost exclusively focussed on negotiation of new treaties and their institutional setting. However, this book explains how the result of ratification was achieved, and analyses the strategy that actors pursue across Europe. Ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht and the EU Constitution failed totally, whilst other ratification can be considered partial failures such as the Irish Nice and Lisbon referendums. As the EU Constitution has proved, the ratification process may have deep effects unforeseen during the processes of negotiation. In recent years, ratification has produced some of the most intense debates on national membership of the EU and the EU itself. The Politics of Ratification of EU Treaties will be of interest to students and researchers of European Studies, European Union studies, European Union Law and European Union Politics.
Bruno Simma, the dedicatee of the book, was born in Querschied (Saar) in 1941. After a distinguished career in international law and diplomacy, serving, among others, in the UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights as well as the International Law Committee, he was elected judge of the International Court of Justice, or World Court, in 2001.
Domestic Application of International Law, by Y. Iwasawa, Professor at the University of Tokyo;The Internet - Privacy and Rights relating to Personality, by J. Carrascosa González, Professor at the University of Murcia.
A general introduction to the basic concepts and principles of the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Fabian Novak: The System of Reparations in the Jurisprudence of the Interamerican Court of Human Rights; Georg Nolte: Treaties and their Practice, Symptoms of their Rise or Decline