The subject matter of this book – what happens in schools, the effects of curriculum change, the reasons why some children are successful and others are not – explains just why the sociology of education is one of the most important areas to achieve political importance. There are five sections to the book covering: Educational Achievement; Educational Provision; The Organization of the School; Roles in the School and Values and Learning. The editor discusses the implications of the material presented (much of which was available for the first time when this book was originally published).
This book explores the complex social assumptions and values that underlie research programmes about schools. The analysis of educational research draws upon American and European scholarships in the sociology of knowledge, social philosophy and the history and sociology of science. The discussion considers first the communal, crafts and social characteristics of educational research. Three research models empirical-analytic, symbolic or linguistic and critical sciences are given attention. The discussion of the three research models is to illuminate how the constellation of commitments, assumptions and practices inter-relate to perform a paradigm giving different and conflicting definitions to the meaning of educational theory and to the use of the particular techniques of enquiry. The social role of educational research and the researcher is also considered.
This book reviews the educational experience of the 1960s and 1970s and to suggest ways of approaching major contemporary themes such as equality, accountability and standards. The author underlines a nineteenth and twentieth-century sociological tradition in analysing education and covers a range of educational themes including aspects of schooling and higher education, education as social policy, knowledge as power, and teaching and adolescence. He draws on the social history of many of the processes, concepts and debates. Parts of the book derive from research into the history and contemporary forms of these problems in the USA. The volume therefore illuminates important contemporary issues in education and society by using historical, sociological and comparative insights.
The role of language is central in education – but there is much debate about the exact relation between children’s language and their educational success. The author provides a clear guide to the basic issues in the debates over language deficit, standard English and classroom language, and in this edition he shows how work in sociolinguistics can give a better understanding of the place of language in education and society.
This book presents a series of research biographies based on research experiences in the study of educational settings. The main aim is to provide a set of first person accounts on doing research that combine analysis with description. The contributors have been drawn from the disciplines of sociology and educational studies and have all conducted ethnographic work or case studies in a variety of educational settings.
This is an introduction to interactionist work in education during the 1970s and 80s. The interactionist viewpoint concentrates on how people construct meanings in the ebb and flow of everyday life – what they think and do, how they react to one another – and has in recent years established itself as one of the leading approaches in education. It has generated illuminating research studies which, by being firmly based in the real world of teaching and dealing with the fine-grained details of school life, have helped to break down the barriers between teacher and researcher. This volume presents the results of this valuable work, within a coherent theoretical framework, by focusing on the major interactionist concepts of situation, perspectives, cultures, strategies, negotiation and careers. By bringing them together in this way, the author demonstrates their collective potential for the deeper understanding of school life and the possibilities for sociological theory. His book therefore offers both a summary of and a reflection on achievement in the area of interactionism as it relates to schools.
The editors have compiled this critical and comparative study of changes which took place in the New Zealand education system in the second half of the twentieth century. For other Western societies who have felt the impact of New Right policies the New Zealand case is interesting because it provides some indication of how policies of decentralization in education might be used to develop egalitarian and democratic educational policies. In recent years there have been major changes to educational systems in the Western world. Often these changes have been justified by reference to successful educational practices in other countries. However, it is not always possible simply to abstract educational practices from one context and apply them in another successfully. Moreover claims that policies in one country are more successful than those in another have to be treated cautiously: there are always problems in making valid comparisons between the educational performances of different countries. It is important, therefore, that critical and comparative studies are made of educational systems which take full account of the contexts in which they are embedded.
What unites the contributors to this book is an opposition to Thatcherite policies on education and an agreement upon the need for the development of democracy in education. This volume highlights the importance of an area of neglected theoretical and practical concern: the development of a critique of the philosophy and policies of the new Right, and of credible alternative policies.
What do pupils actually do in school? There are remarkably few studies that take the pupils’ perspective and reconstruct experience from their point of view within the context of their own cultures and careers. This volume brings together a number of research studies on various aspects of how pupils cope with schools. The theoretical papers consider amongst other issues a developmental model of the growth of pupil strategies based on primary and secondary socialisation; a discussion of ‘interactionist empiricism’ which argues for co-ordinated research between micro and macro perspectives and an extended overview of the general sociological background of work on teacher and pupil strategies. The empirical articles consider a number of themes ranging from strategies employed in answering teacher questions to the power and influence of the pupil peer group in the development of attitudes and behaviour.
The sociology of education has been at the forefront of new developments in sociological theory. This book examines and criticizes a number of these new developments and discusses some empirical work on issues of current concern. One of the few books that integrates radical and critical sociology into the field of education, it deals with the resultant difficulties. The topics covered include cultural deprivation, ideologies in education, classrooms, the teaching profession and the history of women’s education.
Although the different contributions to this book range over a wide spectrum of substantive issues, they share a common interest. This is a concern to explore the ways in which notions of the relations between theory and practice, between belief and action, can be used to develop three kinds of sensitivity in the sociology of education. A sensitivity towards how school systems are created, maintained and made to function; towards developing a more refined, critical and constructive awareness of the reliability and validity of descriptions, analyses and explanations offered in this field of study; and a sensitivity towards the ways in which changes take place within the education system and how the insights and realisations generated in the discipline might be used to control such occurrences.
Aimed at the layperson, this book discusses education for the man or woman in the street and the advantages to society of having an educated population, with the aim of not just convincing people of the importance of education but persuading them to take participate actively in education.
Until this book was published, most writing on special education was about specific disabilities and how to cope with them. This book, however, considers the broader context, looking at many problems for the wider system that have arisen through integration of special education within it. The book is international and comparative in its focus and includes much North American material and work by North American researchers.
This volume considers how various sociological approaches to the exploration of the conditions of teachers’ might be co-ordinated so as to produce a more penetrating and reliable understanding of the main dimensions of teachers’ work. Three dimensions are selected for special attention: historical, institutional and interactional contexts in which teachers operate. In different way the papers in this collection explore the contribution such an investigation of these contexts can make to our understanding of wider educational concerns.
The internal organisation of the school touches on many areas of contemporary debate. Is there such a thing as a ‘good school’? Are large urban comprehensives necessarily impersonal? Are the charges of indiscipline, conflict and declining standards in modern schools based on a failure to understand schools as institutions? At the time this book was first published sociological analysis had neglected to consider schools as organisational entities, preferring to see them as either the sites for negotiated encounters between teachers and pupils or else as agencies of class reproduction. The author redresses this imbalance and by relating the various literatures on the school to the constitutive patterns of its internal organisation he demonstrates the need for a more intensive sociological study of this embattled institution.
The purpose of this book is to explore the social location and contradictions of social science. It is to probe how social assumptions, cultural location and political interests become intricately tied to conceptual, procedural and design questions. These issues are given focus through case studies in American and the former Soviet pedagogical research and evaluation, particularly the Russian Vygotski traditions. These research communities provide a specific historical context to consider the larger sociological issues of social science and the social role of the intellectual. Because of the general and specific focus, the book has different publics. It is directed to professionals, academics and students interested in critical analyses of social institutions. The researcher is considered a social type who is located in the general dynamics and represents interests of society. This book is also designed as an introductory text for courses in research methods. The focus on paradigms enables a consideration of the interrelation of questions, concepts and data gathering procedures. While written before the current policy focus on science on randomized studies and ‘scientific evidence”, the discussion provides a corrective to limitations of such thinking about research. It illustrates research as a complex process in which particular data collecting techniques assume meaning and significance only in relation to the assumptions of the larger intellectual traditions in which the techniques are applied.
Kulturen sind keine monolithischen Blöcke. Sie sind hybrid, setzen sich also aus Elementen verschiedenster Herkunft zusammen und bringen aus ihnen Neues hervor. Das DFG-Schwerpunktprogramm "Integration und Desintegration der Kulturen im europäischen Mittelalter" hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Geschichte Europas im Mittelalter vom permanenten Kontakt und Austausch her zu denken und die sich daraus ergebenden Prozesse kultureller Innovationen zu analysieren. Auf einer "International Spring School" im April 2008 präsentierte sich das Schwerpunktprogramm einer breiten wissenschaftlichen Öffentlichkeit. Der Band vereint die dort gehaltenen Vorträge und Workshops. Das Phänomen der Hybridität von Kulturen und die Differenzen der mittelalterlichen Welt zwischen Island und der Levante, zwischen Skandinavien und Nordafrika werden aus den Blickwinkeln verschiedener Disziplinen (Byzantinistik, Skandinavistik, Mediävistik, Germanistik, Kunstgeschichte, Orientalistik, Judaistik, Osteuropäische Geschichte) und Wissenschaftsnationen (Ungarn, Italien, Niederlande, Russland, Frankreich, Israel, Griechenland, USA, Island, Deutschland) beleuchtet. Mit Beiträgen von Cyril Aslanov, Nora Berend, Michael Borgolte, Corinna Bottiglieri, Krijnie Ciggaar, Wolfram Drews, Ásdis Egilsdóttir, Almut Höfert, Benjamin Z. Kedar, Christian Kiening, Gábor Klaniczay, Karin Krause, Hartmut Kugler, Svetlana Luchitsky, Marina Münkler, Robert Ousterhout, Juliane Schiel, Jean-Claude Schmitt, Bernd Schneidmüller, Annette Seitz, Apostolos Spanos, John Tolan, Gia Toussaint und Nektarios Zarras.
Are the disciplines of education ghosts of a productive past or creative and useful forms of inquiry? Are they in a demographic and organisational crisis today? The contribution of the ‘foundation disciplines’ of sociology, psychology, philosophy, history and economics to the study of education has always been contested in the UK and in much of the English-speaking world. But such debates are now being brought to a head in education by the demographic crisis. Recent research has shown that with the an ageing population of education academics, in ten years' time, there could be very few disciplinary specialists left working within faculties of education in UK universities. But does that matter and is the UK no more than a special case? How does this ‘crisis’ look from Europe where the disciplines of education are more embedded, and from the USA with its more diverse higher education system? In this book, leading scholars – including A.H. Halsey, David Bridges, John Furlong, Hugh Lauder, Martin Lawn and Sheldon Rothblatt – consider the changing fortunes of each discipline as education moved away from the dominance of psychology in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s as a result of the growing importance of the other disciplines and new social questions, and how the changing epistemological and political debates of the last twenty years haves resulted in their progressive demise. Finally, the book confronts the question as to whether the disciplines have a place in education in the twenty-first century. The book brings the coming crisis into the public view and explores the issue of the past, current and future relevance of the disciplines to the study of education. It will be of interest to all international academics and researchers in the field of education and the contributory disciplines as well as to students on educational research methods courses.
This latest volume in the World Yearbook of Education Series focuses on a major and highly significant development in the governing of education across the globe: the use of knowledge-based technologies as key policy sources.? A combination of factors has produced this shift: first, the massive expansion of technological capacity signalled by the arrival of ‘big data’ that allows for the collection, circulation and processing of extensive system knowledge. The rise of data has been observed and discussed extensively, but its role in governing and the rise of comparison as a basis for action is now a determining practice in the field of education.? Comparison provides the justification for ‘modernising’ policy in education, both in the developed and developing world, as national policy makers (selectively) seek templates of success from the high performers and demand solutions to apparent underperformance through the adoption of the policies favoured by the likes of Singapore, Finland and Korea. In parallel, the growth of particular forms of expertise: the rise and rise of educational consultancy, the growth of private (for profit) involvement in provision of educational goods and services and the increasing consolidation of networks of influence in the promotion of ‘best practice’ are affecting policy decisions. Through these developments, the nature of knowledge is altered, along with the relationship between knowledge and politics. Knowledge in this context is co-constructed: it is not disciplinary knowledge, but knowledge that emerges in the sharing of experience. This book provides a global snapshot of a changing educational world by giving detailed examples of a fundamental shift in the governing and practice of education learning by: •???????????? Assessing approaches to the changing nature of comparative knowledge and information •???????????? Tracking the translation and mobilisation of these knowledges in the governing of education/learning; •???????????? Identification of the key experts and knowledge producers/circulators/translators and analysis of how best to understand their influence; •???????????? Mapping of the global production of these knowledges in terms of their range and reach the interrelationships of actors and their effects in different national settings. Drawing on material from around the world, the book brings together scholars from different backgrounds? who provide a tapestry of examples of the global production and national reception and mediation of these knowledges? and who show how change enters different national spaces and consider their effects in different national settings.
Central to most sociologists’ self-image is the claim that their theories are based on research. However, using a random sample of 680 articles appearing in major American, British and Canadian journals, Dr Menzies shows that in some areas of sociology the wide gap between theory and research means that much of sociological theory is virtually untested. He explains how theory is embodied in eight particular types of research, critically examines these research theories, and contrasts them with the positions of modern theorists. The sample of journal articles also permits a comparison of British, American and Canadian sociology. By contrasting on how researchers us theories, Dr Menzies is able to reassess several theories. For instance, symbolic interactionist research uses embedded causal claims and stands in a dialectical relationship to other sociological research, while the research version of conflict theory depends on external causes to explain social change. The implications of using statistical techniques like factor analysis and regression are also considered in relation to the form of explanation.