National Olympic Games were more closely connected with the Ancient Greek ideal than the modern international Olympic Games of de Coubertin. Moreover, such national or regional Olympic Games have not only been precursors for the international Olympic Games but also they have been further developed parallel with the international Olympic Movement - even in the 20th century, in Europe, in North and South America and in Asia. In the emerging nation states of Europe, both before as well as after the turn of the century, these national Olympic Games had a more important function (identity-forming) than the Olympic Games.
Sport and peacemaking have evolved. It is no longer the case that the Olympic Games and war games exist in isolation from each other. Increasingly, policymakers, peacekeepers, athletes, development workers, presidents of nations and others combine forces in an "integrated" approach towards peace. This approach is located not only within the broader, historically evolved Olympic Movement but also in relation to a newly emerged social movement which promotes development and peace through sport. This book critically examines the ways in which this development is being played out at global, national and local levels, particularly in relation to the Olympic Movement and initiatives such as the biennial Olympic Truce Resolution. The volume constitutes a unique scholarly attempt to provide an in-depth comparative analysis of the sport of peacemaking in the context of the Olympic Movement. Through international comparison and empirically grounded case studies, the book provides an important new departure in the study of the social impact of the Olympic Movement and related peacemaking efforts. It discusses these issues from a range of academic disciplines, including history, sociology, political science, economics, geography, philosophy and international relations. This book was previously published as a special issue of Sport in Society.
The Olympic Games: A Social Science Perspective presents a broad, multi-disciplinary account of all things Olympic from the relationship of the modern to the ancient games, to the possible future of the grandest of athletic spectacles. This extended new edition covers the Olympic phenomenon from political, economical and sociological perspectives, from its history and the media to commercialism and drug use. Its detailed analyses and extensive bibliography make it essential reading for researchers and students in leisure and sports studies.
This is a study of masculinity as a metaphor and especially of the muscular male body as a moral symbol. It explores the Nazi's preoccupation with the male body as an icon of political power, and the ideology and theories which propelled it.
Aimed at both teachers and students in schools and colleges, as well as instructors, coaches, and managers in youth sports, this book examines the 'Olympic ideal' in modern sports education.
Sport and physical education represent important components of German national life, from school and community participation, to elite, international level sport. This unique and comprehensive collection brings together material from leading German scholars to examine the role of sport and PE in Germany from a range of historical and contemporary perspectives. Key topics include: * sport and PE in pre-war, post war and re-unified Germany * sport and PE in schools * coach education * elite sport and sport science * women and sport * sport and recreation facilities. This book offers an illuminating insight into how sport and PE have helped to shape Germany. It represents fascinating reading for anyone with an interest in the history and sociology of sport, and those working in German studies.
One of the more problematic sport spectacles in American history took place at the 1904 World?s Fair in St. Louis, which included the third modern Olympic Games. Associated with the Games was a curious event known as Anthropology Days organized by William J. McGee and James Sullivan, at that time the leading figures in American anthropology and sports, respectively. McGee recruited Natives who were participating in the fair?s ethnic displays to compete in sports events, with the ?scientific? goal of measuring the physical prowess of ?savages? as compared with ?civilized men.? This interdisciplinary collection of essays assesses the ideas about race, imperialism, and Western civilization manifested in the 1904 World?s Fair and Olympic Games and shows how they are still relevant. A turning point in both the history of the Olympics and the development of modern anthropology, these games expressed the conflict between the Old World emphasis on culture and New World emphasis on utilitarianism. Marked by Franz Boas?s paper at the Scientific Congress, the events in St. Louis witnessed the beginning of the shift in anthropological research from nineteenth-century evolutionary racial models to the cultural relativist paradigm that is now a cornerstone of modern American anthropology. Racist pseudoscience nonetheless reappears to this day in the realm of sports.
The International Olympic Committee began its fight against performance-enhancing drugs nearly four decades ago. Testing has become increasingly more sophisticated, but the problem is far from being eliminated. Doping in Elite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movementaddresses the challenges and complexities of the issue. The text, edited by Wayne Wilson, PhD, and Edward Derse, is based on papers presented at the 1998 conference, Doping in Elite Sport,and includes: -a basic scientific explanation of how performance-enhancing substances improve performance and how banned substances are detected; -a critical examination of the failure to control doping in the Olympic movement; -a historical timeline of drug use in sport; -evaluations of the philosophical and ethical issues of drug testing; -the international politics of combatting drug use in sport; and -insight as to how three very different countries have handled the issue of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Part I,“The Science of Doping,” provides the reader with a basic scientific explanation of how banned substances can improve performance, the process of drug testing, and the detection of athletes' drug use. This section also offers a recommended protocol for drug testing and critiques the differences between the ideal and actual testing practices Part II,“The History, Ethics, and Social Context of Doping,” reviews the complex social and cultural issues surrounding doping. A thorough chronology of performance-enhancing drug use in sport precedes discussions of the ethical and cultural dimensions of the issue. Included is a comparative analysis of how Canada, Russia, and China - three very different countries - have responded to doping scandals involving their athletes. Part III,“The Politics of Doping,” critically examines the effectiveness of the IOC and the international sport federations in administering campaigns against doping. Lack of political will, financial interests, and uncooperative bureaucracies all have hindered effective enforcement. The first anthology on performance-enhancing drugs in sport, Doping in Elite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movementis a critical examination of the failure to control the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs in the international sports arena. It provides an extensive overview of the real issues in the battle against doping in international sport.
The collection starts from the premise that Olympism and the Olympic Games make sense only when they are placed within the broader national, colonial and post colonial contexts and argues that sport not only influences politics and vice-versa, but that the two are inseparable. Sport is not only political; it is politics. It is also culture and art. This collaboration is a first in global publishing, a mine of information for scholars, students and analysts. It demonstrates that Olympism and the Olympic movement in the modern context has been, and continues to be, socially relevant and politically important. Studies focus on national encounters with Olympism and the Olympic movement, with equal attention paid to document the growing nexus between sports and the media; sports reportage; as well as women and sports. Olympism asserts that the Olympic movement was, and is, of central importance to twentieth and twenty-first century societies. Finally, the collection demonstrates that the essence of Olympism and the Olympic movement is important only in so far as it affects societies surrounding it. This book was published as a special issue of the International Journal of the History of Sport.
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In 1973, Wilson Carey McWilliams (1933Ð2005) published The Idea of Fraternity in America, a groundbreaking book that argued for an alternative to AmericaÕs dominant philosophy of liberalism. This alternative tradition emphasized that community and fraternal bonds were as vital to the process of maintaining political liberty as was individual liberty. McWilliams expanded on this idea throughout his prolific career as a teacher, writer, and activist, promoting a unique definition of American democracy. In The Democratic Soul: A Wilson Carey McWilliams Reader, editors Patrick J. Deneen and Susan J. McWilliams, daughter of the famed intellectual, have assembled key essays, articles, reviews, and lectures that trace McWilliamsÕs evolution as a scholar and explain his often controversial views on education, religion, and literature. The book also showcases his thoughts and opinions on prominent twentieth-century figures such as George Orwell and Leo Strauss. The first comprehensive volume of Wilson Carey McWilliamsÕ collected writings, The Democratic Soul will be welcomed by scholars of political science and American political thought as a long-overdue contribution to the field.
In recent years concern has been growing ab out the preservation ofworld peace, while over the past few decades there has been a vast increase in the amount of international sporting activity and hence more opportunities to advance international understanding and peace. It is this situation which caused the Congress on Sport and International Understanding to be convened, the idea for it ftrst having arisen after the Helsinki Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1975. The venue for the Congress was, as for the Conference on Security and Co-operation, Finlandia Hall. It was held under the auspices ofthe International Council ofSport and Physica1 Educa tion (ICSPE) and was organised by the Finnish member organisations, the Finnish Society for Research in Sport and Physica1 Education (organising association), Finnish Central Sport Federation (SVUL) and the Workers' Sport Federation (TUL). The aim ofthe Congress was to analyse the role of sport in advancing international understanding and to promote research in this fteld. In addition, the Congress wished to offer researchers and those involved in sporting activities an opportunity to exchange ideas about the themes under discussion. The aim of the Congress was to fmd the answers to the following questions: 1. What forms does international co-operation take in present-day competitive and top-level sport, sports for all and other forms of physica1 culture? What is its histo rica1 background and future? 2.
This book is largely a collection of the papers presented at the symposium Olympism, Olympic Education and Learning Legacies, organised by the Comité Internationale Pierre de Coubertin (CIPC). It was held during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at Canterbury Christ Church University in Kent, United Kingdom. The symposium drew together presenters and audience members from twenty-five nations on four continents to discuss current and future challenges of education and the Olympic Movement. While most books on the Olympics focus on economic issues or on aspects related to the management of the Games (such as legacies and impacts), this book remains faithful to Coubertin’s original vision about youth, sport and education. Olympism as a philosophical and educational idea is analysed in particular detail. Coubertin’s thoughts play a central role in many of the contributions of leading academics in the field, while historical perspectives unveil new insights. Young researchers are given a platform to publish their own accounts in interpreting the Olympics. The different insights of the book have something to offer to anyone with an interest in sport, education, and the Olympic Movement, either as a student, teacher, academic, athlete, coach or spectator.
Why is hosting the Olympic Games so important to China? What is the significance of a quintessential symbol of Western civilization taking place in the heart of the Far East? Will the Olympics change China, or will China change the Olympics? Susan Brownell sets the historical and cultural contexts for the 2008 Beijing Olympics Games by placing it within the context of China's hundred-year engagement with the Olympic movement to illuminate what the Games mean to China and what the Beijing Olympic Games will mean for China's relationship with the outside world. Brownell's deeply informed analysis ranges from nineteenth-century orientalism to Cold War politics and post-Cold War _China bashing._ Drawing on her more than two decades of engagement in Chinese sports, the author presents evocative stories and first-person accounts to paint a human picture of the passion that many Chinese people feel for the Olympic Games. It will also be essential reading for journalists and sports enthusiasts who want to understand the fascinating story behind the Beijing Olympics.
Written by a number of expert scholars from around the world, including China itself, with the aim of extending knowledge and taking the cross-cultural study of PE and sport beyond the descriptive level, this book provides unique and up to date material. Subjects covered include: *ancient and modern history *structure, administration and finance *PE in schools and colleges *elite sport *sport science and medicine *gender issues. Anyone wishing to gain an insight into the PE and sporting experience of Chinese citizens both in historical and contemporary society will find this book essential reading. It is an indispensable resource for students taking comparative sport studies courses, sports historians, and academics with a general interest in the cross-cultural field.
This Great Symbol is the definitive study of the origins of the modern Olympic Games and of their founder, Pierre de Coubertin, whose ideological stamp the Olympics still bear. Behind this fascinating blend of biography and history lies an impressive framework of cultural, social, and psychological theories skilfully employed to interpret the creation and symbolism of the modern Olympic Games. Hailed as both a classic in sport history and as a paradigmatic study in the anthropology of the past, This Great Symbol helped launch the new collaboration between historians and cultural anthropologists that continues to mark the human sciences worldwide. For this 25th anniversary edition, Professor MacAloon adds a new preface evaluating subsequent scholarship on Coubertin and the Olympic origins and a highly personal afterword describing the impact of This Great Symbol on his own subsequent career as an Olympic anthropologist and cultural performance theory. This book was published as a special issue of the International Journal of the History of Sport.
The Olympic Games have become the definitive sports event, with an unparalleled global reach and a remarkably diverse constituency of stakeholders, from the IOC and International Federations to athletes, sponsors and fans. It has been estimated, for example, that 3.6 billion people (about half of the world population) watched at least one minute of the Beijing Games in 2008 on television. The driving force behind the rise of the modern Olympics has been the Olympic marketing programme, which has acted as a catalyst for cooperation between stakeholders and driven the promotion, financial security and stability of the Olympic movement. This book is the first to explain the principles of Olympic marketing and to demonstrate how they can be applied successfully in all other areas of sports marketing and management. The book outlines a strategic and operational framework based on three types of co-productive relationships (market, network and informal) and explains how this framework can guide professional marketing practice. Containing case studies, summaries, insight boxes and examples of best practice in every chapter, this book is important reading for all students and practitioners working in sports marketing, sports management or Olympic studies.
The concept of physical fitness is predominantly seen as condition. In this book a concept for «New Physical Fitness», namely «Motor Competence» is developed with four major aspects: sensory abilities, motor abilities/condition, motor abilities/coordination and body experience. First, historical, comparative, and status quo perspectives for physical fitness are analyzed. The future perspective is related to: aims, content, teaching methods and evaluation in regard to physical fitness presented in a new conceptual framework. Examples of existing physical fitness tests and proposals how to evaluate the «Motor Competence» are also included in this book. Thus the interested public is offered a comprehensive guide in order to develop motor competence in a broader and more holistic way, which is especially important for target groups often neglected in regard to motor competence like young children, handicapped people and seniors as well as for application in countries with largely different socio-economic and geographic-climatic background.