National Olympic Games were more closely connected with the Ancient Greek ideal than the modern international Olympic Games of de Coubertin. Moreover, such national or regional Olympic Games have not only been precursors for the international Olympic Games but also they have been further developed parallel with the international Olympic Movement - even in the 20th century, in Europe, in North and South America and in Asia. In the emerging nation states of Europe, both before as well as after the turn of the century, these national Olympic Games had a more important function (identity-forming) than the Olympic Games.
The Olympic Games: A Social Science Perspective presents a broad, multi-disciplinary account of all things Olympic from the relationship of the modern to the ancient games, to the possible future of the grandest of athletic spectacles. This extended new edition covers the Olympic phenomenon from political, economical and sociological perspectives, from its history and the media to commercialism and drug use. Its detailed analyses and extensive bibliography make it essential reading for researchers and students in leisure and sports studies.
This is a study of masculinity as a metaphor and especially of the muscular male body as a moral symbol. It explores the Nazi's preoccupation with the male body as an icon of political power, and the ideology and theories which propelled it.
Aimed at both teachers and students in schools and colleges, as well as instructors, coaches, and managers in youth sports, this book examines the 'Olympic ideal' in modern sports education.
Sport and physical education represent important components of German national life, from school and community participation, to elite, international level sport. This unique and comprehensive collection brings together material from leading German scholars to examine the role of sport and PE in Germany from a range of historical and contemporary perspectives. Key topics include: * sport and PE in pre-war, post war and re-unified Germany * sport and PE in schools * coach education * elite sport and sport science * women and sport * sport and recreation facilities. This book offers an illuminating insight into how sport and PE have helped to shape Germany. It represents fascinating reading for anyone with an interest in the history and sociology of sport, and those working in German studies.
Ceded to the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Paris after the Spanish-American War of 1898, Puerto Rico has since remained a colonial territory. Despite this subordinated colonial experience, however, Puerto Ricans managed to secure national Olympic representation in the 1930s and in so doing nurtured powerful ideas of nationalism. By examining how the Olympic movement developed in Puerto Rico, Antonio Sotomayor illuminates the profound role sports play in the political and cultural processes of an identity that evolved within a political tradition of autonomy rather than traditional political independence. Significantly, it was precisely in the Olympic arena that Puerto Ricans found ways to participate and show their national pride, often by using familiar colonial strictures—and the United States’ claim to democratic values—to their advantage. Drawing on extensive archival research, both on the island and in the United States, Sotomayor uncovers a story of a people struggling to escape the colonial periphery through sport and nationhood yet balancing the benefits and restraints of that same colonial status. The Sovereign Colony describes the surprising negotiations that gave rise to Olympic sovereignty in a colonial nation, a unique case in Latin America, and uses Olympic sports as a window to view the broader issues of nation building and identity, hegemony, postcolonialism, international diplomacy, and Latin American–U.S. relations.
One of the more problematic sport spectacles in American history took place at the 1904 World?s Fair in St. Louis, which included the third modern Olympic Games. Associated with the Games was a curious event known as Anthropology Days organized by William J. McGee and James Sullivan, at that time the leading figures in American anthropology and sports, respectively. McGee recruited Natives who were participating in the fair?s ethnic displays to compete in sports events, with the ?scientific? goal of measuring the physical prowess of ?savages? as compared with ?civilized men.? This interdisciplinary collection of essays assesses the ideas about race, imperialism, and Western civilization manifested in the 1904 World?s Fair and Olympic Games and shows how they are still relevant. A turning point in both the history of the Olympics and the development of modern anthropology, these games expressed the conflict between the Old World emphasis on culture and New World emphasis on utilitarianism. Marked by Franz Boas?s paper at the Scientific Congress, the events in St. Louis witnessed the beginning of the shift in anthropological research from nineteenth-century evolutionary racial models to the cultural relativist paradigm that is now a cornerstone of modern American anthropology. Racist pseudoscience nonetheless reappears to this day in the realm of sports.
The International Olympic Committee began its fight against performance-enhancing drugs nearly four decades ago. Testing has become increasingly more sophisticated, but the problem is far from being eliminated. Doping in Elite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movementaddresses the challenges and complexities of the issue. The text, edited by Wayne Wilson, PhD, and Edward Derse, is based on papers presented at the 1998 conference, Doping in Elite Sport,and includes: -a basic scientific explanation of how performance-enhancing substances improve performance and how banned substances are detected; -a critical examination of the failure to control doping in the Olympic movement; -a historical timeline of drug use in sport; -evaluations of the philosophical and ethical issues of drug testing; -the international politics of combatting drug use in sport; and -insight as to how three very different countries have handled the issue of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Part I,“The Science of Doping,” provides the reader with a basic scientific explanation of how banned substances can improve performance, the process of drug testing, and the detection of athletes' drug use. This section also offers a recommended protocol for drug testing and critiques the differences between the ideal and actual testing practices Part II,“The History, Ethics, and Social Context of Doping,” reviews the complex social and cultural issues surrounding doping. A thorough chronology of performance-enhancing drug use in sport precedes discussions of the ethical and cultural dimensions of the issue. Included is a comparative analysis of how Canada, Russia, and China - three very different countries - have responded to doping scandals involving their athletes. Part III,“The Politics of Doping,” critically examines the effectiveness of the IOC and the international sport federations in administering campaigns against doping. Lack of political will, financial interests, and uncooperative bureaucracies all have hindered effective enforcement. The first anthology on performance-enhancing drugs in sport, Doping in Elite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movementis a critical examination of the failure to control the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs in the international sports arena. It provides an extensive overview of the real issues in the battle against doping in international sport.
The Olympic Games have become the definitive sports event, with an unparalleled global reach and a remarkably diverse constituency of stakeholders, from the IOC and International Federations to athletes, sponsors and fans. It has been estimated, for example, that 3.6 billion people (about half of the world population) watched at least one minute of the Beijing Games in 2008 on television. The driving force behind the rise of the modern Olympics has been the Olympic marketing programme, which has acted as a catalyst for cooperation between stakeholders and driven the promotion, financial security and stability of the Olympic movement. This book is the first to explain the principles of Olympic marketing and to demonstrate how they can be applied successfully in all other areas of sports marketing and management. The book outlines a strategic and operational framework based on three types of co-productive relationships (market, network and informal) and explains how this framework can guide professional marketing practice. Containing case studies, summaries, insight boxes and examples of best practice in every chapter, this book is important reading for all students and practitioners working in sports marketing, sports management or Olympic studies.
This book explores the relationship between diplomatic discourse and the Olympic movement, charting both its continuity and change from an historical perspective.
Why is hosting the Olympic Games so important to China? What is the significance of a quintessential symbol of Western civilization taking place in the heart of the Far East? Will the Olympics change China, or will China change the Olympics? Susan Brownell sets the historical and cultural contexts for the 2008 Beijing Olympics Games by placing it within the context of China's hundred-year engagement with the Olympic movement to illuminate what the Games mean to China and what the Beijing Olympic Games will mean for China's relationship with the outside world. Brownell's deeply informed analysis ranges from nineteenth-century orientalism to Cold War politics and post-Cold War "China bashing." Drawing on her more than two decades of engagement in Chinese sports, the author presents evocative stories and first-person accounts to paint a human picture of the passion that many Chinese people feel for the Olympic Games. It will also be essential reading for journalists and sports enthusiasts who want to understand the fascinating story behind the Beijing Olympics.
From neighborhood coalitions organizing against the building of a sport facility for professional sports teams subsidized by public funds, to global campaigns for equity for women in sport, to worldwide bans of apartheid regimes, sites and levels of protest, resistance and activism have been present throughout the history of sport. Contentious forms of collective actions are now ever more present in various forms at the local, the national and the global levels. Sport and Social Movements: From the Local to the Global is the first book-length treatment of the way social movements have intersected and continue to intersect with sport. It traces the history of various social movements associated with labour, women, peace, the environment and rights (civil, racial, disability and sexual), and their relationship to sport and sports mega-events such as the Olympic Games. Based on research conducted by a multinational team of authors that draws on theories of social movements and new social movements, the book includes a valuable chronology of social movements, illustrations of key episodes in the development of the relationships between sport and different social movements and an agenda for future research and scholarship. Written in a clear and comprehensive style it is suitable for all levels of higher education, researchers and the general reader who want to know more about the role that sport has played in the development of social movements and campaigns for social justice.
Most of what has been written in relation to the modern Olympic movement has focused on the Games or more recently on the failings (both in terms of ethics and more practically of governance) of those operating within the Olympic movement. Yet the Olympic movement was intended by Pierre de Coubertin, the central figure in the revival of the Olympic Games, to be based upon a philosophy, 'Olympism'. This book evaluates the moral project of Olympism, developing an analysis of the changing value positions adopted in relation to the ideology of Olympism from the 1890s to the present day. The book also explores contemporary concerns with youth, governance, sport for development and international relations.
The collection starts from the premise that Olympism and the Olympic Games make sense only when they are placed within the broader national, colonial and post colonial contexts and argues that sport not only influences politics and vice-versa, but that the two are inseparable. Sport is not only political; it is politics. It is also culture and art. This collaboration is a first in global publishing, a mine of information for scholars, students and analysts. It demonstrates that Olympism and the Olympic movement in the modern context has been, and continues to be, socially relevant and politically important. Studies focus on national encounters with Olympism and the Olympic movement, with equal attention paid to document the growing nexus between sports and the media; sports reportage; as well as women and sports. Olympism asserts that the Olympic movement was, and is, of central importance to twentieth and twenty-first century societies. Finally, the collection demonstrates that the essence of Olympism and the Olympic movement is important only in so far as it affects societies surrounding it. This book was published as a special issue of the International Journal of the History of Sport.
Entries cover issues related to sports medicine, including diagnostic and treatment techniques, conditioning and training, diet and nutrition, doping and performance enhancement, injury prevention, and career opportunities.
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The Olympic Games is unquestionably the greatest sporting event in the world, with billions of viewers across the globe. How did the Olympics evolve into this multi-national phenomenon? How can the Olympics help us to understand the relationship between sport and society? What will be the impact and legacy of the 2016 Olympics in Rio? Now in a fully revised and updated new edition that places Rio 2016 in the foreground, Understanding the Olympics answers all these questions by exploring the social, cultural, political, historical and economic context of the Games. This book presents the latest research on the Olympics, including new material on legacy, sustainability and corruption, and introduces the reader to all of the key themes of contemporary Olympic Studies including: the history of the Olympics Olympic politics access and equity the Olympics and the media festival and spectacle the Olympic economy urban development Olympic futures. The most up-to-date and authoritative introduction to the Olympic Games, this book contains a full Olympic history timeline as well as illustrations, information boxes and ‘Olympic Stories’ in every chapter. Understanding the Olympics is essential reading for anybody with an interest in the Olympics or the wider relationship between sport and society.
This book is largely a collection of the papers presented at the symposium Olympism, Olympic Education and Learning Legacies, organised by the Comité Internationale Pierre de Coubertin (CIPC). It was held during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at Canterbury Christ Church University in Kent, United Kingdom. The symposium drew together presenters and audience members from twenty-five nations on four continents to discuss current and future challenges of education and the Olympic Movement. While most books on the Olympics focus on economic issues or on aspects related to the management of the Games (such as legacies and impacts), this book remains faithful to Coubertin’s original vision about youth, sport and education. Olympism as a philosophical and educational idea is analysed in particular detail. Coubertin’s thoughts play a central role in many of the contributions of leading academics in the field, while historical perspectives unveil new insights. Young researchers are given a platform to publish their own accounts in interpreting the Olympics. The different insights of the book have something to offer to anyone with an interest in sport, education, and the Olympic Movement, either as a student, teacher, academic, athlete, coach or spectator.
Written by a number of expert scholars from around the world, including China itself, with the aim of extending knowledge and taking the cross-cultural study of PE and sport beyond the descriptive level, this book provides unique and up to date material. Subjects covered include: *ancient and modern history *structure, administration and finance *PE in schools and colleges *elite sport *sport science and medicine *gender issues. Anyone wishing to gain an insight into the PE and sporting experience of Chinese citizens both in historical and contemporary society will find this book essential reading. It is an indispensable resource for students taking comparative sport studies courses, sports historians, and academics with a general interest in the cross-cultural field.