Covering criminal justice history on a cross-national basis, this book surveys criminal justice in Western civilization and American life chronologically from ancient times to the present. It is an introduction to the historical problems of crime, law enforcement and penology, set against the background of major historical events and movements. Integrating criminal justice history into the scope of European, British, French and American history, this text provides the opportunity for comparisons of crime and punishment over boundaries of national histories. The text concludes with a chapter that addresses terrorism and homeland security. * Spans all of western history, and examines the core beliefs about human nature and society that informed the development of criminal justice systems. The fifth edition gives increased coverage of American law enforcement, corrections, and legal systems * Each chapter is enhanced with supplemental "Timeline," "Time Capsule," and "Featured Outlaw" boxes as well as discussion questions, notes and problems * Contains discussion questions, notes, learning objectives, key terms lists, biographical vignettes of key historical figures, and "History Today" exercises to engage the reader and encourage critical thinking
This text concentrates on the apprehension, investigation and trial of suspected offenders, overlaying its analysis with a critical appraisal of the system and suggesting pointers to improvement.
This work addresses perspectives on the judicial, correctional and law enforcement components of the criminal justice system, including history, ethics, prevention, intervention, due process, marginalized populations, international consequences and demands for professionalism. It also examines critical variations in the criminal justice systems of countries worldwide.
Criminal Justice: An Introduction is a complete introductory text for the most basic and widely-studied course in this subject area. Each chapter begins with behavioral objectives and a list of key terms. A variety of strategies are designed into the text to hold the attention of reader: key terms in bold lettering, side margin notes (containing interesting facts and challenging questions), boxed justice events and international perspectives, and over 80 photographs, tables and figures. Each chapter ends with applications that enable the student to apply the material to real life situations. This text competes with larger books by offering a complete but succinct and less expensive introduction to criminal justice, which will be more manageable for community colleges and colleges with shorter terms. The instructor's manual will assist educators with special projects and test questions and answers. The accompanying disk challenges students with interactive exercises. An excellent entry-level textbook for undergraduate criminal justice students. Written by an instructor of criminal justice and security for over 20 years. Includes an instructor's manual and a disk with interactive exercises for students.
"An ideal introduction to the rich history of criminal justice charting all its main developments from the dooms of Anglo-Saxon times to the rise of the Common Law, struggles for political, legislative and judicial ascendency and the formation of the innovative Criminal Justice System of today."-back cover.
This revised and expanded third edition offers a comprehensive and engaging introduction to the criminal justice system of England and Wales. Starting with an overview of the main theories of the causes of crime, this book explores and discusses the operation of the main criminal justice agencies including the police, probation and prison services and the legal and youth justice systems. This book offers a lively and critical discussion of some of the main themes in criminal justice, from policy-making and crime control to diversity and discrimination to the global dimensions of criminal justice, including organized crime and the role of the EU. Key updates to this new edition include: increased discussion of the measurement, prevention and detection of crime; a revised chapter on the police which discusses the principle of policing by consent, police methods, power and governance as well as the abuse of power; further discussion of pressing contemporary issues in criminal justice, such as privatization, multi-agency working and community-based criminal justice policy; a brand new chapter on victims of crime, key developments in criminal justice policy, and the response of the criminal justice system. This accessible text is essential reading for students taking introductory courses in criminology and criminal justice. A wide range of useful features includes review questions, lists of further reading, timelines of key events and a glossary of key terms.
This book provides a comprehensive, introductory guide to the criminal justice system. It outlines the basic elements of criminal law, and the various agencies of the system, and includes study exercises and review questions.
This critical yet honest appraisal of our criminal justice system addresses its strengths and its flaws—and makes recommendations for improvement. * Provides an extensive bibliography including books, journal articles, newspaper accounts, and government documents * Includes a chronology
In a groundbreaking work, Klaus Muhlhahn offers a comprehensive examination of the criminal justice system in modern China, an institution deeply rooted in politics, society, and culture. In late imperial China, flogging, tattooing, torture, and servitude were routine punishments. Sentences, including executions, were generally carried out in public. After 1905, in a drive to build a strong state and curtail pressure from the West, Chinese officials initiated major legal reforms. Physical punishments were replaced by fines and imprisonment. Capital punishment, though removed from the public sphere, remained in force for the worst crimes. Trials no longer relied on confessions obtained through torture but were instead held in open court and based on evidence. Prison reform became the centerpiece of an ambitious social-improvement program. After 1949, the Chinese communists developed their own definitions of criminality and new forms of punishment. People's tribunals were convened before large crowds, which often participated in the proceedings. At the center of the socialist system was "reform through labor," and thousands of camps administered prison sentences. Eventually, the communist leadership used the camps to detain anyone who offended against the new society, and the "crime" of counterrevolution was born. Muhlhahn reveals the broad contours of criminal justice from late imperial China to the Deng reform era and details the underlying values, successes and failures, and ultimate human costs of the system. Based on unprecedented research in Chinese archives and incorporating prisoner testimonies, witness reports, and interviews, this book is essential reading for understanding modern China.
Rule of law has vanished in America’s criminal justice system. Prosecutors decide whom to punish; most accused never face a jury; policing is inconsistent; plea bargaining is rampant; and draconian sentencing fills prisons with mostly minority defendants. A leading criminal law scholar looks to history for the roots of these problems—and solutions.
Examines the impact of DNA technology on issues of ethics, civil liberties, privacy, and security.
With this collection of essays, Jack Kamerman presents the first sustained examination of one of the underpinnings of the operation of the criminal justice system: the issue of responsibility for actions and, as a consequence, the issue of accountability. Unique in the breadth of its approach, this volume examines the issue of responsibility from the perspectives of criminal justice professionals, sociologists, philosophers, and public administrators from four countries. Attacking the problem on various levels, the essayists look first at the assumptions made by criminal justice institutions regarding offender responsibility, then turn to the views of offenders on the causes of their own actions and to the consequences of offenders either to accept or deny responsibility. These scholars also examine the social and psychological circumstances under which people in general accept or deny responsibility for what they do, thus providing the basis for understanding the process of social distance as a major precondition for people to commit atrocities without seeing themselves as responsible. Understanding the circumstances under which people either distance themselves from or embrace responsibility enables criminologists to make grounded recommendations for reordering responsibility in the criminal justice system and, more generally, for restoring a sense of responsibility to organizations, occupations, and society. Aside from Kamerman, the contributors are William C. Collins, Charles Fethe, Gilbert Geis, Robert J. Kelly, Alison Liebling, Jess Maghan, Mark Harrison Moore, Paul Neurath, John Rakis, William Rentzmann, and José E. Sánchez.
At the outset of the twenty-first century, more than 9 million people are held in custody in over 200 countries around the world. --from the essay "Prisons and Jails" by Ron King The first comparative study of this increasingly integral social subject, International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice provides a comprehensive and balanced review of the philosophy and practicality of punishment. Drawn from the expertise of scholars and researchers from around the world, this book covers the theory, practice, history, and empirical evidence surrounding crime prevention, identification, retribution, and incarceration. It analyzes the efficacy of both traditional methods and thinking as well as novel concepts and approaches. Beginning with a study of the changing attitude of penal practice in Florida from one of offender transformation to one of risk-management, imprisonment, surveillance, and control, this volume embarks on an objective and sober appraisal of every aspect of the field. Contributions consider the sociology of incarcerated prisoners including the increasing prevalence of prison suicides. The book evaluates arguments regarding the world-wide abolition of capitol punishment from moral, utilitarian, and practical positions. It examines non-incarcerative and alternative punishments such as financial restoration and restrictions of liberty, as well as the positive effects of Victim Offender Mediation. It also considers several methods aimed at achieving measurable crime prevention including identifying at-risk juveniles and minimizing crimes of opportunity, as well as the pros and cons of employing the coercive power of police. Further essays consider subjects such as international policing, the roles of prosecution and defense attorneys, current discretionary sentencing practices, and the role and treatment of victims. The volume concludes with two chapters of case studies that provide a "hands-on" feel for the interplay of the concepts discussed. This volume is the first in a three-part trilogy. See also The International Handbook of Victimology and The International Handbook of Criminology.
MEDIA, CRIME, AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE is the definitive text on media and criminal justice. The book features impeccable scholarship, a direct and approachable style, and an engaging format--supported by visual examples and sidebar material that complements the narrative. With the ever-increasing role of media in both reporting crime and shaping it into infotainment, the importance of the interplay between contemporary media and the criminal justice system is greater today than ever before. Author Ray Surette comprehensively surveys this interplay and showcases its impact, emphasizing that people use media-provided knowledge to construct a picture of the world and then act based on this constructed reality. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
A comprehensive and accesible overview of the operation of the American criminal justice system. This handbook's extensive coverage of the criminal justice system in the U.S. makes it an important reference for students and scholars in criminal justice, law, and public policy.
There are nearly two million inmates in America today. Are there better alternatives to incarceration? Criminal Justice: Retribution vs. Restoration presents new answers and unconventional suggestions addressing America's overcrowded prisons and jails, high recidivism rates, and weakened family and community relationships with ex-prisoners. Experts in the field discuss the benefits and failures of America's criminal justice system at various times in history and today, then explore possibilities to improve on that system. This groundbreaking book introduces encouraging, therapeutic approaches to criminal justice that include treatment, rehabilitation, and the direct involvement the victims, the families, and the communities. Criminal Justice looks at America's over-reliance on punishment and retribution as the means of responding to prevalent social problems and examines the justice system's tendency to incarcerate—rather than treat—minority, mentally ill, poor, and drug-dependent offenders. The authors—who are all active in some field of criminal justice—argue for a restorative model of correction that is more humane to both offenders and victims. This model opens up dialogue between offenders and their victims, families, and communities by promoting hallmark programs, including victim offender mediation, conferencing, peacemaking circles, restitution, and community projects and services. Criminal Justice includes such intriguing topics as: the social costs and moral economy of incarceration drug policy—should drug users be incarcerated or rehabilitated? the potential of restorative justice—a first-hand account from a prison inmate restorative justice and faith communities the practice and efficacy of restorative justice the path from fury to forgiveness—the emotions of the mother of a murdered child strategies for creating safe and just communities women in prison—their special needs both during incarceration and after re-entry social work and criminal justice—how they work together grassroots advocacy for criminal justice reform—a look back over the last 30 years by the founders of CURE (Citizens United for Rehabilitation of Errants) This book's foundation rests on the Biblical concepts of restoration, healing, forgiveness, reconciliation, and responsibility. Criminal Justice: Retribution vs Restoration is an eye-opening look at the negative effects of our current system of blame and punishment and offers hope for better, more humane methods in the future. This holistic, empowering, and strengths-based perspective offers insight and suggestions that are valuable for students, social workers, policymakers, and criminal justice professionals.
Ideal for allied health and pre-nursing students, Alcamos Fundamentals of Microbiology, Body Systems Edition, retains the engaging, student-friendly style and active learning approach for which award-winning author and educator Jeffrey Pommerville is known. It presents diseases, complete with new content on recent discoveries, in a manner that is directly applicable to students and organized by body system. A captivating art program, learning design format, and numerous case studies draw students into the text and make them eager to learn more about the fascinating world of microbiology.
Roscoe Pound believed that unless the criminal justice system maintains stability while adapting to change, it will either fossilize or be subject to the whims of public opinion. In Criminal Justice in America, Pound recognizes the dangers law faces when it does not keep pace with societal change. When the home, neighborhood, and religion are no longer capable of social control, increased conflicts arise, laws proliferate, and new menaces wrought by technology, drugs, and juvenile delinquency flourish. Where Pound saw the influence of the motion pictures as part of the "multiplication of the agencies of menace," today we might cite television and the Internet. His point still holds true: The "old machinery" cannot meet the evolving needs of society. In Criminal Justice in America, Pound points out that one aspect of the criminal justice problem is a rigid mechanical approach that resists change. The other dimension of the problem is that change, when it comes, will result from the pressure of public opinion. Justice suffers when the public is moved by the oldest of public feelings, vengeance. This can result in citizens taking the law into their own handsâfrom tax evasion to mob lynchingsâas well as in altering the judicial systemâfrom sensationalizing trials to producing wrongful convictions. Ron Christenson, in his new introduction, discusses the evolution of Roscoe Pound's career and thought. Pound's theories on jurisprudence were remarkably prescient. They continue to gain resonance as crimes become more and more sensationalized by the media. Criminal Justice in America is a fascinating study that should be read by legal scholars and professionals, sociologists, political theorists, and philosophers.
Media and Criminal Justice: The CSI Effect illustrates how media coverage and television programs inform the public s perception of criminal justice. The CSI Effect can be characterized as the phenomenon whereby fiction is mistaken for reality and the assumption that all criminal cases can be solved through the employment of hi-tech forensic science such as crime scene investigation and DNA testing as depcited on television crime shows. This text provides broad, balanced, and comprehensive coverage of timely events in CSI, prosecutors, and wrongful convictions. The author explores some common misconceptions and helps readers towards a critical analysis of the information they see in the media and entertainment."
Authoritative and engaging, CRIME AND PUNISHMENT: A HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM, 2e delivers a comprehensive examination of the history of the criminal justice system. Roth begins with a discussion of system’s roots in the ancient world and Great Britain and carries the narrative all the way through the 21st Century and the impact of terrorism and white collar crime on today’s criminal justice institutions. Written by a historian and criminologist, the text goes in depth to demonstrate how history has shaped the present criminal justice system and how it affects public policy being established today. It offers intriguing insight into the people--such as Robert F. Kennedy and J. Edgar Hoover--and events--like the Innocence Project--that impacted the evolution of the American system. In addition to its thorough coverage of history, the Second Edition explores the issues challenging today’s system, such as Ponzi schemes, medical marijuana, the Second Chance Act, faith-based initiatives, prison gangs, and much more. Covering criminal justice both chronologically and topically, CRIME AND PUNISHMENT couples recent trends with historical analysis to equip readers with a thorough understanding of today’s criminal justice system. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.