This text examines the history of crime and uses historical data to analyse modern criminological debates. Drawing on criminology, history, and social policy, the book addresses important issues about offenders' persistence in crime, and questions the current theoretical framework used to explain offending patterns.
At a time when Europe is witnessing major cultural, social, economic and political challenges and transformations, this book brings together leading researchers and experts to consider a range of pressing questions relating to the historical origins, contemporary manifestations and future prospects for juvenile justice. Questions considered include: How has the history of juvenile justice evolved across Europe and how might the past help us to understand the present and signal the future? What do we know about contemporary juvenile crime trends in Europe and how are nation states responding? Is punitivity and intolerance eclipsing child welfare and pedagogical imperatives, or is ‘child-friendly justice’ holding firm? How might we best understand both the convergent and the divergent patterning of juvenile justice in a changing and reformulating Europe? How is juvenile justice experienced by identifiable constituencies of children and young people both in communities and in institutions? What impacts are sweeping austerity measures, together with increasing mobilities and migrations, imposing? How can comparative juvenile justice be conceptualised and interpreted? What might the future hold for juvenile justice in Europe at a time of profound uncertainty and flux? This book is essential reading for students, tutors and researchers in the fields of criminology, history, law, social policy and sociology, particularly those engaged with childhood and youth studies, human rights, comparative juvenile/youth justice, youth crime and delinquency and criminal justice policy in Europe.
Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, difficult and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile reformatory system. The book breaks new ground in crime research, speaking to pressing present-day concerns around child poverty and youth justice, and resonating with a powerful public fascination for family history. Using innovative digital methods to unlock the Victorian life course, the authors have reconstructed the lives, families and neighbourhoods of 500 children living within, or at the margins of, the early English juvenile reformatory system. Four hundred of them were sent to reformatory and industrial schools in the north west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. Young Criminal Lives is based on one of the most comprehensive sets of official and personal data ever assembled for a historical study of this kind. For the first time, these children can be followed on their journey in and out of reform and then though their adulthood and old age. The book centres on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering new approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kind of state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s on, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered 'vulnerable' to predation, poverty and the 'inheritance' of criminal dispositions. The notion that interventions can and must be evaluated in order to determine 'what works' now dominates public policy. But how did Victorian and Edwardian policy-makers and practitioners deal with this question? By what criteria, and on the basis of what kinds of evidence, did they judge their own successes and failures? Young Criminal Lives ends with a critical review of the historical rise of evidence-based policy-making within criminal justice. It will appeal to scholars and students of crime and penal policy, criminologists, sociologists, and social policy researchers and practitioners in youth justice and child protection.
Ranging from the middle of the eighteenth through to the end of the nineteenth century, Crime and Society in England, 1750–1900 explores the developments in policing, the courts and the penal system as England became increasingly industrialised and urbanised. Through a consideration of the difficulty of defining crime, the book presents criminal behaviour as being intrinsically tied to historical context and uses this theory as the basis for its examination of crime within English society during this period. In this fifth edition Professor Emsley explores the most recent research, including the increased focus on ethnicity, gender and cultural representations of crime, allowing students to gain a broader view of modern English society. Divided thematically, the book’s coverage includes: the varying perceptions of crime across different social groups crime in the workplace the concepts of a ‘criminal class’ and ‘professional criminals’ the developments in the courts, the police and the prosecution of criminals. Thoroughly updated to address key questions surrounding crime and society in this period, and fully equipped with illustrations, tables and charts to further highlight important aspects, Crime and Society in England, 1750–1900 is the ideal introduction for students of modern crime.
Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment addresses the reasons why people stop offending, and the processes by which they are rehabilitated or resettled back into the community. Engaging with, and building upon, renewed criminological interest in this area, Escape Routes nevertheless broadens and enlivens the current debate. First, its scope goes beyond a narrowly-defined notion of crime and includes, for example, essays on religious redemption, the lives of ex-war criminals, and the relationship between ethnicity and desistance from crime. Second, contributors to this volume draw upon a number of areas of contemporary research, including urban studies, philosophy, history, religious studies, and ethics, as well as criminology. Examining new theoretical work in the study of desistance and exploring the experiences of a number of groups whose experiences of life after punishment do not usually attract much attention, Escape Routes provides new insights about the processes associated with reform, resettlement and forgiveness. Intended to drive our understanding of life after punishment forward, its rich array of theoretical and substantive papers will be of considerable interest to criminologists, lawyers, and sociologists.
This study addresses the management of victims and victim policy under the Coalition government, in light of an increasing move towards neoliberal and punitive law and order agendas. With a focus on victims of anti-social behaviour and hate crime, Duggan and Heap explore the changing role of the victim in contemporary criminal justice discourses.
Serious Offenders examines the criminal careers of persistent offenders in northwest England between the 1840s and 1940s. It explores the triggers that propelled minor offenders towards serious persistent offending and draws on the lessons to be learnt about the regulation and surveillance of serious offenders.
The study of criminal victimisation has developed to the stage where by victimology is now regarded as a central component to the study of crime and criminology. This focus of concern has been matched by the growth and development of support services for the victim of crime alongside increasing political concern with similar issues. The central purpose of this book is to bring together leading scholars to produce an authoritative handbook on victims and victimology that gives due consideration to these developments. It will be concerned to reflect contemporary academic, policy, and political debates on the nature, extent and impact of criminal victimisation and policy responses to it. This book provides a overview of the importance of the role of the victim in the criminal justice system, with an analysis of the different theoretical perspectives within victimology. explores the relationship between victimisation and feminism with particular focus on domestic and sexual violence. analyses criminal justice policy and service delivery in relation to victims of crime, looking at developments within the UK and international perspectives. This handbook will be fundamental reading for students and academics studying victims and victimology and an essential reference tool for those working within the victim support environment.
Black Police Associations is based on Professor Holdaway's two-year ESRC funded project Black Police Associations (BPAs) in the UK. This project built upon the theoretical and evidential foundations of his previous work to analyze the new phenomenon of Black Police Associations established in the majority of constabularies in England and Wales. The author takes a sociological and theoretical approach to the subject, in contrast to current criminology which is more evaluative and policy oriented. The analysis is underpinned with the notion that race and ethnicity are socially constructed: the book describes and analyzes how race and ethnicity are constructed and sustained within constabularies and how they have changed during the last two decades, providing students, researchers and academics with a sociological perspective on understanding race within criminal justice institutions. Black Police Associations covers the history of BPAs; the construction and consequences of the notion of 'black' as a political emblem within constabularies; the work and influence of BPAs (nationally and within constabularies); post-McPherson policing; new forms of racism within constabularies; ethnic identities amongst ethnic minority police officers and BPAs, and the occupational culture. By analyzing the work of BPAs within constabularies, the author posits a number of implications for change within the management of constabularies.
The issue of reintegrating ex-prisoners and ex-offenders into the community has become an increasingly pressing one around the world. In view of the rapid increase in the sheer number of people coming out of prison and their notorious lack of success in post-prison life, former Us Attorney General Janet Reno described ex-offender re-entry as 'one of the most pressing problems we face as a nation'.Yet the issue of offender reintegration and resettlement has not been well served by the criminological literature, and the new policies and programs that have been set up to address the problem are not always grounded in criminological thinking. This book seeks to address the important set of issues involved by bringing together the best of recent thinking and research on the subject of desistance from crime from both the US and the UK, with a distinct focus on how this research might impact on the design and implementation of ex-offender reintegration policy.
An interdisciplinary study of retail crime as a cultural phenomenon, drawing on economics, criminology and management to present a comprehensive explanation for the growth in retail thefts. This topical study explores crime prevention as a management issue, using criminomics, a concept based on commercial realities rather than maximising arrests.
The definitive text for the course, Belknap covers women and the criminal justice system with a focus on three major areas: (1) female offenders and their treatment by the criminal justice system; (2) female victims of crime; and (3) female employees of the agencies of the criminal justice system.
Addressing a significant void in the extant literature on the topic of domestic violence, Rural Woman Battering and the Justice System presents a thorough and arresting look at the experiences of battered women in rural communities. While living in the rural areas of Kentucky, Neil Websdale conducted his ethnographic research, and he situated the voices of rural battered women at the center of his ethnography. He clearly demonstrates how rural patriarchy and the insidious "good ol' boy network" of law enforcement and local politics sustain and reproduce the subordinate, vulnerable, isolated position of many rural women. Taking into account that traditional patterns of intervention can often put women in isolated communities at further risk, the author recommends a coordinated multiagency approach to rural battering that is spearheaded by state feminist agencies. The chapter on the difficulties of an educated male researcher working with rural battered women offers a definite methodological plus. Illuminating and accessible, Rural Woman Battering and the Justice System makes a most important and timely contribution to the field. An excellent training resource for anyone working with battered women, especially in rural areas, Rural Woman Battering and the Justice System is highly recommended for law enforcement and criminal justice professionals, practitioners, advocates, shelter personnel, and advanced students in related courses of study, as well as academics and researchers.
This book provides an essential one-stop introduction to the key concepts, issues, policies and practices affecting child welfare, with particular emphasis on the changing nature of the relationship between child welfare and social policy. No other book brings together such a wide selection of material to form an attractive and indispensable teaching and learning resource. Child welfare and social policy provides readers with an historical overview of child welfare in England and Wales; high quality contributions from leading authorities in the field; discursive introductions to each section that set individual chapters in the broader context of childhood studies and case study material to bring discussions to life.Key topics covered include morality and child welfare; relations between law, medicine, social work, social theory and child welfare; children's rights and democratic citizenship and children as raw material for 'social investment'.Child welfare and social policy is invaluable reading for students and academics in social policy, sociology, education and social work. It is also a useful resource for health and social work professionals wishing to follow current debates in theory and practice.