Thirty years after RSA was first publicized, it remains an active research area. Although several good surveys exist, they are either slightly outdated or only focus on one type of attack. Offering an updated look at this field, Cryptanalysis of RSA and Its Variants presents the best known mathematical attacks on RSA and its main variants, including CRT-RSA, multi-prime RSA, and multi-power RSA. Divided into three parts, the book first introduces RSA and reviews the mathematical background needed for the majority of attacks described in the remainder of the text. It then brings together all of the most popular mathematical attacks on RSA and its variants. For each attack presented, the author includes a mathematical proof if possible or a mathematical justification for attacks that rely on assumptions. For the attacks that cannot be proven, he gives experimental evidence to illustrate their practical effectiveness. Focusing on mathematical attacks that exploit the structure of RSA and specific parameter choices, this book provides an up-to-date collection of the most well-known attacks, along with details of the attacks. It facilitates an understanding of the cryptanalysis of public-key cryptosystems, applications of lattice basis reduction, and the security of RSA and its variants.
At the heart of modern cryptographic algorithms lies computational number theory. Whether you're encrypting or decrypting ciphers, a solid background in number theory is essential for success. Written by a number theorist and practicing cryptographer, Cryptanalysis of Number Theoretic Ciphers takes you from basic number theory to the inner workings of ciphers and protocols. First, the book provides the mathematical background needed in cryptography as well as definitions and simple examples from cryptography. It includes summaries of elementary number theory and group theory, as well as common methods of finding or constructing large random primes, factoring large integers, and computing discrete logarithms. Next, it describes a selection of cryptographic algorithms, most of which use number theory. Finally, the book presents methods of attack on the cryptographic algorithms and assesses their effectiveness. For each attack method the author lists the systems it applies to and tells how they may be broken with it. Computational number theorists are some of the most successful cryptanalysts against public key systems. Cryptanalysis of Number Theoretic Ciphers builds a solid foundation in number theory and shows you how to apply it not only when breaking ciphers, but also when designing ones that are difficult to break.
Algebraic Cryptanalysis bridges the gap between a course in cryptography, and being able to read the cryptanalytic literature. This book is divided into three parts: Part One covers the process of turning a cipher into a system of equations; Part Two covers finite field linear algebra; Part Three covers the solution of Polynomial Systems of Equations, with a survey of the methods used in practice, including SAT-solvers and the methods of Nicolas Courtois. Topics include: Analytic Combinatorics, and its application to cryptanalysis The equicomplexity of linear algebra operations Graph coloring Factoring integers via the quadratic sieve, with its applications to the cryptanalysis of RSA Algebraic Cryptanalysis is designed for advanced-level students in computer science and mathematics as a secondary text or reference book for self-guided study. This book is suitable for researchers in Applied Abstract Algebra or Algebraic Geometry who wish to find more applied topics or practitioners working for security and communications companies.
The book is designed to be accessible to motivated IT professionals who want to learn more about the specific attacks covered. In particular, every effort has been made to keep the chapters independent, so if someone is interested in has function cryptanalysis or RSA timing attacks, they do not necessarily need to study all of the previous material in the text. This would be particularly valuable to working professionals who might want to use the book as a way to quickly gain some depth on one specific topic.
An introduction to the basic mathematical techniques involved in cryptanalysis.
As an instructor at the University of Tulsa, Christopher Swenson could find no relevant text for teaching modern cryptanalysis?so he wrote his own. This is the first book that brings the study of cryptanalysis into the 21st century. Swenson provides a foundation in traditional cryptanalysis, examines ciphers based on number theory, explores block ciphers, and teaches the basis of all modern cryptanalysis: linear and differential cryptanalysis. This time-honored weapon of warfare has become a key piece of artillery in the battle for information security.
Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program. Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applications. The final part addresses more sophisticated cryptographic applications, including LFSR-based stream ciphers and index calculus methods. Accounting for the impact of current computer architectures, this book explores the algorithmic and implementation aspects of cryptanalysis methods. It can serve as a handbook of algorithmic methods for cryptographers as well as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses on cryptanalysis and cryptography.
This accessible textbook presents a fascinating review of cryptography and cryptanalysis across history. The text relates the earliest use of the monoalphabetic cipher in the ancient world, the development of the “unbreakable” Vigenère cipher, and an account of how cryptology entered the arsenal of military intelligence during the American Revolutionary War. Moving on to the American Civil War, the book explains how the Union solved the Vigenère ciphers used by the Confederates, before investigating the development of cipher machines throughout World War I and II. This is then followed by an exploration of cryptology in the computer age, from public-key cryptography and web security, to criminal cyber-attacks and cyber-warfare. Looking to the future, the role of cryptography in the Internet of Things is also discussed, along with the potential impact of quantum computing. Topics and features: presents a history of cryptology from ancient Rome to the present day, with a focus on cryptology in the 20th and 21st centuries; reviews the different types of cryptographic algorithms used to create secret messages, and the various methods for breaking such secret messages; provides engaging examples throughout the book illustrating the use of cryptographic algorithms in different historical periods; describes the notable contributions to cryptology of Herbert Yardley, William and Elizebeth Smith Friedman, Lester Hill, Agnes Meyer Driscoll, and Claude Shannon; concludes with a review of tantalizing unsolved mysteries in cryptology, such as the Voynich Manuscript, the Beale Ciphers, and the Kryptos sculpture. This engaging work is ideal as both a primary text for courses on the history of cryptology, and as a supplementary text for advanced undergraduate courses on computer security. No prior background in mathematics is assumed, beyond what would be encountered in an introductory course on discrete mathematics.
Cryptography, the art and science of creating secret codes, and cryptanalysis, the art and science of breaking secret codes, underwent a similar and parallel course during history. Both fields evolved from manual encryption methods and manual codebreaking techniques, to cipher machines and codebreaking machines in the first half of the 20th century, and finally to computerbased encryption and cryptanalysis from the second half of the 20th century. However, despite the advent of modern computing technology, some of the more challenging classical cipher systems and machines have not yet been successfully cryptanalyzed. For others, cryptanalytic methods exist, but only for special and advantageous cases, such as when large amounts of ciphertext are available. Starting from the 1990s, local search metaheuristics such as hill climbing, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing have been employed, and in some cases, successfully, for the cryptanalysis of several classical ciphers. In most cases, however, results were mixed, and the application of such methods rather limited in their scope and performance. In this work, a robust framework and methodology for the cryptanalysis of classical ciphers using local search metaheuristics, mainly hill climbing and simulated annealing, is described. In an extensive set of case studies conducted as part of this research, this new methodology has been validated and demonstrated as highly effective for the cryptanalysis of several challenging cipher systems and machines, which could not be effectively cryptanalyzed before, and with drastic improvements compared to previously published methods. This work also led to the decipherment of original encrypted messages from WWI, and to the solution, for the first time, of several public cryptographic challenges.
Thorough, systematic introduction to serious cryptography, especially strong in modern forms of cipher solution used by experts. Simple and advanced methods. 166 specimens to solve — with solutions.
DES, the Data Encryption Standard, is the best known and most widely used civilian cryptosystem. It was developed by IBM and adopted as a US national standard in the mid 1970`s, and had resisted all attacks in the last 15 years. This book presents the first successful attack which can break the full 16 round DES faster than via exhaustive search. It describes in full detail, the novel technique of Differential Cryptanalysis, and demonstrates its applicability to a wide variety of cryptosystems and hash functions, including FEAL, Khafre, REDOC-II, LOKI, Lucifer, Snefru, N-Hash, and many modified versions of DES. The methodology used offers valuable insights to anyone interested in data security and cryptography, and points out the intricacies of developing, evaluating, testing, and implementing such schemes. This book was written by two of the field`s leading researchers, and describes state-of-the-art research in a clear and completely contained manner.
The origins of linear cryptanalysis can be traced back to a number of seminal works of the early 1990s. Since its invention, several theoretical and practical aspects of the technique have been studied, understood and generalized, resulting in more elaborated attacks against certain ciphers, but also in some negative results regarding the potential of various attempts at generalization. This book gives an overview of the current state of the discipline and it takes a look at potential future developments, and is divided into five parts. The first part deals with basic assumptions in linear cryptanalysis and their consequences for the design of modern block ciphers; part two explores a theory of multi-dimensional linear attacks on block ciphers; and, the third part covers how linear attacks can be applied to stream ciphers and gives an overview of the development of linear attacks as well as a theoretical explanation of their current use.Part four details interesting and useful links between linear cryptanalysis and coding theory and the fifth and final part discusses how correlation analysis can be conducted at the level of elements of GF (2n) without the need to deal with field representation issues. This book will be of interest to anybody who wishes to explore this fascinating yet complex part of symmetrical cryptanalysis.
We are proud to introduce the proceedings of the Third International Sym- sium on Intelligence Computation and Applications (ISICA 2008) held at the China UniversityofGeosciences(Wuhan), China,during December 19–21,2008. ISICA 2008 successfully attracted nearly 700 submissions. Through rigorous - views, 93 high-quality papers were included in the proceedings of ISICA 2008. ISICA conferences are one of the ?rst series of internationalconferences on c- putational intelligence that combine elements of learning, adaptation, evolution and fuzzy logic to create programs as alternative solutions to arti?cial intel- gence. The proceedings of ISICA conferences have a number of special features including uniqueness, novelty, success, and broadness of scope. The proceedings ofISICA conferences havebeen acceptedin the Index to Scienti?c andTechnical Proceedings (ISTP), while the ISICA 2007 proceedings have also been indexed by Engineering Information (EI). Following the success of ISICA 2005 and ISICA 2007, ISICA 2008 made good progress on analyzing and processing massive real-time data by compu- tional intelligence. ISICA 2008 featured the most up-to-date research in c- putational intelligence, evolutionary computation, evolutionary multi-objective and dynamic optimization,evolutionarylearning systems, neuralnetworks,cl- si?cation and recognition, bioinformatics and bioengineering, evolutionary data mining and knowledge discovery, intelligent GIS and control, theory of int- ligent computation, combinational and numerical optimization, and real-world applications. ISICA 2008 provided a venue to foster technical exchanges, renew everlasting friendships, and establish new connections.
Smart cards are an established security research area with a very unique pr- erty: it integrates numerous sub?elds of IT Security, which often appear sc- tered and only loosely connected. Smart card research unites them by providing a common goal: advancing the state of the art of designing and deploying small tokens to increase the security in Information Technology. CARDIS has a tradition of more than one decade, and has established itself asthepremier conferencefor researchresultsinsmartcardtechnology.As smart card research is unique, so is CARDIS; the conference successfully attracts a- demic and industrial researchers without compromising in either way. CARDIS accommodates applied research results as well as theoretical contributions that might or might not become practically relevant. The key to making such a m- ture attractive to both academia and industry is simple: quality of contributions and relevance to the overall subject. This year’s CARDIS made it easy to continue this tradition: we received 76 papers, nearly all of them relevant to the focus of CARDIS and presenting high-quality researchresults. The ProgramCommittee workedhard on selecting the best 25 papers to be presented at the conference. We are very grateful to the members of the Program Committee and the additional referees for generously spending their time on the di?cult task of assessing the value of submitted papers. Daniel Schreckling provided invaluable assistance in handling submissions, managing review reports and editing the proceedings. The assistance of Jordi Castell` a in handling practical aspects of the conference preparation is also greatly appreciated.
The 2009 RSA conference was held in San Francisco, USA, during April 20-24. The conference is devoted to security-related topics and, as part of this, hosts a distinguished track for cryptographic research. Since 2001 the proceedings of this Cryptographers' Track (CT-RSA) have been published in the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science of Springer. The proceedings of CT-RSA 2009 contain 31 papers selected from 93 s- missions, covering a wide variety of cryptographic areas. Each submission was anonymizedforthereviewingprocessandwasassignedto atleastthreeofthe25 ProgramCommittee members. Submissions co-authoredby committee members were assigned to at least ?ve members. After carefully considering more than 15,000 lines (more than 100,000 words) of reviews and online discussions, the committeeselected31submissionsforacceptance. Theprogramalsoincludedan invited talk by Kenny Paterson entitled “Cryptography and Secure Channels. ” Iwouldliketothankalltheauthorswhosubmittedpapers. Iamalsoindebted to the Program Committee members and all external reviewers for their vol- tary work. The committee's work was tremendously simpli?ed by Shai Halevi's submission software and his support. I would also like to thank the CT-RSA Steering Committee for electing me as Chair, and all the people from the RSA conference team for their support, especially Bree LaBollita.
This book is the first extensive survey of block ciphers following the Lai-Massey design paradigm. After a comprehensive introduction the author structures the book into chapters on the IDEA, MESH and other related ciphers, attacks on these ciphers, and new cipher designs. The appendices include a detailed survey of cryptographic substitution boxes. This comprehensive treatment will be a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students.