Crystal Symmetries is a timely account of the progress in the most diverse fields of crystallography. It presents a broad overview of the theory of symmetry and contains state of the art reports of its modern directions and applications to crystal physics and crystal properties. Geometry takes a special place in this treatise. Structural aspects of phase transitions, correlation of structure and properties, polytypism, modulated structures, and other topics are discussed. Applications of important techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, biophysical studies, EPR spectroscopy, crystal optics, and nuclear solid state physics, are represented. Contains 30 research and review papers.
The title of our volume refers to what is well described by the following two quota tions:"Godcreated man in his own image"l and "Man creates God in his own image."2 Our approach to symmetry is subjective, and the term "personal" symmetry reflects this approach in our discussion of selected scientific events. We have chosen six icons to symbolize six areas: Kepler for modeling, Fuller for new molecules, Pauling for helical structures, Kitaigorodskii for packing, Bernal for quasicrystals, and Curie for dissymmetry. For the past three decades we have been involved in learning, thinking, speaking, and writing about symmetry. This involvement has augmented our principal activities in molecular structure research. Our interest in symmetry had started with a simple fascination and has evolved into a highly charged personal topic for us. At the start of this volume, we had had several authored and edited symmetry related books behind 3 us. We owe a debt of gratitude to the numerous people whose interviews are quoted 4 in this volume. We very much appreciate the kind and gracious cooperation of Edgar J. Applewhite (Washington, DC), Lawrence S. Bartell (University of Michigan), R.
All existing introductory reviews of mineralogy are written accord ing to the same algorithm, sometimes called the "Dana System of Mineralogy". Even modern advanced handbooks, which are cer tainly necessary, include basic data on minerals and are essentially descriptive. When basic information on the chemistry, structure, optical and physical properties, distinguished features and para genesis of 200-400 minerals is presented, then there is practically no further space available to include new ideas and concepts based on recent mineral studies. A possible solution to this dilemma would be to present a book beginning where introductory textbooks end for those already famil iar with the elementary concepts. Such a volume would be tailored to specialists in all fields of science and industry, interested in the most recent results in mineralogy. This approach may be called Advanced Mineralogy. Here, an attempt has been made to survey the current possibilities and aims in mineral matter investigations, including the main characteristics of all the methods, the most important problems and topics of mineral ogy, and related studies. The individual volumes are composed of short, condensed chap ters. Each chapter presents in a complete, albeit condensed, form specific problems, methods, theories, and directions of investigations, and estimates their importance and strategic position in science and industry.
It is gratifying to launch the third edition of our book. Its coming to life testi?es about the task it has ful?lled in the service of the com- nity of chemical research and learning. As we noted in the Prefaces to the ?rst and second editions, our book surveys chemistry from the point of view of symmetry. We present many examples from ch- istry as well as from other ?elds to emphasize the unifying nature of the symmetry concept. Our aim has been to provide aesthetic pl- sure in addition to learning experience. In our ?rst Preface we paid tribute to two books in particular from which we learned a great deal; they have in?uenced signi?cantly our approach to the subject matter of our book. They are Weyl’s classic, Symmetry, and Shubnikov and Koptsik’s Symmetry in Science and Art. The structure of our book has not changed. Following the Int- duction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 presents the simplest symmetries using chemical and non-chemical examples. Molecular geometry is discussed in Chapter 3. The next four chapters present gro- theoretical methods (Chapter 4) and, based on them, discussions of molecular vibrations (Chapter 5), electronic structures (Chapter 6), and chemical reactions (Chapter 7). For the last two chapters we return to a qualitative treatment and introduce space-group sym- tries (Chapter 8), concluding with crystal structures (Chapter 9). For the third edition we have further revised and streamlined our text and renewed the illustrative material.
Includes specially selected articles that previously appeared in The Chemical Intelligencer magazine published (1995-2000). Excerpts of these Editor's choice chapters chronicle the culture and history of chemistry, featuring great chemists and discoverers. Contributors from among the best-known authors of the chemistry community, including numerous Nobel laureates. Features behind the scenes stories about pivotal discoveries, intricacies of laboratory life and interactions among scientists, favorite recipes of renowned researchers, life histories and anecdotes. Chapters detail the human side of science but also present scientific information communicated in an easy-to-perceive and entertaining way. This unique book is not only aimed at chemists but individuals who are interested in the cultural aspects of our science.
In the last decade mathematical crystallography has found increasing interest. Siginificant results have been obtained by algebraic, geometric, and group theoretic methods. Also classical crystallography in three-dimen sional Euclidean space has been extended to higher dimen sions in order to understand better the dimension independent crystallographic properties. The aim of this note is to introduce the reader to the fascinating and rich world of geometric crystallography. The prerequisites for reading it are elementary geometry and topological notations, and basic knowledge of group theory and linear algebra. Crystallography is geometric by its nature. In many cases, geometric arguments are the most appropriate and can thus best be understood. Thus the geometric point of view is emphasized here. The approach is axiomatic start ing from discrete point sets in Euclidean space. Symmetry comes in very soon and plays a central role. Each chapter starts with the necessary definitions and then the subject is treated in two- and three-dimensional space. Subsequent sections give an extension to higher dimensions. Short historical remarks added at the end of the chapters will show the development of the theory. The chapters are main ly self-contained. Frequent cross references, as well as an extended subject index, will help the reader who is only interested in a particular subject.
The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.
The authors, world-renowned scientists, have already produced a dozen books on symmetry for professionals as well as lay persons, for grownups as well as children, in English, Russian, German, Hungarian, and Swedish languages. They provide this attractive account of symmetry in few words and many oOe1/4OCO as many as 650 oOe1/4OCO images in full color from the most diverse corners of our globe. An encounter with this book will open up a whole new experience for the reader, who will never look at the world with the same eyes as before."
The first edition of Connections was chosen by the National Association of Publishers (USA) as the best book in OC Mathematics, Chemistry, and Astronomy OCo Professional and ReferenceOCO in 1991. It has been a comprehensive reference in design science, bringing together in a single volume material from the areas of proportion in architecture and design, tilings and patterns, polyhedra, and symmetry. The book presents both theory and practice and has more than 750 illustrations. It is suitable for research in a variety of fields and as an aid to teaching a course in the mathematics of design. It has been influential in stimulating the burgeoning interest in the relationship between mathematics and design. In the second edition there are five new sections, supplementary, as well as a new preface describing the advances in design science since the publication of the first edition. Contents: Proportion in Architecture; Similarity; The Golden Mean; Graphs; Tilings with Polygons; Two-Dimensional Networks and Lattices; Polyhedra: Platonic Solids; Transformation of the Platonic Solids I; Transformation of the Platonic Solids II; Polyhedra: Space Filling; Isometries and Mirrors; Symmetry of the Plane. Readership: Polytechnic students, architects, designers, mathematicians and general readers."
Fivefold symmetry is common in flowers, fruits, molecules, logos, and buildings, but it is a forbidden symmetry in the world of crystals. A few years ago, the so-called quasicrystals were discovered displaying fivefold symmetry, and it caused a minirevolution in crystallography. There has been increased awareness of fivefold symmetry in all domains of human interest ever since. The present book brings together authors and ideas on a common theme from mathematics, the sciences, design, and anthropology to history, literature, and the arts. Its 29 chapters are an offering by scientists and humanists from 13 countries to a broad readership of professionals and laypersons about fivefold symmetry and the areas that are being bridged by this unique concept.
This anthology fosters an interdisciplinary dialogue between the mathematical and artistic approaches in the field where mathematical and artistic thinking and practice merge. The articles included highlight the most significant current ideas and phenomena, providing a multifaceted and extensive snapshot of the field and indicating how interdisciplinary approaches are applied in the research of various cultural and artistic phenomena. The discussions are related, for example, to the fields of aesthetics, anthropology, art history, art theory, artistic practice, cultural studies, ethno-mathematics, geometry, mathematics, new physics, philosophy, physics, study of visual illusions, and symmetry studies. Further, the book introduces a new concept: the interdisciplinary aesthetics of mathematical art, which the editors use to explain the manifold nature of the aesthetic principles intertwined in these discussions.
The modern applications of X-ray crystallography range from drug design to characterisation of high technology materials. This book tells the story of its pioneers and relates how the first crystal structures were determined.
A quantum dot molecule (QDM) is composed of two or more closely spaced quantum dots or “artificial atoms.” In recent years, QDMs have received much attention as an emerging new artificial quantum system. The interesting and unique coupling and energy transfer processes between the “artificial atoms” could substantially extend the range of possible applications of quantum nanostructures. This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of QDMs via contributions from some of the most prominent researchers in this scientific community. The book explores many interesting topics such as the epitaxial growth of QDMs, spectroscopic characterization, and QDM transistors, and bridges between the fundamental physics of novel materials and device applications for future information technology. Both theoretical and experimental approaches are considered. Quantum Dot Molecules can be recommended for electrical engineering and materials science department courses on the science and design of advanced and future electronic and optoelectronic devices.
"Polymineral-Metasomatic Crystallogenesis" is dedicated to the foundations of polymineral crystallogenesis in solutions typically occurring in nature. Effects, laws, and mechanisms of a metasomatic crystal replacement, joint crystal growth of different phases, mixed crystal formation, and aggregate re-crystallization as well as oriented overgrowth (epitaxy and quasi-epitaxy) and crystal habit origin are considered experimentally. The behaviour of these processes in nature are discussed in addition to pseudomorphs, poikilitic crystals (and other replacement forms), features of rapakivi structure, fluorite morphology, and many more. The concept is a generalization of the classic theory on crystallogenesis which is complicated by phase interaction in polymineral systems. "Polymineral-Metasomatic Crystallogenesis" is designed for chemists, geologists, physicists, and postgraduates and advanced undergraduate students of these fields.
Symmetry 2 aims to present an overview of the contemporary status of symmetry studies, particularly in the arts and sciences, emphasizing both its role and importance. Symmetry is not only one of the fundamental concepts in science, but is also possibly the best unifying concept between various branches of science, the arts and other human activities. Whereas symmetry has been considered important for centuries primarily for its aesthetic appeal, this century has witnessed a dramatic enhancement of its status as a cornerstone in the sciences. In addition to traditionally symmetry-oriented fields such as crystallography and spectroscopy, the concept has made headway in fields as varied as reaction chemistry, nuclear physics, and the study of the origin of the universe. The book was initiated in response to the success of the first volume, which not only received good reviews, but received the award for "The Best Single Issue of a Journal" by the Association of American Publishers for 1986. The second volume extends the application of symmetry to new fields, such as medical sciences and economics, as well as investigating further certain topics introduced in Symmetry. The book is extensively illustrated and with over 64 contributions from 16 countries presents an international overview of the nature and diversity of symmetry studies today.