This volume contains the proceedings of the International Research Workshop on Periods and Motives--A Modern Perspective on Renormalization, held from July 2-6, 2012, at the Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas, Madrid, Spain. Feynman amplitudes are integrals attached to Feynman diagrams by means of Feynman rules. They form a central part of perturbative quantum field theory, where they appear as coefficients of power series expansions of probability amplitudes for physical processes. The efficient computation of Feynman amplitudes is pivotal for theoretical predictions in particle physics. Periods are numbers computed as integrals of algebraic differential forms over topological cycles on algebraic varieties. The term originated from the period of a periodic elliptic function, which can be computed as an elliptic integral. Motives emerged from Grothendieck's "universal cohomology theory", where they describe an intermediate step between algebraic varieties and their linear invariants (cohomology). The theory of motives provides a conceptual framework for the study of periods. In recent work, a beautiful relation between Feynman amplitudes, motives and periods has emerged. The articles provide an exciting panoramic view on recent developments in this fascinating and fruitful interaction between pure mathematics and modern theoretical physics.
This book is based on lectures given at the Graduate Summer School of the 2015 Park City Mathematics Institute program “Geometry of moduli spaces and representation theory”, and is devoted to several interrelated topics in algebraic geometry, topology of algebraic varieties, and representation theory. Geometric representation theory is a young but fast developing research area at the intersection of these subjects. An early profound achievement was the famous conjecture by Kazhdan–Lusztig about characters of highest weight modules over a complex semi-simple Lie algebra, and its subsequent proof by Beilinson-Bernstein and Brylinski-Kashiwara. Two remarkable features of this proof have inspired much of subsequent development: intricate algebraic data turned out to be encoded in topological invariants of singular geometric spaces, while proving this fact required deep general theorems from algebraic geometry. Another focus of the program was enumerative algebraic geometry. Recent progress showed the role of Lie theoretic structures in problems such as calculation of quantum cohomology, K-theory, etc. Although the motivation and technical background of these constructions is quite different from that of geometric Langlands duality, both theories deal with topological invariants of moduli spaces of maps from a target of complex dimension one. Thus they are at least heuristically related, while several recent works indicate possible strong technical connections. The main goal of this collection of notes is to provide young researchers and experts alike with an introduction to these areas of active research and promote interaction between the two related directions.
Algebraic groups play much the same role for algebraists as Lie groups play for analysts. This book is the first comprehensive introduction to the theory of algebraic group schemes over fields that includes the structure theory of semisimple algebraic groups, and is written in the language of modern algebraic geometry. The first eight chapters study general algebraic group schemes over a field and culminate in a proof of the Barsotti–Chevalley theorem, realizing every algebraic group as an extension of an abelian variety by an affine group. After a review of the Tannakian philosophy, the author provides short accounts of Lie algebras and finite group schemes. The later chapters treat reductive algebraic groups over arbitrary fields, including the Borel–Chevalley structure theory. Solvable algebraic groups are studied in detail. Prerequisites have also been kept to a minimum so that the book is accessible to non-specialists in algebraic geometry.
Algebraic Groups and Arithmetic is an area in which major advances have been made in recent decades. The School of Mathematics of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research has been one of the significant contributors to the progress, under the leadership of Professor M.S. Raghunathan. The Tata Institute organised a conference on the theme during 17-22 December 2001, on the occasion of Professor Raghunathan turning sixty. The conference received enthusiastic response, and there were lectures by several experts on forefront topics in the theme, including group-theoretic aspects, diophantine approximation, modular forms, representation theory, interactions with topology and geometry, dynamics on homogeneous spaces. This volume is a collection of papers emerging from the Conference. In addition to original papers by several leading mathematicians in the area, it also includes two expository papers on the work of Professor M.S. Raghunathan, by the late Professor Armand Borel and Professor Gopal Prasad, which had also been presented at the Conference.
This monograph treats one case of a series of conjectures by S. Kudla, whose goal is to show that Fourier of Eisenstein series encode information about the Arakelov intersection theory of special cycles on Shimura varieties of orthogonal and unitary type. Here, the Eisenstein series is a Hilbert modular form of weight one over a real quadratic field, the Shimura variety is a classical Hilbert modular surface, and the special cycles are complex multiplication points and the Hirzebruch-Zagier divisors. By developing new techniques in deformation theory, the authors successfully compute the Arakelov intersection multiplicities of these divisors, and show that they agree with the Fourier coefficients of derivatives of Eisenstein series.
In the early years of the 1980s, while I was visiting the Institute for Ad vanced Study (lAS) at Princeton as a postdoctoral member, I got a fascinating view, studying congruence modulo a prime among elliptic modular forms, that an automorphic L-function of a given algebraic group G should have a canon ical p-adic counterpart of several variables. I immediately decided to find out the reason behind this phenomenon and to develop the theory of ordinary p-adic automorphic forms, allocating 10 to 15 years from that point, putting off the intended arithmetic study of Shimura varieties via L-functions and Eisenstein series (for which I visited lAS). Although it took more than 15 years, we now know (at least conjecturally) the exact number of variables for a given G, and it has been shown that this is a universal phenomenon valid for holomorphic automorphic forms on Shimura varieties and also for more general (nonholomorphic) cohomological automorphic forms on automorphic manifolds (in a markedly different way). When I was asked to give a series of lectures in the Automorphic Semester in the year 2000 at the Emile Borel Center (Centre Emile Borel) at the Poincare Institute in Paris, I chose to give an exposition of the theory of p-adic (ordinary) families of such automorphic forms p-adic analytically de pending on their weights, and this book is the outgrowth of the lectures given there.
Modular Forms and Special Cycles on Shimura Curves is a thorough study of the generating functions constructed from special cycles, both divisors and zero-cycles, on the arithmetic surface "M" attached to a Shimura curve "M" over the field of rational numbers. These generating functions are shown to be the q-expansions of modular forms and Siegel modular forms of genus two respectively, valued in the Gillet-Soulé arithmetic Chow groups of "M". The two types of generating functions are related via an arithmetic inner product formula. In addition, an analogue of the classical Siegel-Weil formula identifies the generating function for zero-cycles as the central derivative of a Siegel Eisenstein series. As an application, an arithmetic analogue of the Shimura-Waldspurger correspondence is constructed, carrying holomorphic cusp forms of weight 3/2 to classes in the Mordell-Weil group of "M". In certain cases, the nonvanishing of this correspondence is related to the central derivative of the standard L-function for a modular form of weight 2. These results depend on a novel mixture of modular forms and arithmetic geometry and should provide a paradigm for further investigations. The proofs involve a wide range of techniques, including arithmetic intersection theory, the arithmetic adjunction formula, representation densities of quadratic forms, deformation theory of p-divisible groups, p-adic uniformization, the Weil representation, the local and global theta correspondence, and the doubling integral representation of L-functions.
EMAlgebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: In Honor of Yu. I. ManinEM consists of invited expository and research articles on new developments arising from Manin’s outstanding contributions to mathematics.
International Colloquium an Automorphic Forms, Representation Theory and Arithmetic. Published for the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay
The subject of algebraic cycles has its roots in the study of divisors, extending as far back as the nineteenth century. Since then, and in particular in recent years, algebraic cycles have made a significant impact on many fields of mathematics, among them number theory, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics. The present volume contains articles on all of the above aspects of algebraic cycles. It also contains a mixture of both research papers and expository articles, so that it would be of interest to both experts and beginners in the field.
In the 1970s Hirzebruch and Zagier produced elliptic modular forms with coefficients in the homology of a Hilbert modular surface. They then computed the Fourier coefficients of these forms in terms of period integrals and L-functions. In this book the authors take an alternate approach to these theorems and generalize them to the setting of Hilbert modular varieties of arbitrary dimension. The approach is conceptual and uses tools that were not available to Hirzebruch and Zagier, including intersection homology theory, properties of modular cycles, and base change. Automorphic vector bundles, Hecke operators and Fourier coefficients of modular forms are presented both in the classical and adèlic settings. The book should provide a foundation for approaching similar questions for other locally symmetric spaces.
This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a torsor under the motivic Galois group in Nori's sense, and the period conjecture of Kontsevich and Zagier can be recast in this setting. Periods and Nori Motives is highly informative and will appeal to graduate students interested in algebraic geometry and number theory as well as researchers working in related fields. Containing relevant background material on topics such as singular cohomology, algebraic de Rham cohomology, diagram categories and rigid tensor categories, as well as many interesting examples, the overall presentation of this book is self-contained.
Since the pioneering work of Euler, Dirichlet, and Riemann, the analytic properties of L-functions have been used to study the distribution of prime numbers. With the advent of the Langlands Program, L-functions have assumed a greater role in the study of the interplay between Diophantine questions about primes and representation theoretic properties of Galois representations. The present book provides a complete introduction to the most significant class of L-functions: the Artin-Hecke L-functions associated to finite-dimensional representations of Weil groups and to automorphic L-functions of principal type on the general linear group. In addition to establishing functional equations, growth estimates, and non-vanishing theorems, a thorough presentation of the explicit formulas of Riemann type in the context of Artin-Hecke and automorphic L-functions is also given. The survey is aimed at mathematicians and graduate students who want to learn about the modern analytic theory of L-functions and their applications in number theory and in the theory of automorphic representations. The requirements for a profitable study of this monograph are a knowledge of basic number theory and the rudiments of abstract harmonic analysis on locally compact abelian groups.
This volume collects six related articles. The first is the notes (written by J.S. Milne) of a major part of the seminar "Periodes des Int grales Abeliennes" given by P. Deligne at I'.B.E.S., 1978-79. The second article was written for this volume (by P. Deligne and J.S. Milne) and is largely based on: N Saavedra Rivano, Categories tannakiennes, Lecture Notes in Math. 265, Springer, Heidelberg 1972. The third article is a slight expansion of part of: J.S. Milne and Kuang-yen Shih, Sh ura varieties: conjugates and the action of complex conjugation 154 pp. (Unpublished manuscript, October 1979). The fourth article is based on a letter from P. De1igne to R. Langlands, dated 10th April, 1979, and was revised and completed (by De1igne) in July, 1981. The fifth article is a slight revision of another section of the manuscript of Milne and Shih referred to above. The sixth article, by A. Ogus, dates from July, 1980.
This book is an outgrowth of the special summer session held at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics and the Hausdorff Research Institute for Mathematics. The contributions in the volume provide a window into a variety of subjects related to reductive groups, including real and complex analysis on homogeneous spaces, arithmetic aspects of moment geometry, geometry of flag varieties, restriction theory of representations, modern aspects of special functions, multiple Dirichlet series, and unfolding identities in the theory of automorphic forms.