Inhalt: Kurven - Reguläre Flächen - Die Geometrie der Gauß-Abbildung - Die innere Geometrie von Flächen - Anhang
Es gibt in der Differentialgeometrie von Kurven und FJachen zwei Betrachtungsweisen. Die eine, die man klassische Differentialgeometrie nennen konnte, entstand zusammen mit den Anfangen der Differential-und Integralrechnung. Grob gesagt studiert die klassische Differentialgeometrie lokale Eigenschaften von Kurven und FHichen. Dabei verstehen wir unter lokalen Eigenschaften solche, die nur vom Verhalten der Kurve oder Flache in der Umgebung eines Punktes abhiingen. Die Methoden, die sich als fUr das Studium solcher Eigenschaften geeignet erwiesen haben, sind die Methoden der Differentialrechnung. Aus diesem Grund sind die in der Differentialgeometrie untersuchten Kurven und Flachen durch Funktionen definiert, die von einer gewissen Differenzierbarkeitsklasse sind. Die andere Betrachtungsweise ist die sogenannte globale Differentialgeometrie. Hierbei untersucht man den EinfluB lokaler Eigenschaften auf das Verhalten der gesamten Kurve oder Flache. Der interessanteste und reprasentativste Teil der klassischen Differentialgeometrie ist wohl die Untersuchung von Flachen. Beim Studium von Flachen treten jedoch in nattirlicher Weise einige 10k ale Eigenschaften von Kurven auf. Deshalb benutzen wir dieses erste Kapi tel, urn kurz auf Kurven einzugehen.
Inhalt: Kurven - Reguläre Flächen - Die Geometrie der Gauß-Abbildung - Die innere Geometrie von Flächen - Anhang
One of the most widely used texts in its field, this volume introduces the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in both local and global aspects. The presentation departs from the traditional approach with its more extensive use of elementary linear algebra and its emphasis on basic geometrical facts rather than machinery or random details. Many examples and exercises enhance the clear, well-written exposition, along with hints and answers to some of the problems. The treatment begins with a chapter on curves, followed by explorations of regular surfaces, the geometry of the Gauss map, the intrinsic geometry of surfaces, and global differential geometry. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, this text's prerequisites include an undergraduate course in linear algebra and some familiarity with the calculus of several variables. For this second edition, the author has corrected, revised, and updated the entire volume.
This is a textbook on differential geometry well-suited to a variety of courses on this topic. For readers seeking an elementary text, the prerequisites are minimal and include plenty of examples and intermediate steps within proofs, while providing an invitation to more excursive applications and advanced topics. For readers bound for graduate school in math or physics, this is a clear, concise, rigorous development of the topic including the deep global theorems. For the benefit of all readers, the author employs various techniques to render the difficult abstract ideas herein more understandable and engaging. Over 300 color illustrations bring the mathematics to life, instantly clarifying concepts in ways that grayscale could not. Green-boxed definitions and purple-boxed theorems help to visually organize the mathematical content. Color is even used within the text to highlight logical relationships. Applications abound! The study of conformal and equiareal functions is grounded in its application to cartography. Evolutes, involutes and cycloids are introduced through Christiaan Huygens' fascinating story: in attempting to solve the famous longitude problem with a mathematically-improved pendulum clock, he invented mathematics that would later be applied to optics and gears. Clairaut’s Theorem is presented as a conservation law for angular momentum. Green’s Theorem makes possible a drafting tool called a planimeter. Foucault’s Pendulum helps one visualize a parallel vector field along a latitude of the earth. Even better, a south-pointing chariot helps one visualize a parallel vector field along any curve in any surface. In truth, the most profound application of differential geometry is to modern physics, which is beyond the scope of this book. The GPS in any car wouldn’t work without general relativity, formalized through the language of differential geometry. Throughout this book, applications, metaphors and visualizations are tools that motivate and clarify the rigorous mathematical content, but never replace it.
The Second Edition combines a traditional approach with the symbolic manipulation abilities of Mathematica to explain and develop the classical theory of curves and surfaces. You will learn to reproduce and study interesting curves and surfaces - many more than are included in typical texts - using computer methods. By plotting geometric objects and studying the printed result, teachers and students can understand concepts geometrically and see the effect of changes in parameters. Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica explains how to define and compute standard geometric functions, for example the curvature of curves, and presents a dialect of Mathematica for constructing new curves and surfaces from old. The book also explores how to apply techniques from analysis. Although the book makes extensive use of Mathematica, readers without access to that program can perform the calculations in the text by hand. While single- and multi-variable calculus, some linear algebra, and a few concepts of point set topology are needed to understand the theory, no computer or Mathematica skills are required to understand the concepts presented in the text. In fact, it serves as an excellent introduction to Mathematica, and includes fully documented programs written for use with Mathematica. Ideal for both classroom use and self-study, Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica has been tested extensively in the classroom and used in professional short courses throughout the world.
Created especially for graduate students by a leading writer on mathematics, this introduction to the geometry of curves and surfaces concentrates on problems that students will find most helpful.
Central topics covered include curves, surfaces, geodesics, intrinsic geometry, and the Alexandrov global angle comparision theorem Many nontrivial and original problems (some with hints and solutions) Standard theoretical material is combined with more difficult theorems and complex problems, while maintaining a clear distinction between the two levels
Students and professors of an undergraduate course in differential geometry will appreciate the clear exposition and comprehensive exercises in this book that focuses on the geometric properties of curves and surfaces, one- and two-dimensional objects in Euclidean space. The problems generally relate to questions of local properties (the properties observed at a point on the curve or surface) or global properties (the properties of the object as a whole). Some of the more interesting theorems explore relationships between local and global properties. A special feature is the availability of accompanying online interactive java applets coordinated with each section. The applets allow students to investigate and manipulate curves and surfaces to develop intuition and to help analyze geometric phenomena.
This engrossing volume on curve and surface theories is the result of many years of experience the authors have had with teaching the most essential aspects of this subject. The first half of the text is suitable for a university-level course, without the need for referencing other texts, as it is completely self-contained. More advanced material in the second half of the book, including appendices, also serves more experienced students well. Furthermore, this text is also suitable for a seminar for graduate students, and for self-study. It is written in a robust style that gives the student the opportunity to continue his study at a higher level beyond what a course would usually offer. Further material is included, for example, closed curves, enveloping curves, curves of constant width, the fundamental theorem of surface theory, constant mean curvature surfaces, and existence of curvature line coordinates. Surface theory from the viewpoint of manifolds theory is explained, and encompasses higher level material that is useful for the more advanced student. This includes, but is not limited to, indices of umbilics, properties of cycloids, existence of conformal coordinates, and characterizing conditions for singularities. In summary, this textbook succeeds in elucidating detailed explanations of fundamental material, where the most essential basic notions stand out clearly, but does not shy away from the more advanced topics needed for research in this field. It provides a large collection of mathematically rich supporting topics. Thus, it is an ideal first textbook in this field. Request Inspection Copy
Presenting theory while using Mathematica in a complementary way, Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica, the third edition of Alfred Gray’s famous textbook, covers how to define and compute standard geometric functions using Mathematica for constructing new curves and surfaces from existing ones. Since Gray’s death, authors Abbena and Salamon have stepped in to bring the book up to date. While maintaining Gray's intuitive approach, they reorganized the material to provide a clearer division between the text and the Mathematica code and added a Mathematica notebook as an appendix to each chapter. They also address important new topics, such as quaternions. The approach of this book is at times more computational than is usual for a book on the subject. For example, Brioshi’s formula for the Gaussian curvature in terms of the first fundamental form can be too complicated for use in hand calculations, but Mathematica handles it easily, either through computations or through graphing curvature. Another part of Mathematica that can be used effectively in differential geometry is its special function library, where nonstandard spaces of constant curvature can be defined in terms of elliptic functions and then plotted. Using the techniques described in this book, readers will understand concepts geometrically, plotting curves and surfaces on a monitor and then printing them. Containing more than 300 illustrations, the book demonstrates how to use Mathematica to plot many interesting curves and surfaces. Including as many topics of the classical differential geometry and surfaces as possible, it highlights important theorems with many examples. It includes 300 miniprograms for computing and plotting various geometric objects, alleviating the drudgery of computing things such as the curvature and torsion of a curve in space.
Our first knowledge of differential geometry usually comes from the study of the curves and surfaces in I\!\!R^3 that arise in calculus. Here we learn about line and surface integrals, divergence and curl, and the various forms of Stokes' Theorem. If we are fortunate, we may encounter curvature and such things as the Serret-Frenet formulas. With just the basic tools from multivariable calculus, plus a little knowledge of linear algebra, it is possible to begin a much richer and rewarding study of differential geometry, which is what is presented in this book. It starts with an introduction to the classical differential geometry of curves and surfaces in Euclidean space, then leads to an introduction to the Riemannian geometry of more general manifolds, including a look at Einstein spaces. An important bridge from the low-dimensional theory to the general case is provided by a chapter on the intrinsic geometry of surfaces. The first half of the book, covering the geometry of curves and surfaces, would be suitable for a one-semester undergraduate course. The local and global theories of curves and surfaces are presented, including detailed discussions of surfaces of rotation, ruled surfaces, and minimal surfaces. The second half of the book, which could be used for a more advanced course, begins with an introduction to differentiable manifolds, Riemannian structures, and the curvature tensor. Two special topics are treated in detail: spaces of constant curvature and Einstein spaces. The main goal of the book is to get started in a fairly elementary way, then to guide the reader toward more sophisticated concepts and more advanced topics. There are many examples and exercises to help along the way. Numerous figures help the reader visualize key concepts and examples, especially in lower dimensions. For the second edition, a number of errors were corrected and some text and a number of figures have been added.
This is the first advanced text/reference to explain the mathematics of curves and surfaces and describe how to draw the pictures illustrating them using Mathematica. Learn not only the classical concepts, ideas, and methods of differential geometry, but also how to define, construct, and compute standard functions. Also learn how to create new curves and surfaces from old ones. Material includes 150+ exercises, 175 Mathematica programs, and 225 geometric figures to develop the topics presented. A tutorial explaining how to use Mathematica in differential geometry is included as well. This text/reference is excellent for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers who use differential geometric methods and investigate geometrical structures.
Dieses Buch ist eine Einführung in die Differentialgeometrie. Zunächst geht es um die klassischen Aspekte wie die Geometrie von Kurven und Flächen, bevor dann höherdimensionale Flächen sowie abstrakte Mannigfaltigkeiten betrachtet werden. Die Nahtstelle ist dabei das zentrale Kapitel "Die innere Geometrie von Flächen". Dieses führt den Leser bis hin zu dem berühmten Satz von Gauß-Bonnet, der ein entscheidendes Bindeglied zwischen lokaler und globaler Geometrie darstellt. Die zweite Hälfte des Buches ist der Riemannschen Geometrie gewidmet. Den Abschluss bildet ein Kapitel über "Einstein-Räume", die eine große Bedeutung sowohl in der "Reinen Mathematik" als auch in der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie von A. Einstein haben. Es wird großer Wert auf Anschaulichkeit gelegt, was durch zahlreiche Abbildungen unterstützt wird. Im Laufe der Neuauflagen wurde der Text erweitert, neue Aufgaben wurden hinzugefügt und am Ende des Buches wurden zusätzliche Hinweise zur Lösung der Übungsaufgaben ergänzt. Der Text wurde für die fünfte Auflage gründlich durchgesehen und an einigen Stellen verbessert.
This book is intended to suit mathematics courses for post-graduate students. It has been written by an author with 25 years experience of lectures on differential geometry, and is therefore designed to help the reader overcome the difficulties in understanding the underlying concepts of the subject, The book will also be useful for introducing the methodology of differential geometry to research students in associated disciplines; physics, engineering, biosciences and economics. The book is divided into 5 chapters - curvilinear co-ordinates, geometry of space curves, intrinsic geometry of a surface, fundamental formulate of a ssurface, curves on a surface -- and each chapter contains numerous examples which are either worked out or given as an exercise in order to facilitate and understanding. Finally the book concludes with a brief history of differential geometry. This book is an excellent text for post-graduate maths courses, and will also be of interest to all mathematicians.
Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Second Edition takes both an analytical/theoretical approach and a visual/intuitive approach to the local and global properties of curves and surfaces. Requiring only multivariable calculus and linear algebra, it develops students’ geometric intuition through interactive computer graphics applets supported by sound theory. The book explains the reasons for various definitions while the interactive applets offer motivation for certain definitions, allow students to explore examples further, and give a visual explanation of complicated theorems. The ability to change parametric curves and parametrized surfaces in an applet lets students probe the concepts far beyond what static text permits. New to the Second Edition Reworked presentation to make it more approachable More exercises, both introductory and advanced New section on the application of differential geometry to cartography Additional investigative project ideas Significantly reorganized material on the Gauss–Bonnet theorem Two new sections dedicated to hyperbolic and spherical geometry as applications of intrinsic geometry A new chapter on curves and surfaces in Rn Suitable for an undergraduate-level course or self-study, this self-contained textbook and online software applets provide students with a rigorous yet intuitive introduction to the field of differential geometry. The text gives a detailed introduction of definitions, theorems, and proofs and includes many types of exercises appropriate for daily or weekly assignments. The applets can be used for computer labs, in-class illustrations, exploratory exercises, or self-study aids.
Elementary, yet authoritative and scholarly, this book offers an excellent brief introduction to the classical theory of differential geometry. It is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find it not only highly readable but replete with illustrations carefully selected to help stimulate the student's visual understanding of geometry. The text features an abundance of problems, most of which are simple enough for class use, and often convey an interesting geometrical fact. A selection of more difficult problems has been included to challenge the ambitious student. Written by a noted mathematician and historian of mathematics, this volume presents the fundamental conceptions of the theory of curves and surfaces and applies them to a number of examples. Dr. Struik has enhanced the treatment with copious historical, biographical, and bibliographical references that place the theory in context and encourage the student to consult original sources and discover additional important ideas there. For this second edition, Professor Struik made some corrections and added an appendix with a sketch of the application of Cartan's method of Pfaffians to curve and surface theory. The result was to further increase the merit of this stimulating, thought-provoking text — ideal for classroom use, but also perfectly suited for self-study. In this attractive, inexpensive paperback edition, it belongs in the library of any mathematician or student of mathematics interested in differential geometry.