Stephen Mumford puts forward a new theory of dispositions, showing how central their role in metaphysics and philosophy of science is. Much of our understanding of the physical and psychological world is expressed in terms of dispositional properties - from the spin of a subatomic particle andthe solubility of sugar to a person's belief that zebras have stripes. Mumford discusses what it means to say that something has a property of this kind, and how dispositions can possibly be real things in the world. They have seemed to many to reside on the fringes of actuality, waiting to manifestthemselves; Mumford's clear, straightforward, realist account reveals them to be far less enigmatic, and shows that an understanding of dispositions is essential to an understanding of properties, causation, and scientific laws.
Dispositions are everywhere. We say that a wall is hard, that water quenches thirst and is transparent, that dogs can swim and oak trees can let their leaves fall, and that acid has the power to corrode metals. All these statements express attributions of dispositions, be they physical, physiological or psychological, yet there is much philosophical debate about how far, if at all, dispositional predicates can have complete meaning or figure in causal explanations. This collection of essays, by leading international researchers, examine the case for realism with respect to dispositions and causal powers in both metaphysics and science. Among the issues debated in this book is whether dispositions can be analyzed in terms of conditionals, whether all dispositions have a so-called categorical basis and, if they do, what is the relation between the disposition and its basis.
Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.
This anthology consists of a collection of papers on the nature of dis positions and the role of disposition concepts in scientific theories. I have tried to make the collection as representative as possible, except that problems specifically connected with dispositions in various special sciences are relatively little discussed. Most of these articles have been previously published. The papers by Mackie, Essler and Trapp, Fetzer (in Section 11), Levi, and Tuomela appear here for the first time, and are simultaneously published in Synthese 34, No. 4, which is a special issue on dispositions. Of the previously published material it should be emphasized that the papers by Hempel and Fisk have been extensively revised specially for this anthology. The papers are grouped in four sections, partlyon the basis of their content. However, due to the complexity of the issues involved, there is considerable overlap in content between the different sections, especially between Sections land 11. I wish to thank Professors James Fetzer and Carl G. Hempel for helpful advicc in compiling this anthology.
Ordinary language and scientific discourse are filled with linguistic expressions for dispositional properties such as "soluble," "elastic," "reliable," and "humorous." We characterize objects in all domains - physical objects as well as human persons - with the help of dispositional expressions. Hence, the concept of a disposition has historically and systematically played a central role in different areas of philosophy ranging from metaphysics to ethics. The contributions of this volume analyze the ancient foundations of the discussion about disposition, examine the problem of disposition within the context of the foundation of modern science, and analyze this dispute up to the 20th century. Furthermore, articles explore the contemporary theories of dispositions.
The Summa Theologiæ ranks among the greatest documents of the Christian Church. It provides the framework for Catholic studies in systematic theology and for a classical Christian philosophy. The purpose, then, of this edition is not narrowly ecclesiastical, but to share with all Christians this treasury of wisdom which is part of their common heritage. Moreover, it consults the interests of many who, without claiming to be believers, appreciate a religious integrity which embodies hardbitten rationalism and who recognise in St Thomas a master of that perennial philosophy which, though not confined to the West, is the foundation on which our civilisation is built. Because of this the editors worked under specific instructions to bear in mind not only the professional theologian, but also the general reader with an interest in the 'reason' in Christianity. The publication of the Latin text along with the English will be reassuring to readers with a smattering of Latin, and has the advantages of permitting the translator somewhat more freedom in adapting the text in translation to the understanding of contemporary minds. Each volume contains a glossary of technical terms and is designed to be complete in itself to serve for private study or as the text-book for a special course.
Armed with only a notebook and a handheld global positioning device, Wark tracks the secret passage free time and free thought through the spaces of an everyday life.
Dispositions are essential to our understanding of the world. Dispositions: A Debate is an extended dialogue between three distinguished philosophers - D.M. Armstrong, C.B. Martin and U.T. Place - on the many problems associated with dispositions, which reveals their own distinctive accounts of the nature of dispositions. These are then linked to other issues such as the nature of mind, matter, universals, existence, laws of nature and causation.
Are your students poised for success?Need a clear roadmap for achieving the college and career readiness goals of the Common Core and 21st century learning? Grounded in Costa and Kallick′s groundbreaking habits of mind work, and informed by current research, this book helps educators: Build consensus around what attributes and abilities all students should possess by the time they graduate Develop a common language around these dispositions so that students will encounter them daily Integrate these dispositions into curriculum design, instruction, and assessment Create school cultures that value dispositional learning
The editors and authors of Professional Teacher Dispositions: Additions to the Mainstream contribute to the long tradition in education of the discussions of teacher dispositions. It is intended for novice and experienced teachers, for those who educate future teachers, and for those who hire teachers.
Rules and Dispositions in Language Use explains how correct language use is governed by both rules and general human dispositions. It does so by bringing together themes from Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky, which for many years have been thought to be incompatible.
"DISPOSITIONS" by Dr. Ahmed K. Nazir, M.D. can be useful to anyone seeking to better oneself be it in the realm of physical, psychological, social or spiritual sphere. A cursory glance at the contents of this book would show a picturesque multiplicity of topics. It may be termed as a potpourri, a mosaic, a bouquet of garden variety or an outstanding, diversified assortment of gems and pearls. The fact, that such a brief volume mirrors so many different segments of human life and areas of study, in a captivating style, determines the uniqueness of "Dispositions". The dominant subjects presented in it are, Psychiatry, Islam, and Human Behavior. This book contains sensitive material. Reader discretion advised.
This book focuses on faculty members in a learning community in the College of Education at Florida International University. It discusses their pedagogical efforts to structure learning environments consistent with the philosophical orientation in the college’s conceptual framework to evoke key habits of mind that are consistent with reflective intelligence.
In recent decades, the analysis of causal relations has become a topic of central importance in analytic philosophy. More recently, dispositional properties have also become objects of intense study. Both of these phenomena appear to be intimately related to counterfactual conditionals and other modal phenomena such as objective chance, but little work has been done to directly relate them. Dispositions and Causes contains ten essays by scholars working in both metaphysics and in philosophy of science, examining the relation between dispositional and causal concepts. Particular issues discussed include the possibility of reducing dispositions to causes, and vice versa; the possibility of a nominalist theory of causal powers; the attempt to reduce all metaphysical necessity to dispositional properties; the relationship between dispositions, causes, and laws of nature; the role of causal capacities in explaining the success of scientific inquiry; the grounding of dispositions and causes in objective chances; and the type of causal power required for free agency. The introductory chapter contains a detailed overview of recent work in the area, providing a helpful entry to the literature for non-specialists.
Dispositions as Habits of Mind provides opportunities for candidates in teacher education programs, which focus on nurturing and assessing dispositions, to see the habits of mind for making professional conduct more intelligent, practice them, and receive feedback about their performance. Some scholars have pointed out that the rush by many teacher education programs to meet accreditation mandates with regard to 'dispositions' has generated a host of measures for assessing dispositions and very little focus on programs first establishing some conceptual understanding of the construct, and then teaching candidates about dispositions. This work on dispositions highlights the serious effort to help teachers and other professional school personnel to form habits and use them as active means in making their professional conduct more effective and intelligent.