Drawing together common features of society from a range of different contexts throughout Europe, from Italy and Spain to Poland and Russia, Early Modern European Society surveys the sweeping changes affecting Europe from the end of the fifteenth century to the early decades of the eighteenth century. Henry Kamen includes discussion on: European identities, frontiers and language leisure, work and migration religion, ritual and witchcraft the aristocracy, the bourgeoisie and the poor gender roles social discipline and absolutism.
In 1929 two French historians, Lucien Febvre and Marc Bloch, founded Annales, a historical journal which rapidly became one of the most influential in the world. They believed that economic history, social history and the history of ideas were as important as political history, and that historians should not be narrow specialists but should learn from their colleagues in the social sciences. Two of the most distinguished French members of the Annales school are represented in this volume - Fernand Braudel and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie - the core of which is the debate on the Price Revolution of the sixteenth century dealt with by Cipolla, Chabert, Hoszowski and Verlinden. Within the volume, all the contributions are oriented towards Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and all are concerned with long-term changes, and with the relation between economic growth and social change. It includes articles on the European movement of expansion discussed by Malowist and the activities of the Hungarian nobles as entrepreneurs discussed by Pach, and two articles on wider issues: Le Roy Ladurie on the history of climate, and Braudel, summing up the Annales programme, on the relation between history and the social sciences. This classic text was first published in 1972.
Concise and accessible introduction to health and healing in Europe from 1500 to 1800.
What do people do all day? What did women and men do to make a living in early modern Europe, and what did their work mean? As this book shows, the meanings depended both on the worker and on the context. With an innovative analytic method that is yoked to a specially-built database of source materials, this book revises many received opinions about the history of gender and work in Europe. The applied verb-oriented method finds the 'work verbs' that appear incidentally in a wide variety of early modern sources and then analyzes the context in which they appear. By tying information technologies and computer-assisted analysis to the analytic powers - both quantitative and qualitative - of professional historians, the method gets much closer to a participatory observation of the micro-patterns of early modern life than was once believed possible. It directly addresses a number of broad problems often debated by historians of gender and early modern Europe. First, it discusses the problem of assessing more accurately the incidence, character and division of work. Second, it analyzes the configurations of work and human difference. Third, it deals with the extent to which work practices created notions of difference - gender difference but also other forms of difference - and, conversely, to what extent work practices contributed to notions of sameness and gender convergence. Finally, it studies the impact of processes of change. Drawing on sources from Sweden, the authors show the importance of multiple employment, the openness of early modern households, the significance of marriage and marital status, the gendered nature of specific tasks, and the ways in which state formation and commercialization were entangled in people's everyday lives.
Was Protestantism `better' than Catholicism, contributing to well organised societies and economic enterprise? Or was Catholicism the religion of reactionary and backward states and societies like Spain and Austria, in contrast to the thrusting and modern bourgeois states of the United Netherlands and England? Certainly Spain and Austria declined but France, although Catholic and absolutist, rose to greatness, although the argument might be sustained by Britain's global triumph in the 18th century. Closely linked is the rise of the modern state in Europe and Russia - increasingly `European' under Peter the Great - and the Ottoman Empire. What was the structure of the modern state? Did rulers with administrative sophistication and centralisaton, buttresssed by a growing cadre of middle class civil servants - the `noblesse du robe' - and military and naval power, exercise absolute power over state and society? Or was royal absolutism a `myth', grand in display but bankrupt, increasingly opposed by all parts of society, and to swept away in revolution? Jeremy Black, one of the most prolific and stimulating scholars of early modern Europe sets his history in the context of the Middle East, Central, South and East and Asia and the New World, shows how Europe fits into a world view, and demonstrates that with the exception of Peter the Great's Russia, royal power in early modern Europe was based on compromise and traditional relationships with the aristocracy and gentry, the Estates, corporations, the church and with an element of common consent. Commercial progress was widespread, boundaries were stabilised, and European financial, technical and mineral resources fuelled New World expansion - until the revolutionary deluge after 1789.
Die epochalen Umbrüche im Denken der Frühen Neuzeit waren für die Ausbildung des Weltbilds der Moderne von prägender Kraft. Die Entdeckungen und Neuorientierungen, die Europa in der Zeit zwischen 1400 und 1700 bewegten, bilden nicht nur die Vorgeschichte der Gegenwart, sondern markieren deren Beginn. Mit dem Handbuch Departure for Modern Europe, das die Beiträge des 2007 ausgetragenen Ersten Internationalen Kongresses der European Society for Early Modern Philosophy enthält, liegt erstmalig eine von Experten internationalen Ranges zusammengestellte umfassende Gesamtschau der Erneuerungen und Neuansätzen in allen Bereichen der tätigen Weltgestaltung und intellektuellen Welterfassung in der Frühen Neuzeit vor, auf denen unser modernes Weltbild beruht. Von der Entdeckung der Ökonomie als der treibenden Kraft für die Umformungen der Gesellschaft über die Anerkennung der Freiheit des Subjekts bis hin zur Erneuerung der Wissenschaften unter dem Primat des Kriteriums der empirischen Forschung bleibt die Frühe Neuzeit unter allen Epochen der Philosophie- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte diejenige, auf die wir zuerst zurückblicken müssen, wenn es darum geht, das Weltbild der Moderne aus seinen Anfängen zu verstehen. Das mehrsprachige Handbuch ist auf die folgenden Aspekte fokussiert: 1) the self-reflection of early modern philosophy, 2) the analysis of early modern knowledge about nature, 3) early modern knowledge about man in general and 4) early modern knowledge about human action in particular, and 5) the relation between early modern knowledge and its environment.
A survey of violence in western Europe from the Reformation to the French Revolution.
The first major work in English to give a pan-European perspective on the changing role of small towns from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century.
Engaging with fiction and history-and reading both genres as texts permeated with early modern anxieties, desires, and apprehensions-this collection scrutinizes the historical intersection of early modern European superstitions and English stage literature. Contributors analyze the cultural mechanisms that shape, preserve, and transmit beliefs. They investigate where superstitions come from and how they are sustained and communicated within early modern European society. It has been proposed by scholars that once enacted on stage and thus brought into contact with the literary-dramatic perspective, belief systems that had been preserved and reinforced by historical-literary texts underwent a drastic change. By highlighting the connection between historical-literary and literary-dramatic culture, this volume tests and explores the theory that performance of superstitions opened the way to disbelief.
In the pre-industrial societies of early modern Europe, religion was a vessel of fundamental importance in making sense of personal and collective social, cultural and spiritual exercises. Developments from this era had immediate impact on these societies, much of which resonates to the present day. Published in German seven years ago, Kaspar von Greyerz important overview and interpretation of the religions and cultures of Early Modern Europe now appears in the English language for the first time. He approaches his subject matter with the concerns of a social anthropologist, rejecting the conventional dichotomy between popular and elite religion to focus instead on religion in its everyday cultural contexts. Concentrating primarily on Central and Western Europe, von Greyerz analyzes the dynamic strengths of early modern religion in three parts. First, he identifies the changes in religious life resulting from the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He then reveals how the dynamic religious climate triggered various radical and separatist movements, such as the Anabaptists, puritans, and Quakers, and how the newfound emphasis on collective religious identity contributed to the marginalization of non-Christians and outsiders. Last, von Greyerz investigates the broad and still much divided field of research on secularization during the period covered. While many large-scale historical approaches to early modern religion have concentrated on institutional aspects, this important study consciously neglects these elements to provide new and fascinating insights. The resulting work delves into the many distinguishing marks of the period: religious reform and renewal, the hotly debated issue of "confessionalism", social inclusion and exclusion, and the increasing fragmentation of early modern religiosity in the context of the Enlightenment. In a final chapter, von Greyerz addresses the question as to whether early modern religion carried in itself the seeds of its own relativization.
This reader brings together original and influential recent work in the field of early modern European history. Provides a thought-provoking overview of current thinking on this period. Key themes include evolving early-modern identities; changes in religion and cultural life; the revolution of the mind; roles of women in early-modern societies; the rise of the modern state; and Europe and the new world system Incorporates new scholarship on Eastern and Central Europe. Includes an article translated into English for the first time.
Food and Health in Early Modern Europe is both a history of food practices and a history of the medical discourse about that food. It is also an exploration of the interaction between the two: the relationship between evolving foodways and shifting medical advice on what to eat in order to stay healthy. It provides the first in-depth study of printed dietary advice covering the entire early modern period, from the late-15th century to the early-19th; it is also the first to trace the history of European foodways as seen through the prism of this advice. David Gentilcore offers a doctor's-eye view of changing food and dietary fashions: from Portugal to Poland, from Scotland to Sicily, not forgetting the expanding European populations of the New World. In addition to exploring European regimens throughout the period, works of materia medica, botany, agronomy and horticulture are considered, as well as a range of other printed sources, such as travel accounts, cookery books and literary works. The book also includes 30 illustrations, maps and extensive chapter bibliographies with web links included to further aid study. Food and Health in Early Modern Europe is the essential introduction to the relationship between food, health and medicine for history students and scholars alike.
'Early Modern' is a term applied to the period which falls between the end of the middle ages and the beginning of the nineteenth century. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to Europe in this period, exploring the changes and transitions involved in the move towards modernity. Nine newly commissioned chapters under the careful editorship of Euan Cameron cover social, political, economic, and cultural perspectives, all contributing to a full and vibrant picture of Europe during this time. The chapters are organized thematically, and consider the evolving European economy and society, the impact of new ideas on religion, and the emergence of modern political attitudes and techniques. The text is complemented with many illustrations throughout to give a feel of the changes in life beyond the raw historical data.
The concept of cultural history has in the last few decades come to the fore of historical research into early modern Europe. Due in no small part to the pioneering work of Peter Burke, the tools of the cultural historian are now routinely brought to bear on every aspect of history, and have transformed our understanding of the past. First published in 1978 and now in its third edition, this study examines the broad sweep of pre-industrial Europe's popular culture. This new edition features a new introduction reflecting the growth of cultural history and an extensive supplementary bibliography which further adds to the information about new research in the area.
A ground-breaking reassessment of the status of information in early modern Europe, first published in 2007.
An accessible and authoritative account of poverty and deviance during the early modern period.
"A tour de force." - Vladimir Steffel, Ohio State University
This project is an attempt to challenge the canonical gender concept while trying to specify what gender was in the medieval and early modern world. Despite the emphasis on individual, identity and difference that past research claims, much of this history still focuses on hierarchical or dichotomous paring of masculinity and femininity (or male and female). The emphasis on differences has been largely based on the research of such topics as premarital sex, religious deviance, rape and violence; these are topics that were, in the early modern society, criminal or at least easily marginalizing. The central focus of the book is to test, verify and challenge the methodology and use the concept(s) of gender specifically applicable to the period of great change and transition. The volume contains two theoretical sections supplemented by case-studies of gender through specific practices such as mysticism, witchcraft, crime, and legal behaviour. The first section, "Concepts", analyzes certain useful notions, such as patriarchy and morality. The second section, "Identities", seeks to deepen this analysis into the studies of female identities in various situations, cultures and dimensions and to show the fluidity and flexibility of what is called femininity nowadays. The third part, "Practises", seeks to rethink the bigger narratives through the case-studies coming from Northern Europe to see how conventional ideas of gender did not work in this particular region. The case studies also challenge the established narratives in such well-research historiographies as witchcraft and sexual offences and at the same time suggest new insights for the developing fields of study, such as history of homicide.
These volumes are the fruits of a major European Science Foundation project and offer the first comprehensive study of republicanism as a shared European heritage. Whilst previous research has mainly focused on Atlantic traditions of republicanism, Professors Skinner and van Gelderen have assembled an internationally distinguished set of contributors whose studies highlight the richness and diversity of European traditions. Volume I focuses on the importance of anti-monarchism in Europe and analyses the relationship between citizenship and civic humanism, concluding with studies of the relationship between constitutionalism and republicanism in the period between 1500 and 1800. Volume II is devoted to the study of key republican values such as liberty, virtue, politeness and toleration. This 2002 volume also addresses the role of women in European republican traditions, and contains a number of in-depth studies of the relationship between republicanism and the rise of a commercial society in early modern Europe.