This marvellous new book sets the developments in the government of England under the early Tudors in the context of recent work on the fifteenth century and on continental Europe.
Heinrich VIII. zählt & neben Elisabeth I. & zu den mächtigsten englischen Monarchen im 16.Jahrhundert. Ihm gelang es, durch eine weitsichtige Politik die Grundlagen für das ''englische Empire'' zu legen. Heute kennen wir diesen bedeutenden Herrscher meist nur aufgrund seiner vielen Ehen; wichtiger ist er aber aufgrund seiner Gründung der Englischen Staatskirche und der Auseinandersetzungen mit Parlament, Adel und den anderen europäischen Herrschern. Zudem bildete sich während seiner Regentschaft der frühmoderne Staat heraus, der die folgenden Jahrhunderte bestimmen sollte. Der Autor skizziert nur kurz Leben und Heiraten des Königs, legt jedoch danach den Schwerpunkt der Darstellung auf eine thematisch strukturierte Geschichte Englands in der ersten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts und auf die vielfältigen und wechselnden Beziehungen Heinrichs wie Englands zum Kontinent Europa.
Kaum eine europäische Herrscherdynastie hat so schillernde, mitunter skandalträchtige Herrscherfiguren hervorgebracht wie die Tudors. Ob Heinrich VIII., Maria die Blutige oder die Virgin Queen Elisabeth - sie zählen zu den markantesten und eigenwilligsten Vertretern des englischen und europäischen Königtums. Das Buch vergegenwärtigt in eindrucksvollen Porträts die englischen Herrscher der Tudorfamilie seit dem Amtsantritt Heinrichs VII. bis hin zum Stewartkönig Jakob I., dem Nachfolger Elisabeths, und zeichnet ihre Bedeutung für die englische und kontinentaleuropäische Geschichte nach. Diese neue, äußerst lesbare Gesamtdarstellung entwirft neben dem königlichen Familien- ein Epochenbild, das neben Politik und Wirtschaft auch die Kunst, Literatur und Architektur umfasst; zudem wird das sich wandelnde Bild der Dynastie in Spiel- und Fernsehfilmen skizziert.
Peter Wende verzichtet auf einen kompakten komprimierenden Abriss der britischen Geschichte zu Gunsten parallel angeordneter historischer Längsschnitte zu den Themen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Verfassung und Machtstrukturen, Religion und Kirche, Großbritannien und Europa, Empire und Commonwealth, mit deren Hilfe die Geschichte des Auf- und Abstiegs der britischen Weltmacht erschlossen wird. Im Forschungsteil wird der Versuch unternommen, in erster Linie die Ergebnisse eines vielfältigen historischen Revisionismus zu präsentieren, der im Laufe der vergangenen zwanzig Jahre auf nahezu allen Gebieten und für alle Epochen der neueren britischen Geschichte die Leitsätze der klassischen englischen liberalen Geschichtsschreibung in Frage gestellt hat.
This excellent survey looks at the workings of parliament under the first four Tudor monarchs. After an introductory first section which looks at parliament's medieval origins, the author then considers all aspects of early parliamentary history - including the historiography of the early Tudor parliaments, membership and attendance, the legislative roles if the Lords anbd Commons and the specific parliaments themselves.
The second volume of a two-volume assessment of the constitutional impact made by the first two Tudor kings, Henry VII and Henry VIII.
An important re-evaluation of Elizabethan politics and Elizabeth's queenship in sixteenth-century England, Wales and Ireland.
The illustrated history of the Tudors from the finest historians working on the period today.
In this sweeping history, Trevor Royle details one of the bloodiest episodes in British history. The prize was the crown of England, and the players were the rival houses of Lancaster and York. The dynastic quarrel threatened the collapse of the monarchy as a succession of weak rulers failed to deal with an overzealous aristocracy, plunging England into a series of violent encounters. The bloody battles and political intrigue between the rival heirs of King Edward III brought forth one of the most dynamic ruling families of England--the Tudors.
The English Civil Wars and Revolution remain controversial. This book develops the theme that the Revolution, arising from the three separate rebellions, was an English phenomenon exported to Ireland and then to Scotland. Dr Kennedy examines the widespread effects of years of bloody and unnatural civil wars upon the British Isles. He also explores the symbolism of Charles I's execution, the 'great debates' about the proper limits of the King's authority and the 'great divide' in English politics which makes neutral writing about this period impossible. Taking into account the radical exigencies and expectations of war and peace-making, the discordant testimonies from battlefield and bargaining table, Parliament, press and pulpit, Dr Kennedy provides a full analysis of the English experience of revolution.
Guilds and fraternities, voluntary associations of men and women, proliferated in medieval Europe. The Art of Solidarity in the Middle Ages explores the motives and experiences of the many thousands of men and women who joined together in these family-like societies. Rarely confined to a single craft, the diversity of guild membership was of its essence. Setting the English evidence in a European context, this study is not an institutional history, but instead is concerned with the material and non-material aims of the brothers and sisters of the guilds. Gervase Rosser addresses the subject of medieval guilds in the context of contemporary debates surrounding the identity and fulfilment of the individual, and the problematic question of his or her relationship to a larger society. Unlike previous studies, The Art of Solidarity in the Middle Ages does not focus on the guilds as institutions but on the social and moral processes which were catalysed by participation. These bodies founded schools, built bridges, managed almshouses, governed small towns, shaped religious ritual, and commemorated the dead, perceiving that association with a fraternity would be a potential catalyst of personal change. Participants cultivated the formation of new friendships between individuals, predicated on the understanding that human fulfilment depended upon a mutually transformative engagement with others. The peasants, artisans, and professionals who joined the guilds sought to change both their society and themselves. The study sheds light on the conception and construction of society in the Middle Ages, and suggests further that this evidence has implications for how we see ourselves.
'Community' and 'justice' recur in anthropological, historical, and legal scholarship, yet as concepts they are notoriously slippery. Historians and lawyers look to anthropologists as 'community specialists', but anthropologists often avoid the concept through circumlocution: although much used (and abused) by historians, legal thinkers, and political philosophers, the term remains strikingly indeterminate and often morally overdetermined. 'Justice', meanwhile, is elusive, alternately invoked as the goal of contemporary political theorizing, and wrapped in obscure philosophical controversy. A conceptual knot emerges in much legal and political thought between law, justice, and community, but theories abound, without any agreement over concepts. The contributors to this volume use empirical case studies to unpick threads of this knot. Local codes from Anglo-Saxon England, north Africa, and medieval Armenia indicate disjunctions between community boundaries and the subjects of local rules and categories; processes of justice from early modern Europe to eastern Tibet suggest new ways of conceptualizing the relationship between law and justice; and practices of exile that recur throughout the world illustrate contingent formulations of community. In the first book in the series, Legalism: Anthropology and History, law was addressed through a focus on local legal categories as conceptual tools. Here this approach is extended to the ideas and ideals of justice and community. Rigorous cross-cultural comparison allows the contributors to avoid normative assumptions, while opening new avenues of inquiry for lawyers, anthropologists, and historians alike.
A time of great changes after nearly a century of foreign wars and civil strife, the Tudor era witnessed a significant transformation of dramatic art. Medieval traditions were modified by the forces of humanism and the Reformation, and a renewed interest in classical models inspired experimentation. Howard B. Norland examines Tudor plays performed between 1485 and 1558, a time when drama reached beyond local, popular, and religious contexts to treat more varied and more secular concerns, culminating in the emergence of comedy and tragedy as major genres. The theater also imported dramas from the Continent, adapting them to English tastes. After establishing the popular dramatic traditions of fifteenth-century Britain, Norland discusses the critical interpretation of the Latin plays of Terence studied in the schools and the views of influential authors such as Erasmus, Vives, and More about what drama should be and do. The heart of the book is its in-depth analyses of individual plays. Norland examines the secularization of the morality play in Skelton's Magnificence, Bale's King John, Respublica, and Redford's Wit and Science and he traces the changes in comic form from Medwall's Fulgens and Lucres through Calisto and Melebea and Johan Johan to Udall's Roister Doister and Gammer Gurton's Needle. The final section examines the first tragedies written in England: Watson's Absolom, Christopherson's Jephthah, and Grimald's Archipropheta. Howard B. Norland is a professor of English at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. His articles have appeared in Genre, Sixteenth Century Journal, Fifteenth Century Studies, Comparative Drama, and Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
J. L. McIntosh argues that Mary I and Elizabeth I were authority figures beforethey acceded to the English throne. As independent heads of households and property-owners, the Tudor princesses attained a social and political status usually reserved for elite men, showing that women could achieve agency through the management of an elite household. Drawing on their household archives, McIntosh recounts how the Tudor princesses attracted political clients, challenged royal authority, and established a recognizable political profile by exploiting the resources of servants, estates, and material culture. Her research proves that "exceptional" women can offer insights into the opportunities available to other contemporary women and that the elite household was a foundational element in identity formation.
This is an important and original biography of John Colet, the leading humanist theologian in early Tudor England and the founder of St Paul's School in London. Taken at face value, the facts of John Colet's life, spanning the late 15th and early 16th centuries, appear to portray a successful, humanist clerical reformer, active in London on the eve of the English Reformation. In fact, as a cleric, John Colet was neither successful nor a reformer, nor were the reforms he attempted particularly welcome. His greatest achievement, and lasting legacy, was the foundation of his school. Thus, in the sphere of Christian humanist education, Colet was a success. However, in all his dealings, Colet considered the spiritual life to be of paramount importance and his ultimate aim was the deification of sinful humanity, not just for a few exceptional individuals, but for the entire Church. In this respect, Colet's ecclesiastical vision did not effect any significant change in the early sixteenth-century Church, although it nevertheless pointed to the possibility of a more spiritual, unified and holy Church. Colet was a passionate and pious man who does not fall easily into any historical, intellectual or ecclesiastical category. Ultimately, he escapes identification with any other set of contemporaneous idealists because his vision was his own. This study offers a timely re-assessment of the life of a complex religious figure of pre-Reformation England.
This book focuses primarily on the work of the two most successful courtier poets, Sir Thomas Wyatt (c. 1503-1542) and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517-1547). Their poetry is considered in the contexts of their careers, of the writing of contemporaries, and of the political and social conditions within which they lived. This volume presents readings of the full range of each poet's writing, from amorous Italianate songs and sonnets, to classic epigrams and satires, and reformist psalm paraphrases.
Comparing the effects of war on England and the Netherlands, this book tests the idea that war increased rulers' power over their subjects. Exploring themes such as national identity and religious change, the result is a compelling and nuanced picture of societies and policies tested and shaped by the pressures of ever more demanding warfare.
"Henry VIII" focuses on the fluctuating, often fraught relationship between the king and his court, his Church and his people - and with the other powers of continental Europe, relations with whom were thrown into turmoil by Henry's successive marriages. It explores Henry's policies and strategies and his manipulation of key players such as Wolsey, Cromwell, Fisher and More, as well as the shaping of his royal image over decades of change. It also probes the intriguing nature of the man behind the monarch, especially his complex religious beliefs that determined the shape of England's reformation. David Loades, an authoritative historian of Tudor England, begins by explaining how historians have treated Henry and the expectations contemporaries had of the Renaissance prince who ascended the throne. He describes the ensuing reign in detail, taking in the wars, law enforcement, the succession question, the court, the rebellions and the problem of Ireland, illustrating the narrative with original National Archives documents and full colour portraits of those involved.The author concludes by considering the ambiguous but still tangible legacy that this most high-profile of monarchs has left us.
"Born in 1473, Margaret Pole was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, niece of both Edward IV and Richard III, and the only woman, apart from Anne Boleyn, to hold a peerage title in her own right during the 16th century. This biography of one of the most significant female figures in the male-dominated world of Tudor politics presents the life and culture of this propertied, titled lady against the social and political background of late Yorkist and early Tudor Britain. New research on aristocratic life and court politics in the period, including a complete reappraisal of the Exeter conspiracy, is presented."