"Sustainable use of aquatic ecosystems is high on regional, national and international agendas and central to the implementation of international agreements on biological diversity, responsible fisheries and fish stock management. Since 2001, when political commitments were made to implement the ecosystem approach, countries have begun to incorporate ecosystem considerations into their fisheries management and have met with varied success." "The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries covers both theoretical andapplied aspects of sustainable management, with a particular emphasis on reviewing concepts and addressing implementation issues in the form of case studies from around the world. Personal experiences are considered from diverse backgrounds and discuss the constraints encountered, strategies identified and best practices to facilitate further implementation."--BOOK JACKET.
Ecosystems are complex and dynamic natural units that produce goods and services beyond those of benefit to fisheries. Because fisheries have a direct impact on the ecosystem, which is also impacted by other human activities, they need to be managed in an ecosystem context. The meaning of the terms "ecosystem management", "ecosystem-based management", "ecosystem approach to fisheries" (EAF), etc., are still not universally defined and progressively evolving. The justification of EAF is evident in the characteristics of an exploited ecosystem and the impacts resulting from fisheries and other activities. The rich set of international agreements of relevance to EAF contains a large number of principles and conceptual objectives. Both provide a fundamental guidance and a significant challenge for the implementation of EAF. The available international instruments also provide the institutional foundations for EAF. The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries is particularly important in this respect and contains provisions for practically all aspects of the approach. One major difficulty in defining EAF lies precisely in turning the available concepts and principles into operational objectives from which an EAF management plan would more easily be developed. The paper discusses these together with the types of action needed to achieve them. Experience in EAF implementation is still limited but some issues are already apparent,e.g. in added complexity, insufficient capacity, slow implementation, need for a pragmatic approach, etc. It is argued, in conclusion, that the future of EAF and fisheries depends on the way in which the two fundamental concepts of fisheries management and ecosystem management, and their respective stakeholders, will join efforts or collide.
These guidelines have been developed in response to requests for further information on the practical adoption and application of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF), with a special focus on its human dimensions. As implementation of EAF is a human pursuit and takes place in the context of societal goals and aspirations, the human forces at play need to be understood and considered - these include policies, legal frameworks, social structures, cultural values, economic principles, institutional processes and any other relevant form or expression of human behavior.--Publisher's description.
Inspired by the work of the renowned fisheries scientist Daniel Pauly, this book provides a detailed overview of ecosystem-based management of fisheries. It explores the complex and interdisciplinary nature of the subject by bringing together contributions from some of the world's leading fisheries scientists, managers and conservationists. Combining both research reviews and opinion pieces, and reflecting the breadth of Pauly's influence within the field, the book illustrates the range of issues associated with the implementation of the ecosystem approach and the challenge of long-term sustainability. Topics covered include global biodiversity, the impact of human actions on marine life, the implications for economic and social systems and the role of science in communicating and shaping ocean policy to preserve resources for the future. This book provides a complete and essential overview for advanced researchers and those just entering the field.
This report reviews the methods available for examining ecosystem dynamics and assessing the impact of interactions between ecosystems and human activities, particularly fisheries, and their implications for marine fisheries management. It focuses on the currently available models representative of general types such as bionergetic models, predator-prey models and minimally realistic models; with short descriptions given of model parameters, assumptions and data requirements. It discusses the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each of the approaches; and concludes with some recommendations for the future development of multi-species and ecosystem models.
"The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) is the central scientific network within the massive set of bureaucracies that is responsible for Europe's Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). While spending the past 25 years failing to sustain Europe's fish stocks, this management system also became adept at making the lives of its scientists miserable. Now it is being confronted by the complex challenge of an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. If this combination of a multi-national bureaucracy, hard politics, and scientific uncertainty has made it impossible to maintain many individual fish stocks, how are decisions going to be made that consider everything from sea birds to climate change? The old political saw that "if you can't solve a problem, make it bigger" has never been put to a test like this! Yet ICES has begun to rise in an impressive way to the scientific challenge of providing advice for an ecosystem approach within the world's most cumbersome fisheries management system. This book lays out the results of extensive sociological research on ICES and the decision making systems into which it feeds. ICES is finding ways to provide effective advice in the many situations where scientific advice is needed but a clear, simple answer is out of reach. In spite of the difficulties, scientists are beginning to help the various parties concerned with management to deal with facts about nature in ways that are more useful and transparent"--Publisher's description.
Although the principles of an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) are not new, there is very little practical experience in their implementation. Translating high-level policy goals into operational objectives and actions is now the key challenge to sustainable fisheries. This describes the EAF approach and assesses its benefits, considers what is required for its implementation and the range of management measures available, and highlights outstanding research issues.
These guidelines supplement the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, which encourages an ecosysten approach to fisheries or EAF. The guidelines further outline provisions for achieving sustainable development, through developing coherent economic, social and ecological policy goals. Furthermore, greater co-operation between the fisheries industries, countries and organizations that monitor this sector should be developed, to ensure preservation of the marine environment from over exploitation.
This document aims to provide a better understanding of the role of the economic, institutional and sociocultural components within the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) process and to examine some potential methods and approaches that may facilitate the adoption of EAF management. It explores both the human context for the ecosystem approach to fisheries and the human dimensions involved in implementing the EAF. For the former, the report provides background material essential to understand prior to embarking on EAF initiatives, including an understanding of key concepts and issues, of the valuation of aquatic ecosystems socially, culturally and economically, and of the many policy, legal, institutional, social and economic considerations relevant to the EAF. With respect to facilitating EAF implementation, the report deals with a series of specific aspects: (1) determining the boundaries, scale and scope of the EAF; (2) assessing the various benefits and costs involved, seen from social, economic, ecological and management perspectives; (3) utilizing appropriate decision-making tools in EAF; (4) creating and/or adopting internal incentives and institutional arrangements to promote, facilitate and fund the adoption of EAF management; and (5) finding suitable external (non-fisheries) approaches for financing EAF implementation.
This book addresses ecological and environmental issues associated with responsible and sustainable marine fisheries. It includes 22 chapters and has been developed from the Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem held in Iceland in October 2001. Contents include: a global overview of marine capture fisheries; legal protection for marine ecosystems; dynamics of marine ecosystems; the role of man in marine ecosystems; and incorporating ecosystem considerations in fisheries management. The book has a subject index.
Showing how big-picture patterns can help overcome the failures of conventional management, this book is ideal for students, researchers and professionals involved with marine fisheries. It explores not only the current practice of the 'ecosystem approach' to fisheries management but also its critical importance to even larger perspectives. The first section gives a valuable overview of how more and more of the complexity of real-world systems is being recognized and involved in the management of fisheries around the world. The second section then demonstrates how important aspects of real-world systems, involving population dynamics, evolution and behavior, remain to be taken into account completely. This section also shows how we must change the way we think about our involvement in, and the complexity of, marine ecosystems. The final chapters consider how, with the use of carefully chosen macroecological patterns, we can take important steps towards more holistic management of marine fisheries.
This book analyses the law-making of ecosystem-based fisheries management in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction as a post-development of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) so as to avoid stocks collapse and destruction of critical habitats, and increase the resilience of marine ecosystems.
"The EAF Toolbox has been designed to guide users through each of the four main EAF management planning steps and activities using simplified text and clear instructions. The toolbox also helps users decide which tool(s) could be most appropriate for each step given the type of fishery, their resources and capacity."--Website summary.
In recent years, the concept of risk has become paramount in international food regulation, and industries are increasingly required to undertake product risk assessment, particularly in the export arena. This publication has been developed as a complete package on how to undertake risk assessment for use by seafood technologists, regulators and health professionals. It is designed in five parts to guide the user through the risk assessment process. This publication also includes a CD-ROM - the Resources Bank - which provides extensive additional information for the would-be risk assessor.
Fisheries science in North America is changing in response to a changing climate, new technologies, an ecosystem approach to management and new thinking about the processes affecting stock and recruitment. Authors of the 34 chapters review the science in their particular fields and use their experience to develop informed opinions about the future. Everyone associated with fish, fisheries and fisheries management will find material that will stimulate their thinking about the future. Readers will be impressed with the potential for new discoveries, but disturbed by how much needs to be done in fisheries science if we are to sustain North American fisheries in our changing climate. Officials that manage or fund fisheries science will appreciate the urgency for the new information needed for the stewardship of fish populations and their ecosystems. Research organizations may want to keep some extra copies for a future look back into the thoughts of a wide range of fisheries professionals. Fisheries science has been full of surprises with some of the surprises having major economic impacts. It is important to minimize these impacts as the demand for seafood increases and the complexities of fisheries management increase.
Pandemic overfishing to critical levels currently threatens the persistence of sea cucumber fisheries and the important role they play in the livelihoods of coastal fishers. Resource managers must embrace an ecosystem approach to fisheries, in which biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services and the concerns of stakeholders are taken into account together with the economic gains from fishing. This document provides a "road map" for developing and implementing better management of sea cucumber fisheries.