How can we bring together the study of genes, embryos and fossils? Embryos in Deep Time is a critical synthesis of the study of individual development in fossils. It brings together an up-to-date review of concepts from comparative anatomy, ecology and developmental genetics, and examples of different kinds of animals from diverse geological epochs and geographic areas. Can fossil embryos demonstrate evolutionary changes in reproductive modes? How have changes in ocean chemistry in the past affected the development of marine organisms? What can the microstructure of fossil bone and teeth reveal about maturation time, longevity and changes in growth phases? This book addresses these and other issues and documents with numerous examples and illustrations how fossils provide evidence not only of adult anatomy but also of the life history of individuals at different growth stages. The central topic of Biology today—the transformations occurring during the life of an organism and the mechanisms behind them—is addressed in an integrative manner for extinct animals.
Over the past decade, fossil finds from China have stunned the world, grabbing headlines and changing perceptions with a wealth of new discoveries. Many of these finds were first announced to English speakers in the journal Nature.Rise of the Dragon gathers together sixteen of these original reports, some augmented with commentaries originally published in Nature's "News and Views" section. Perhaps the best known of these new Chinese fossils are the famous feathered dinosaurs from Liaoning Province, which may help end one of the most intense debates in paleontology—whether birds evolved from dinosaurs. But other finds have been just as spectacular, such as the minutely preserved (to the cellular level) animal embryos of the 670 million-year-old Duoshantuo phosphorites, or the world's oldest known fish, from the Chengjiang formation in southwestern Yunnan Province. Rise of the Dragon makes descriptions and detailed discussions of these important finds available in one convenient volume for paleontologists and serious fossil fans.
“Three stories with a common theme: the female psyche, multiplied and divided,” says Greg Bear in his introduction to Women in Deep Time. “There’s probably something Jungian in common with all three. At any rate, throughout my writing career (and for whatever reason) I’ve been fascinated by the feminine voice.” Featured in this special collection are “Sisters,” Nebula Award finalist “Scattershot,” in which the inhabitants of many universes meet in limbo, and the Nebula Award–winning “Hardfought,” in which engineered warriors redefine humanity.
Examines the Earth's history and the circumstances leading to the origin of life and human evolution.
Pictures from the past powerfully shape current views of the world. In books, television programs, and websites, new images appear alongside others that have survived from decades ago. Among the most famous are drawings of embryos by the Darwinist Ernst Haeckel in which humans and other vertebrates begin identical, then diverge toward their adult forms. But these icons of evolution are notorious, too: soon after their publication in 1868, a colleague alleged fraud, and Haeckel’s many enemies have repeated the charge ever since. His embryos nevertheless became a textbook staple until, in 1997, a biologist accused him again, and creationist advocates of intelligent design forced his figures out. How could the most controversial pictures in the history of science have become some of the most widely seen? In Haeckel’s Embryos, Nick Hopwood tells this extraordinary story in full for the first time. He tracks the drawings and the charges against them from their genesis in the nineteenth century to their continuing involvement in innovation in the present day, and from Germany to Britain and the United States. Emphasizing the changes worked by circulation and copying, interpretation and debate, Hopwood uses the case to explore how pictures succeed and fail, gain acceptance and spark controversy. Along the way, he reveals how embryonic development was made a process that we can see, compare, and discuss, and how copying—usually dismissed as unoriginal—can be creative, contested, and consequential. With a wealth of expertly contextualized illustrations, Haeckel’s Embryos recaptures the shocking novelty of pictures that enthralled schoolchildren and outraged priests, and highlights the remarkable ways these images kept on shaping knowledge as they aged.
With hundreds of original photographs, optical micrographs and scanning electron micrographs, this atlas describes the progress of the embryo throughout its development, highlighting the formation and differentiation of organ structures. From the preembryonic and embryo stages to the development of the skeleton and striated muscle, organogenesis of the heart, and development of external genitalia, it provides authoritative answers to the most frequently asked question about the human embryo. With its plethora of outstanding photographs and images, experienced embryologists as well as clinicians and students can compare historical ideas with photographic reality.
An essential resource for both students and practitioners, this comprehensive text provides practical, up-to-date information about normal reproduction and reproductive disorders in horses, cattle, small ruminants, swine, llamas, and other livestock. Featuring contributions from experts in the field, each section is devoted to a different large animal species and begins with a review of the clinically relevant aspects of the reproductive anatomy and physiology of both males and females. Key topics include the evaluation of breeding soundness, pregnancy diagnosis, diagnosis and treatment of infertility, abortion, obstetrics, surgery of the reproductive tract, care of neonates, and the latest reproductive technology. Includes coverage of all large animal species. All sections provide a review of clinically pertinent reproductive physiology and anatomy of males and females of each species. Complete coverage of the most current reproductive technology, including embryo transfer, estrous synchronization, and artificial insemination. A new section on alternative farming that addresses reproduction in bison, elk, and deer. New to the equine section: stallion management, infertility, and breeding soundness evaluation. New to the bovine section: estrous cycle synchronization, reproductive biotechnology, ultrasonographic determination of fetal gender, heifer development, and diagnosis of abortion. New to the porcine section: artificial insemination, boar/stud management, diseases of postpartum period, and infectious disease control. New to the llama section: infectious disease and nutrition.
Thanks to enormous scientific efforts of the last decades, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro production (IVP) have now been introduced successfully in the practice of human infertility treatment and cattle breeding programs. This comprehensive book allows us to bridge the knowledge from both biomedical and veterinary fields of research. For the first time, studies concerning the human embryo as well as embryos from domestic species are brought together. The central theme of the book is "the assessment of mammalian embryo quality". In 15 chapters, written by well-known scientists, different aspects of the assessment of mammalian embryo quality are summarized. Non-invasive and invasive techniques to evaluate embryo quality are separated in two parts. In addition the book is provided with appendices on practical aspects and, thus, the book should be present in each laboratory for IVF and IVP.
Why is the universe conscious? What kindles mind inside matter? Why do fundamentalist sciences and religions never ask these questions? This sequel to Embryogenesis deals with the theoretical issues brought up by Embryogenesis, including: the relationship between thermodynamics/entropy and the emergence of life; a speculative set of embryogenic principles for all creatures on all planets in the cosmos; an explanation and critique of Intelligent Design and a proposal for a more dynamic psychospiritual theory of creature development; a series of alternatives to genetic determinism; a discussion of the relationship between consciousness and matter; an interjection of 9/11 (which occurred during the writing of this book); and many other topics. Chapters include: What is Life?: Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Complexity; Is There a Plan?: Creationism, Cultural Relativism, and Paraphysics; Biogenesis and Cosmogenesis: Cells, Genes, and Planets; The Principles of Biological Design: Physical Forces in Nature; The Dynamics of the Biosphere: Deep Time and Space; The Limits of Genetic Determinism: Dimensionless Epigenetic Landscapes; Topokinesis: Physical Forces in Development; Tissue Motifs and Body Plans: Coordinating Form; The Primordial Field: Metabiology and The Molecular Apparatus; Meaning and Destiny: The Relation of Consciousness to Matter
"Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics has been the standard reference textbook for veterinary students for many years, as well as for students of animal science and related disciplines; in addition it has also been a useful reference source for the practicing veterinary surgeon. The new edition builds on the success of the previous edition covering normal reproduction and reproductive disorders and diseases in the common and less common domesticated species (llamas, alpacas, camels). The book has been completely revised with full colour throughout to include recent developments in reproductive biology and endocrinology, as well as the new knowledge on the causes and treatment of reproductive disease." "This is a reference text that has been refreshed well and warrants a place on practice bookshelves." - Veterinary Record, Feb 2011 Classic text reference Covering all aspects of reproduction and obstetrics in all common and less common domestic species Only book covering full range of domestic animals Practical clinical approach throughout Thorough updating throughout to reflect changes in practice since the last edition New authors and contributors to ensure contemporary and international approach (contributors from Finland, the Netherlands, USA, Denmark an New Zealand) Full colour throughout
In this exciting work on the cutting edge of scientific knowledge, Henry Gee, Chief Science Writer at Nature, tells the story of a recent revolution in palaeontology. For the first time, all of us can share in the wonder of a deceptively simple idea known as cladistics, the science of comparison. The cladistics revolution is transforming almost everything we know about the science of life in Deep Time -- the billions of years in which life has evolved on this planet. It provides insights and solutions to questions about ourselves ordinarily considered beyond the realm of science. What can we truly know of the awesome dark chasm of Deep Time that separates us from the beginning of life on earth? In Search of Deep Time strips away conventional assumptions about the evolution of life to reveal a bizarre world that is truer to the facts -- and far stranger -- than many Darwinians and certainly any Creationists ever imagined. Scientists used to categorize life forms according to how similar they looked. If an animal had a wing, it was a bird; if it had a fin, it was a fish. But then, is a penguin a bird? Is a whale a mammal? While the answer to these questions is yes, it doesn't mean much scientifically. The real answers to how life evolved and how life forms are related come from cladistic analysis, from measuring the tremendous variety of genetic and anatomic variations between species and juggling them with computer technology. Because of cladistics, scientists have come to believe that hippos are more closely related to whales than pigs. We have learned that the old way of understanding nature, in which we squashed the teeming variety of life on earth into our own haphazard andarbitrary categories, must be replaced by understanding precisely how similar, and how different, each species measurably is. Rather than a hierarchical tree of life with ourselves at the apex, we now see a bush with evolutionary branches intertwining in strange and surprising ways -- mushrooms really are closer cousins to us than plants are. Gee journeys among the scientists who are making the breakthrough discoveries about the evolution of life. He travels to a fossil dig in Kenya with Meave Leakey of the pioneering palaeoanthropology family that made the Rift Valley in East Africa famous as the origin of modern humans. There he finds a small fossilized skull, and considers whether anyone could ever know if that fossil was the remains of Gee's great-great-great-great-great, etc., grandfather. The answer is clearly no. There are no knowable ancestors in Deep Time. Beyond the last few dozen generations, all individuals in the entire animal kingdom, indeed all individuals throughout the epochs of Deep Time in all the kingdoms of life on earth, are cousins. Whether in Eastern Africa or in his native London with palaeontology's "Gang of Four", Gee offers lively explorations of the idea that there is no knowable descent of man. Throughout, he displays the crackling wit and exceptional command of his field that readers of his articles in Nature have admired for years. He takes you to the places where science is happening and becomes the perfect guide to a scientific adventure of the mind. In Search of Deep Time shines a light on age-old controversies about fish with fingers and dinosaurs with wings, but also reveals the scientific facts of problems we have only begun thinking about. Forinstance, how will we recognize life inside a rock on another planet if we should ever find it? Cladistics ultimately leads Gee to a surprisingly profound question: What if there were another hominid species to compare ourselves with? Perhaps the science of comparison, cladistics, is the only way we will ever really come to terms with who we are, because real knowledge can only be based on comparison. Gee illuminates a shift in the history of science that is happening now and is changing our understanding of what scientific knowledge is. More deeply, it is changing our understanding of who we are.
Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. Embryo, stem cell, and cloning research have provoked impassioned political debate about their religious, moral, legal, and practical implications. National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. In Embryo Politics, Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. Banchoff's book, the first of its kind, demonstrates the impact of particular national histories and institutions on very different patterns of national governance. Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. Only by recovering a robust and public ethical debate will we be able to govern revolutionary life-science technologies effectively and responsibly into the future.
Here is the first complete portrait of the legendary flying dragons of deep time-the pterosaurs-designed for non-specialists, yet founded on the real science of these bizarre creatures. Presented lucidly and accessibly by one of the world's leading experts, David Unwin's book is built on a mountain of new fossil discoveries and the latest research. About 220 millions years ago, a group of reptiles took to the Earth's vast and open skies. No longer tethered to the ground, the earliest pterosaurs evolved into a multitude of diverse forms, spread around the globe, and ruled the skies until they went extinct along with the dinosaurs about 65 millions years ago, rarely leaving fossils as a record of their existence. What they did leave was a mystery for paleontologists to solve; an enigma so difficult to crack that it took centuries of false starts and missteps before the path to a true understanding of pterosaurs was uncovered. Now, an understanding of the fundamental nature of these strange creatures is finally possible. In the last 15 years, stunning new fossil finds and significant advances in technology have led to a breakthrough in our knowledge of pterosaurs. New fossils of the earliest species were discovered in Italy, a remarkably well-preserved and complete wing was found in Central Asia, and, most extraordinarily, a pterosaur embryo inside an egg was unearthed in China. CAT scanning has let researchers glimpse inside pterosaur skulls and construct three-dimensional images of their bodies from crushed bones, and modern techniques for analyzing relationships between species have revealed surprising insights into the evolution of the group. Drawing on these and other advances, DavidUnwin, caretaker of Archaeopteryx and curator at the Museum of Natural History in Berlin, paints pterosaurs and their world more vividly than has previously been possible. He eloquently reconstructs their biology and behavior. Pterosaurs weren't scaly like dinosaurs, but hairy; most were brightly colored and adorned with remarkable head crests; they were excellent fliers with physiologically sophisticated wings; they walked on all fours; and varied in size from eight inches to forty feet in wingspan. He shows how they lived their lives, raised their young, and interacted with the different environments of Mesozoic Earth. Then, building on his thorough examination of their anatomy and lifestyle, and using the powerful technique of cladistic analysis, Unwin unravels the evolutionary history of pterosaurs and establishes their place in the one great tree of life. Packed with 95 color and 30 black and white illustrations-including 10 full-page original color paintings that are scientific recreations of different pterosaur species-"The Pterosaurs From Deep Time" takes readers on an wondrous expedition back through the lost world of the Earth's deep past.
Man is entering a new era as a result of advances in human reproduction. Techniques have been developed to assist in the creation of man-artificial insemination and, now, in vitro fertilization (IVF). Soon, other new methods, based upon current advances of the IVF procedure, will develop to improve the quality of human reproduction. The book describes the conceptual framework and details of technique concerned with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (ET). Edwards and Steptoe first described the technique of IVF and ET and the subsequent births of two normal babies. Since then, the success rate of the system has been improved by the use of fertility drugs to provide more oocytes and preincubation to mature the oocyte before fertilization. As a result of the continued research from Melbourne and Cambridge, more than 100 babies have been born. A free interchange of information between the Cambridge and Melbourne groups has led to a predictable success rate of 15%-20% per laparoscopy, and infertility centres all over the world are now copying the techniques. It is an appropriate time to inform doctors and scientists to help them understand the various procedures involved in IVF and ET. While many advances will occur in the future, the establishment of high success rates in several of the critical steps in the procedure-oocyte pick-up rate (90%), fertilization (>90%) and early embryo development (70%-90% )-signifies that some of the new techniques are stabilized sufficiently to warrant transmission of information by text, rather than scientific journal.
Authored by leading experts in the field, this book provides the first comprehensive overview of the mechanisms of early patterning and morphogenesis in zebrafish. It summarizes the current knowledge and the key questions for the next decade of research.
Current Topics in Developmental Biology
The Practical Manual of In Vitro Fertilization: Advanced Methods and Novel Devices is a unique, accessible title that provides a complete review of the most well-established and current diagnostic and treatment techniques comprising in vitro fertilization. Throughout the chapters, a uniform structure is employed, including a brief abstract, a keyword glossary, a step-by-step protocol of the laboratory procedures, several pages of expert commentary, key issues of clinical concern, and a list of references. The result is a readily accessible, high quality reference guide for reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, embryologists, biologists and research scientists. The Manual also offers an excellent description of novel procedures that will likely be employed in the near future. An indispensable resource for physicians and basic scientists, the Practical Manual of In Vitro Fertilization: Advanced Methods and Novel Devices is an invaluable reference and addition to the literature.