This volume looks at the little explored but increasingly important topic of the development of English as a world language. It gives a comprehensive account of our current knowledge of variation in the use of the English language around the world. Overview papers, written by specialist authors, survey the social context in which English is spoken in those parts of the world where it is widely used. Case study papers then provide representative examples of the empirical research that has been carried out into the English spoken in the areas covered by the overview. The volume therefore contributes both to our understanding of the English language worldwide and to a more general understanding of language as it is used in its social context. It assesses the extent of our current knowledge of variation in the English language and points to gaps in our understanding which future research might set out to remedy.
Professor Braj Kachru (b. 1932) has pioneered, shaped and defined the scholarly field of world Englishes. He is the founder and co-editor of World Englishes, the associate editor of the Oxford Companion to the English Language and contributor to the Cambridge History of the English Language. His research on world Englishes, the Kashmiri language and literature, and theoretical and applied studies on language and society has resulted in more than 25 authored and edited volumes and more than 100 research papers, review articles, and reviews. The second volume of these Collected Works contains selections of some of Kachru's most important work in the field of World Englishes from the years between the 1992 and 2001.
A comprehensive, scholarly and systematic review of modern English in one volume. It presents a description of both the linguistic structure of present-day English and its geographical, social, gender and ethnic variations.
Why do we speak the way we do? What are the social factors that influence our choices of expression? This best-selling introduction to the study of language and society encourages students to think about these fundamental questions, asking how and why we select from the vast range of different words, accents, varieties and languages available to us. In this new and updated edition, students are taken step-by-step through the analysis of linguistic expressions, speech varieties and languages in complex settings. Enriched with recent findings from different languages and speech communities around the world, this comprehensive textbook equips students with knowledge of the main concepts and gives them a coherent view of the complex interaction of language and society. • 'Questions for Discussion' help students understand how speakers' choices are conditioned by the society in which they live • New to this edition is a rich repertoire of online resources and further reading, enabling students to investigate more deeply and advance their learning • Includes a topical new chapter on research ethics, guiding students on the ethical questions involved in sociolinguistic research.
The Languages and Linguistics of Australia: A Comprehensive Guide is part of the multi-volume reference work on the languages and linguistics of the continents of the world. The volume provides a thorough overview of Australian languages, including their linguistic structures, their genetic relationships, and issues of language maintenance and revitalisation. Australian English, Aboriginal English and other contact varieties are also discussed.
This volume aims to familiarize readers with the varieties of world Englishes used across cultures and to create awareness of some of the linguistic and socially relevant contexts and functions that have given rise to them. It emphasizes that effective communication among users of different Englishes requires awareness of the varieties in use and their cultural, social, and ideational functions. Cultures, Contexts and World Englishes: demonstrates the rich results of integrating theory, methodology and application features critical and detailed discussion of the sociolinguistics of English in the globalized world gives equal emphasis to grammar and pragmatics of variation and to uses of Englishes in spoken and written modes in major English-using regions of the world. Each chapter includes suggestions for further reading and challenging discussion questions and appropriate research projects designed to enhance the usefulness of this volume in courses such as world Englishes, English in the Global Context, Sociolinguistics, Critical Applied Linguistics, Language Contact and Convergence, Ethnography of Communication, and Crosscultural Communication.
People in many African communities live within a series of concentric circles when it comes to language. In a small group, a speaker uses an often unwritten and endangered mother tongue that is rarely used in school. A national indigenous language—written, widespread, sometimes used in school—surrounds it. An international language like French or English, a vestige of colonialism, carries prestige, is used in higher education, and promises mobility—and yet it will not be well known by its users. The essays in Languages in Africa explore the layers of African multilingualism as they affect language policy and education. Through case studies ranging across the continent, the contributors consider multilingualism in the classroom as well as in domains ranging from music and film to politics and figurative language. The contributors report on the widespread devaluing and even death of indigenous languages. They also investigate how poor teacher training leads to language-related failures in education. At the same time, they demonstrate that education in a mother tongue can work, linguists can use their expertise to provoke changes in language policies, and linguistic creativity thrives in these multilingual communities.
English, originally just the language of England, has become the most international of all languages. Along with this expansion has come diversification of its forms and functions, as well as rivalry with other languages. In this volume an attempt is made to present a cross-section of case studies of English as it is used in different parts of the world, showing how varieties of the language differ and under what conditions they are used. The book is aimed at students and general readers as much as specialists, so that its range has been kept within modest proportions; nevertheless it encompasses selected aspects of the types of English found in Scotland, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean, Africa, France and Switzerland. In addition, there are papers on the more general issues of learner English, dictionaries for non-major varieties of English, Ogden愀 Basic English, and cultural and ideological aspects of English as a world language. The editors believe they have put together a stimulating and informative introduction to this fascinating and rapidly developing field.
The dominant view of many linguists and educators has been that Hong Kong English is a variety of the language that is derived from, and dependent on, the metropolitan norm of British English. It has been argued that English in Hong Kong was never 'nativized' as in other Asian societies, and that it has not deserved the recognition accorded to other varieties of Asian English. The contributions to this book challenge that view in a number of ways. In addressing sociolinguistic, structural, and literary issues, they provide an up-to-date survey of current use of Hong Kong English, and redress the question of its autonomy in terms of both distinctive linguistic features and the growing literary creativity of the variety. An original and highly informed discussion on the futures for Hong Kong English, and chapters providing additional resources for the study of the variety, are also included.
User-centred, or Concrete Lexicology of English towards a theory of language proficiency, which is based on studies of lexical problem solving in contexts of real-English as a world language. The theoretical model of language proficiency is situated between the disciplines of psycholinguistics and social systems-theory. It is designed to establish the theoretical foundations for a Concrete Linguistics of Language Usage as a discipline in its own right. The studies on language behaviour focus on creative ad hoc formations and code-mixing in English and the abilities of concrete language-users to make habitual and situative/modificatory use of the lexicon as a system of knowledge and application.