This book explores environmental and human risk problems caused by contamination, from the perspective of real world applications with quantitative procedures. It includes risk methods for environmental problems where data are sparse or fuzzy, and incorporates political, social and economic considerations in determining directions of remediation solutions for environmental contaminant problems. It highlights the impact of contaminants on human health – sometimes fatal - and the anthropogenic exacerbation of natural processes.
This latest version of Information Resources in Toxicology (IRT) continues a tradition established in 1982 with the publication of the first edition in presenting an extensive itemization, review, and commentary on the information infrastructure of the field. This book is a unique wide-ranging, international, annotated bibliography and compendium of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. Thoroughly updated, the current edition analyzes technological changes and is rife with online tools and links to Web sites. IRT-IV is highly structured, providing easy access to its information. Among the “hot topics covered are Disaster Preparedness and Management, Nanotechnology, Omics, the Precautionary Principle, Risk Assessment, and Biological, Chemical and Radioactive Terrorism and Warfare are among the designated. • International in scope, with contributions from over 30 countries • Numerous key references and relevant Web links • Concise narratives about toxicologic sub-disciplines • Valuable appendices such as the IUPAC Glossary of Terms in Toxicology • Authored by experts in their respective sub-disciplines within toxicology
This concisely written and easy-to-read resource provides timely information on emerging issues and valuable historical context that enables students to better understand a broad range of environmental health topics, from pollution to infectious diseases, natural disasters, and waste management. • Supplies introductory materials that provide a conceptual framework for readers • Includes contributions from more than 50 expert researchers and practitioners as well as information from interviews with leaders in the environmental health field • Presents historical context for current developments concerning environmental health • Offers suggestions on steps individuals can take to reduce their environmental health risk and stay healthy
Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis. Theory, Methods and Applications contains the papers presented at the joint ESREL (European Safety and Reliability) and SRA-Europe (Society for Risk Analysis Europe) Conference (Valencia, Spain, 22-25 September 2008). The book covers a wide range of topics, including: Accident and Incident Investigation; Crisis and Emergency Management; Decision Support Systems and Software Tools for Safety and Reliability; Dynamic Reliability; Fault Identification and Diagnostics; Human Factors; Integrated Risk Management and Risk-Informed Decision-making; Legislative dimensions of risk management; Maintenance Modelling and Optimisation; Monte Carlo Methods in System Safety and Reliability; Occupational Safety; Organizational Learning; Reliability and Safety Data; Collection and Analysis; Risk and Evidence Based Policy Making; Risk and Hazard Analysis; Risk Control in Complex Environments; Risk Perception and Communication; Safety Culture; Safety Management Systems; Software Reliability; Stakeholder and public involvement in risk governance; Structural Reliability and Design Codes; System Reliability Analysis; Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis. Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis. Theory, Methods and Applications will be of interest for academics and professionals working in a wide range of industrial and governmental sectors, including Aeronautics and Aerospace, Civil Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Information Technology and Telecommunications, Insurance and Finance, Manufacturing, Mechanical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Policy Making and Public Planning.
First published in 2008. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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The definitive reference in its field, Ecological Risk Assessment, Second Edition details the latest advances in science and practice. In the fourteen years since the publication of the best-selling first edition, ecological risk assessment (ERA) has moved from the margins into the spotlight. It is now commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental management issues. Delineating the processes for performing an ERA, the book begins by defining the field, then goes on to describe its relationship to other environmental assessment practices and its organizational framework. The book also includes a chapter on ecological epidemiology, which has previously been treated as a type of ERA, but is now recognized as a distinct practice in itself. It explores important concepts in the ERA process including probability, uncertainty, scale, mode of action and multiple causes. Reflecting changes in the field, the book’s scope has been broadened to include discussions of the application of ERA to agents other than chemical contaminants. The multitude of illustrative figures provides a flavor for the diverse practice of ERA. The author has re-organized the material, presenting a unitary process of ERA that is applicable to various problems, scales, and mandates. He keeps the emphasis squarely on providing clear, scientifically sound, and unbiased technical advice on the risks from chemicals and chemical mixtures.
Environmental Sedimentology provides a comprehensive introduction to this rapidly expanding field which addresses the functioning and dynamics of contemporary sediment systems and how these systems respond to a range of both natural and anthropogenically-induced disturbance events. considers a range of sedimentary environments; mountain and upland, fluvial, lacustrine, arid, urban, deltaic and estuarine, temperate coastal, tropical coastal, and continental shelf aspects of sediment management and remediation are also considered as are the potential impacts of on-going and future climatic and environmental change Readership: advanced level undergraduates in earth science, environmental science and physical geography, and graduate students in the earth and environmental sciences with an interest in contemporary sediment systems
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, held in Rome (Anzio), Italy, October 13-16, 2002
Detecting Ecological Impacts: Concepts and Applications in Coastal Habitats focuses on crucial aspects of detecting local and regional impacts that result from human activities. Detection and characterization of ecological impacts require scientific approaches that can reliably separate the effects of a specific anthropogenic activity from those of other processes. This fundamental goal is both technically and operationally challenging. Detecting Ecological Impacts is devoted to the conceptual and technical underpinnings that allow for reliable estimates of ecological effects caused by human activities. An international team of scientists focuses on the development and application of scientific tools appropriate for estimating the magnitude and spatial extent of ecological impacts. The contributors also evaluate our current ability to forecast impacts. Some of the scientific, legal, and administrative constraints that impede these critical tasks also are highlighted. Coastal marine habitats are emphasized, but the lessons and insights have general application to all ecological systems.
This publication, prepared jointly by the WHO, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, considers the public health challenges arising from global climate change and options for policy responses, with particular focus on the health sector. Aspects discussed include: an overview of historical developments and recent scientific assessments; weather and climate change; population vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of public health systems; the IPCC Third Assessment report; tasks for public health scientists; the health impacts of climate extremes; climate change, infectious diseases and the level of disease burdens; ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation and health; and methodological issues in monitoring health effects of climate change.
Global environmental change often seems to be the most carefully examined issue of our time. Yet understanding the human side--human causes of and responses to environmental change--has not yet received sustained attention. Global Environmental Change offers a strategy for combining the efforts of natural and social scientists to better understand how our actions influence global change and how global change influences us. The volume is accessible to the nonscientist and provides a wide range of examples and case studies. It explores how the attitudes and actions of individuals, governments, and organizations intertwine to leave their mark on the health of the planet. The book focuses on establishing a framework for this new field of study, identifying problems that must be overcome if we are to deepen our understanding of the human dimensions of global change, presenting conclusions and recommendations.
This publication is aimed at managers in all industries. It explains why human factors are important in health and safety and how they need to be assessed and managed in the same way as other risk factors. It gives practical advice on how to develop systems designed to take account of human capabilities and fallibilities.
This book describes how man-made litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers contributed to the broad awareness of marine litter as a problem of global significance. The authors summarise more than five decades of marine litter research, which receives growing attention after the recent discovery of great oceanic garbage patches and the ubiquity of microscopic plastic particles in marine organisms and habitats. In 16 chapters, authors from all over the world have created a universal view on the diverse field of marine litter pollution, the biological impacts, dedicated research activities, and the various national and international legislative efforts to combat this environmental problem. They recommend future research directions necessary for a comprehensive understanding of this environmental issue and the development of efficient management strategies. This book addresses scientists, and it provides a solid knowledge base for policy makers, NGOs, and the broader public.
This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.
From the oceans to continental heartlands, human activities have altered the physical characteristics of Earth's surface. With Earth's population projected to peak at 8 to 12 billion people by 2050 and the additional stress of climate change, it is more important than ever to understand how and where these changes are happening. Innovation in the geographical sciences has the potential to advance knowledge of place-based environmental change, sustainability, and the impacts of a rapidly changing economy and society. Understanding the Changing Planet outlines eleven strategic directions to focus research and leverage new technologies to harness the potential that the geographical sciences offer.
"The main message emerging from this new comprehensive global assessment is that premature death and disease can be prevented through healthier environments--and to a significant degree. Analysing the latest data on the environment-disease nexus and the devastating impact of environmental hazards and risks on global health, backed up by expert opinion, this report covers more than 130 diseases and injuries. The analysis shows that 23% of global deaths (and 26% of deaths among children under five) are due to modifiable environmental factors--and therefore can be prevented. Stroke, ischaemic heart disease, diarrhoea and cancers head the list. People in low-income countries bear the greatest disease burden, with the exception of noncommunicable diseases. The report's unequivocal evidence should add impetus to coordinating global efforts to promote healthy environments--often through well-established, cost-effective interventions. This analysis will inform those who want to better understand the transformational spirit of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by Heads of State in September 2015. The results of the analysis underscore the pressing importance of stronger intersectoral action to create healthier environments that will contribute to sustainably improving the lives of millions around the world."--Page 4 of cover.