The most comprehensive collection of its kind, Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues, 2/e is organized into three sections, providing instructors with flexibility in designing and teaching a variety of courses in moral philosophy. The first section, Historical Sources, moves from classical thought (Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, and Epictetus) through medieval views (Augustine and Aquinas) to modern theories (Hobbes, Butler, Hume, Kant, Bentham, and Mill), culminating with leading nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers (Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, James, Dewey, Camus, and Sartre). The readings are printed in their entirety wherever possible. The second section, Modern Ethical Theory, includes many of the most important essays of the past century. The discussion of utilitarianism, Kantianism, egoism, and relativism continues in the work of major contemporary philosophers (Williams, Brandt, Feinberg, Foot, and Rachels). Landmark selections (Moore, Prichard, Ross, Ayer, Stevenson, Anscombe, Baier, Hare, Harman, and Gauthier) reflect concern with moral language and the justification of morality. The concepts of justice (Rawls) and rights (Feinberg) are explored, as well as recent views on the importance of virtue ethics (MacIntyre and Rachels) and an ethic influenced by feminist concerns (Held). In the third section, Contemporary Moral Problems, the readings present the current debates over abortion, euthanasia, famine relief, animal rights, the death penalty, and affirmative action. This second edition features expanded selections from Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, and Camus' The Myth of Sisyphus. It also includes articles by Michael Stocker on ethical theory; Jane English and Joel Feinberg on abortion; Thomas D. Sullivan on euthanasia; Hugo Adam Bedau on capital punishment; and Judith Jarvis Thomson, Robert Simon, and Steven M. Cahn on affirmative action.