It frequently feels that there is nothing new to explore on the earth - the most distant places are visited by TV crews and even tourists. However, the past can also be a foreign country and recently archaeologists have begun to explore a vast, unknown landscape hidden beneath the North Sea. Inhabited by early man, this land disappeared beneath the sea when sea levels rose more than 8000 years ago. This enigmatic landscape, known as Doggerland after the famous banks in the North Sea, has remained hidden until now. Today, we can map unknown rivers, hills, lakes and valleys using 3D seismic data originally collected for oil exploration. Some 23,000 km2 of this 'lost world' (an area equivalent to that of Wales) have now been revealed. This book tells the exciting story of how this lost country was rediscovered by archaeology and what the results of new work are telling us about what happened to man during the last great phase of global warming, when a massive area of Europe was lost as a consequence of climate change. Although a study of the past, this book demonstrates how archaeology can provide vital information for the future.
Heritage is everywhere, and an understanding of our past is increasingly critical to the understanding of our contemporary cultural context and place in global society. Visual Heritage in the Digital Age presents the state-of-the-art in the application of digital technologies to heritage studies, with the chapters collectively demonstrating the ways in which current developments are liberating the study, conservation and management of the past. Digital approaches to heritage have developed significantly over recent decades in terms of both the quantity and range of applications. However, rather than merely improving and enriching the ways in which we understand and engage with the past, this technology is enabling us to do this in entirely new ways. The chapters contained within this volume present a broad range of technologies for capturing data (such as high-definition laser scanning survey and geophysical survey), modelling (including GIS, data fusion, agent-based modelling), and engaging with heritage through novel digital interfaces (mobile technologies and the use of multi-touch interfaces in public spaces). The case studies presented include sites, landscapes and buildings from across Europe, North and Central America, and collections relating to the ancient civilisations of the Middle East and North Africa. The chronological span is immense, extending from the end of the last ice age through to the twentieth century. These case studies reveal new ways of approaching heritage using digital tools, whether from the perspective of interrogating historical textual data, or through the applications of complexity theory and the modelling of agents and behaviours. Beyond the data itself, Visual Heritage in the Digital Age also presents fresh ways of thinking about digital heritage. It explores more theoretical perspectives concerning the role of digital data and the challenges that are presented in terms of its management and preservation.
The Oxford Handbook of Maritime Archaeology is a comprehensive survey of the field at a time when maritime archaeology has established itself as a mature branch of archaeology. This volume draws on the expertise of nearly fifty international scholars who examine the many distinct and universal aspects of the discipline.
Quaternary Paleoenvironments examines the drowned landscapes exposed as extensive and attractive territory for prehistoric human settlement during the Ice Ages of the Pleistocene, when sea levels dropped to 120m-135m below their current levels. This volume provides an overview of the geological, geomorphological, climatic and sea-level history of the European continental shelf as a whole, as well as a series of detailed regional reviews for each of the major sea basins. The nature and variable attractions of the landscapes and resources available for human exploitation are examined, as are the conditions under which archaeological sites and landscape features are likely to have been preserved, destroyed or buried by sediment during sea-level rise. The authors also discuss the extent to which we can predict where to look for drowned landscapes with the greatest chance of success, with frequent reference to examples of preserved prehistoric sites in different submerged environments. Quaternary Paleoenvironments will be of interest to archaeologists, geologists, marine scientists, palaeoanthropologists, cultural heritage managers, geographers, and all those with an interest in the drowned landscapes of the continental shelf.
This book focuses on issues of method and interpretation in studies of submerged landscapes, concentrating on illustrations and case studies from around Europe with additional examples from other parts of the world. Such landscapes were once exposed as dry land during the low sea levels that prevailed during the glacial periods that occupied most of the past million years and provided extensive new territories for human exploitation. Their study today involves underwater investigation, using techniques and strategies which are clearly set out in these chapters. The underwater landscape provides a rich source of information about the archaeology of human settlement and long-term changes in environment, climate and sea-level. This book highlights how such information can be revealed and interpreted. The examples presented here and the focus on techniques make this book of worldwide relevance. Chapters describe examples of underwater archaeological investigation as well as collaboration with offshore industries and legal, management and training issues relating to underwater cultural heritage. Such studies point to the significance of this drowned landscape, and readers are invited to consider its human impact in terms of past settlement and population dispersal through palaeolandscape reconstruction and interpretation in relation to broader themes in human prehistory. This volume is based on work from COST Action SPLASHCOS, a four-year multi-disciplinary and multi-national research program supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) and has something to benefit all those with an interest in the sea floor of the continental shelf and the archaeological and social impact of sea-level change, including archaeologists, marine scientists, geographers, cultural-heritage managers, commercial and governmental organisations, policy makers and interested members of the public.
Among the first attempts to survey the ancient layers of land surfaces and forests that lie submerged along the coasts and estuaries of Britain.
How did small-scale societies in the past experience and respond to sea-level rise? What happened when their dwellings, hunting grounds and ancestral lands were lost under an advancing tide? This book asks these questions in relation to the hunter-gatherer inhabitants of a lost prehistoric land; a land that became entirely inundated and now lies beneath the North Sea. It seeks to understand how these people viewed and responded to their changing environment, suggesting that people were not struggling against nature, but simply getting on with life Â? with all its trials and hardships, satisfactions and pleasures, and with a multitude of choices available. At the same time, this loss of land Â? the loss of places and familiar locales where myths were created and identities formed Â? would have profoundly affected people's sense of being. This book moves beyond the static approach normally applied to environmental change in the past to capture its nuances. Through this, a richer and more complex story of past sea-level rise develops; a story that may just have resonance for us today.
Oxbow says: Mapping Doggerland documents the methodology and results of an innovative project to investigate a large area of the Southern North Sea, submerged during the last Glacial Maximum between 10,000 and 7500 bp. The North Sea Palaeolandscape Project mapped more than 23,000 sq km of the North Sea basin, once a dryland inhabited by Mesolithic populations, and its methodology and results are presented in this publication. The project made use of marine survey data and 3D seismic reflection data, but also carried out geomorphological investigations, examined borehole sediments for environmental reconstruction and developed spatial and visualisation techniques for processing and interpreting data. The study is important on a number of different levels: for the information it can provide on the Mesolithic period in Britain; for what it can tell us about a 'lost' area of the North Sea; and for developing a methodology for investigating such environments.
Major events of human prehistory such as the post-glacial recolonisation of Northern Europe and the spread of agriculture through the Mediterranean took place on landscapes that are now, at least partially, underwater. Large parts of this submerged terrain are accessible to divers and can be investigated archaeologically. Prehistoric underwater research has emerged in recent decades as a distinct sub-discipline, developing approaches and methodologies that can be applied in coastal regions worldwide. As a result there is growing awareness of the potential for underwater archaeology to transform our ideas about the course of prehistory. This volume examines existing practice and new developments in the field of submerged prehistoric landscape research. The 25 peer-reviewed contributions from leading authors cover the results of recent research on three continents and the application of methodologies and techniques for site discovery, investigation and interpretation.
This volume describes important sites in the Pleistocene deposits of the Thames terrace system laid down by the Thames and its tributaries. It correlates the Thames sequence with deposits found elsewhere in Britain, on the European continent and on the ocean floor.
The chapters in this edited volume present multi-disciplinary case studies of prehistoric archaeological sites located on now-submerged portions of the continental shelf. Each chapter represents an extension of the known prehistoric record beyond the modern shoreline. Case studies represent central themes of landscape change, climate change and societal development, using new technologies for mapping, monitoring and managing these sites.
'Sense of place' has become a familiar phrase, used to describe emotional attachment to a particular location. As heritage management policy and practices increasingly attempt to draw on the views and expressions of interest amongst local communities, it is important to have a better grasp of what people mean by this concept, and to assess its uses and implications. Here, a range of practitioners from NGO, agency, cultural heritage and archaeological backgrounds review the meanings of 'sense of place', and where it is useful in the context of heritage management practice. This volume breaks new ground in specifically addressing place attachment from a cultural heritage perspective, and drawing on local and national interests from a diversity of cultural situations. Illustrated with case studies from around Europe and Australia, the book addresses key themes, including the rootedness amongst communities in the past; policy-making for accommodating senses of place within planning and management, for land- sea- and city-scapes; official versus unofficial views; and the often difficult balance between planning policies that extend from regional to global scale, and local actions and perceptions.
With reburial and repatriation very much a current focus of debate, this new handbook presents a hugely useful and stimulating overview of just how much we can learn from the study of human remains. The book kicks off with a balanced summary of the legal framework and ethical concerns regarding the excavation and display of human remains, which emphasises public interest in skeletal remains, as well as the need for their respectful treatment. Sections follow on the context of skeletal remains and their excavation - past funerary beliefs and traditions, and best practice in excavating recording and conserving remains. The bulk of the book however is given over to analysis - the techniques for identifying age and sex, dating, the examination of health diet and disease, and the compilation of data to analyse past populations and create demographic surveys. A concluding section on the future of bioarchaeology calls for greater dialogue with archaeologists on reburial issues, but remains overwhelmingly upbeat - "[Bioarchaeology] has emerged phoenix-like from the ashes over the last twenty years and looks set to become a major part of both academic and contract archaeology".
The subjects refer to histories of ancient and modern use of seacoasts; possible macro-projects capable of massive changes in the coastlines of the Dead Sea, Red Sea and Persian Gulf caused by canal and massively scaled hydropower dam installations; relevant macro-projects for the Black Sea and Baltic Sea; possibilities of refreshment of the Aral Sea and Iran’s Lake Uremia with seawater or river freshwater importation macro-projects; potential rehabilitation of some vital arid zone regions now dominated by moving or movable surface granular materials using unique and unusual macro-projects; seawater flooding of land regions situated below present-day global sea-level; harnessing energy and obtaining freshwater from the world’s salt-laden ocean by modern industrial means; various macro-projects designed specifically for the protection (reduction of vulnerability) of particular Earth geographical regions.
The Wild Hunt is stirring - and the dragons are finally waking from their long sleep... Cat Barahal was the only survivor of the flood that took her parents. Raised by her extended family, she and her cousin, Bee, are unaware of the dangers that threaten them both. Though they are in beginning of the Industrial Age, magic - and the power of the Cold Mages - still hold sway. Now, betrayed by her family and forced to marry a powerful Cold Mage, Cat will be drawn into a labyrinth of politics. There she will learn the full ruthlessness of the rule of the Cold Mages. What do the Cold Mages want from her? And who will help Cat in her struggle against them?
Cat Barahal and her beloved cousin Bee think they have reached a safe place to shelter. But the Cold Mages who are conspiring to take them prisoner are closing in. The warlord who hopes to conquer all Europa is convinced their destiny is to aid him, whether they want to or not. And the man Cat was forced to marry is back, as vainly arrogant and annoyingly handsome as ever. Worst of all, as Hallows' Night approaches, powers hidden deep within the spirit world are rising. Cat must seek allies against these threats and figure out who to trust, for if she makes the wrong choices, she'll lose everything. Only one thing is certain. When Hallows' Night comes the Wild Hunt will ride- and it feeds on mortal blood.
The fantastic conclusion to the Spiritwalker trilogy! Trouble, treachery, and magic just won't stop plaguing Cat Barahal. The Master of the Wild Hunt has stolen her husband Andevai. The ruler of the Taino kingdom blames her for his mother's murder. The infamous General Camjiata insists she join his army to help defeat the cold mages who rule Europa. An enraged fire mage wants to kill her. And Cat, her cousin Bee, and her half-brother Rory, aren't even back in Europa yet, where revolution is burning up the streets. Revolutions to plot. Enemies to crush. Handsome men to rescue. Cat and Bee have their work cut out for them.
This volume of papers is dedicated to Peter Woodman in celebration of his contribution to archaeology, providing a glimpse of the many ways in which he has touched the lives of so many. The twenty-one contributions cover many aspects of predominantly Mesolithic archaeology in Ireland, mainland Britain and North-west Europe, reflecting the range and breadth of Peters own interests and the international esteem in which his work is held. His particular interest in antiquarians and the material they collected began early in his career and Part 1 presents papers which deal with artefacts and finds by antiquarians. Part 2 is concerned with papers on fieldwork projects, both new sites and sites which have been re-investigated, predominantly focusing on the Mesolithic period. Part 3 presents papers on the theme of people and animals, particularly the topic of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition from different angles.