The function of vertebrate hearing is served by a surprising variety of sensory structures in the different groups of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. This book discusses the origin, specialization, and functional properties of sensory hair cells, beginning with environmental constraints on acoustic systems and addressing in detail the evolutionary history behind modern structure and function in the vertebrate ear. Taking a comparative approach, chapters are devoted to each of the vertebrate groups, outlining the transition to land existence and the further parallel and independent adaptations of amniotic groups living in air. The volume explores in depth the specific properties of hair cells that allowed them to become sensitive to sound and capable of analyzing sounds into their respective frequency components. Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System is directed to a broad audience of biologists and clinicians, from the level of advanced undergraduate students to professionals interested in learning more about the evolution, structure, and function of the ear.
The evolution of vertebrate hearing is of considerable interest in the hearing community. However, there has never been a volume that has focused on the paleontological evidence for the evolution of hearing and the ear, especially from the perspective of some of the leading paleontologists and evolutionary biologists in the world. Thus, this volume is totally unique, and takes a perspective that has never been taken before. It brings to the fore some of the most recent discoveries among fossil taxa, which have demonstrated the sort of detailed information that can be derived from the fossil record, illuminating the evolutionary pathways this sensory system has taken and the diversity it had achieved.
The Springer Handbook of Auditory Research presents a series of compreh- sive and synthetic reviews of the fundamental topics in modern auditory - search. The volumes are aimed at all individuals with interests in hearing research including advanced graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and clinical investigators. The volumes are intended to introduce new investigators to important aspects of hearing science and to help established investigators to betterunderstandthefundamentaltheoriesanddatain?eldsofhearingthatthey may not normally follow closely. Each volume presents a particular topic comprehensively, and each servesas a synthetic overview and guide to the literature. As such, the chapters present neither exhaustive data reviews nor original research that has not yet appeared in peer-reviewed journals. The volumes focus on topics that have developed a solid data and conceptual foundation rather than on those for which a literature is only beginning to develop. New research areas will be covered on a timely basis in the series as they begin to mature. Eachvolumeintheseriesconsistsofafewsubstantialchaptersonaparticular topic. In some cases, the topics will be ones of traditional interest for which there is a substantial body of data and theory, such as auditory neuroanatomy (Vol. 1) and neurophysiology (Vol. 2). Other volumes in the series deal with topics that have begun to mature more recently, suchasdevelopment,plasticity, and computational models of neural processing. In many cases, the series - itorsarejoinedbyaco-editorhavingspecialexpertiseinthetopicofthevolume.
This new definitive volume on fish auditory systems will interest investigators in both basic research of fish bioacoustics as well as investigators in applied aspects of fisheries and resource management. Topics cover structure, physiology, localization, and acoustic behavior as well as more applied topics such as using sound to detect and locate fish.
The past two decades have seen an extraordinary growth of interest in the auditory mechanisms of a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. Investigations have ranged from auditory mechanisms in relatively simple animals where just a few cells are em ployed for detection of sound, to the highly complex detection and processing systems of man and the other mammals. Of particular significance to us has been the growing interest in general principles of vertebrate auditory system organization, as opposed to a specific and limited concern for the mammalian or even human systems. Some of the interest in nonmammalian systems has risen from the desire to fmd simpler experi mental models for both the essential components (e. g. , the hair cell receptor) and the more complex functions (e. g. , frequency analysis) of all vertebrate auditory systems. Interest has also risen from questions about the evolution of hearing and the covariation (or lack of it) in structure and function in a wide variety of biological solutions to the problems of acoustic mechanoreception. Of course, the desire to fmd simpler experi mental models and the need to answer questions about the evolution of hearing are not unrelated. In fact, detailed analyses of a variety of systems have led several times to the realization that some of the "simple systems" are more complex than initially thought.
Development of Auditory and Vestibular Systems fourth edition presents a global and synthetic view of the main aspects of the development of the stato-acoustic system. Unique to this volume is the joint discussion of two sensory systems that, although close at the embryological stage, present divergences during development and later reveal conspicuous functional differences at the adult stage. This work covers the development of auditory receptors up to the central auditory system from several animal models, including humans. Coverage of the vestibular system, spanning amphibians to effects of altered gravity during development in different species, offers examples of the diversity and complexity of life at all levels, from genes through anatomical form and function to, ultimately, behavior. The new edition of Development of Auditory and Vestibular Systems will continue to be an indispensable resource for beginning scientists in this area and experienced researchers alike. Full-color figures illustrate the development of the stato-acoustic system pathway Covers a broad range of species, from drosophila to humans, demonstrating the diversity of morphological development despite similarities in molecular processes involved at the cellular level Discusses a variety of approaches, from genetic-molecular biology to psychophysics, enabling the investigation of ontogenesis and functional development
How could a structure as complex as the vertebrate brain develop from the simplest multicellular animals? Natural selection offers an impeccable mechanism for the gradual transformation of species, but even Darwin sometimes expressed doubts about the origin of highly complex structures. Following an approach that has been termed "developmental evolutionary genetics," this book seeks to establish a correspondence between embryological processes and the phylogenetic history of an organism.
To develop a science of hearing that is intellectu The five-day conference was held at the Mote ally satisfying we must first integrate the diverse, Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida, May - extensive body of comparative research into an 24, 1990. The invited participants came from the evolutionary context. The need for this integra fields of comparative anatomy, physiology, biophys tion, and a conceptual framework in which it could ics, animal behavior, psychophysics, evolutionary be structured, were demonstrated in landmark biology, ontogeny, and paleontology. Before the papers by van Bergeijk in 1967 and Wever in 1974. conference, preliminary manuscripts of the invited However, not since 1965, when the American papers were distributed to all participants. This facilitated - even encouraged - discussions through Society of Zoologists sponsored an evolutionary conference entitled ''The Vertebrate Ear;' has there out the conference which could be called, among other things, "lively. " The preview of papers, along been a group effort to assemble and organize our current knowledge on the evolutionary-as with the free exchange of information and opinion, opposed to comparative-biology of hearing. also helped improve the quality and consistency of In the quarter century since that conference the final manuscripts included in this volume. there have been major changes in evolutionary In addition to the invited papers, several studies concepts (e. g. , punctuated equilibrium), in sys were presented as posters during evening sessions.
During evolution the vertebrate head has acquired a number of unique features including specialized paired sense organs and cranial sensory ganglia. These evolutionary novelties arise from discrete thickenings of the head ectoderm known as cranial placodes. They include the adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, profundal, otic, epibranchial and lateral line placodes. While distinct in the derivatives and cell types they will form, all cranial placodes originate from a common preplacodal domain surrounding the anterior neural plate. Recent evidence suggests that the induction of this pre-placodal domain and its subsequent subdivision into individual placodes with specific identities is a multi-step process. Here we describe the development of these placodes and their derivatives and summarize recent advances in the characterization of the repertoire of transcription factors underlying their development. We also review recent studies that have started to address the role of several classes of signaling molecules in placode induction and segregation, including Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Fibroblast Growth Factors and Wnt molecules. Table of Contents: Introduction / Cranial Placodes and Their Derivatives / Molecular Identity of Cranial Placodes / Induction and Segregation of the Cranial Placodes / Conclusion / Acknowledgments / References / Author Biographies
The hearing organs of non-mammals, which show quite large and systematic differences to each other and to those of mammals, provide an invaluable basis for comparisons of structure and function. By taking advantage of the vast diversity of possible study organisms provided by the "library" that is biological diversity, it is possible to learn how complex functions are realized in the inner ear through the evolution of specific structural, cellular and molecular configurations. Insights from Comparative Hearing Research brings together some of the most exciting comparative research on hearing and shows how this work has profoundly impacted our understanding of hearing in all vertebrates.
The principal goal of the Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology is a systematic, critical, and timely exposition of those aspects of neuroscience that have direct and immediate bearing on overt behavior. In this first volume, subtitled "Sensory Integration," the subject matter has been subdivided and the authors selected with this particular goal in mind. Although the early chapters (on the phylogeny and ontogeny of sensory systems, and on the common properties of sensory systems) are somewhat too abstract to permit many direct behavioral inferences, the focus on behavior has been maintained there too as closely as is now possible. A behavioral orientation is most obvious in the remaining chapters, which layout for each sensory modality in turn what is now known about structure-behavior relationships. The handbook is primarily intended to serve as a ready reference for two types of readers: first, practicing neuroscientists looking for a concise and authori tative treatment of developments outside of their particular specialities; and second, students of one or another branch of neuroscience who need an overview of the persistent questions and current problems surrounding the relation of the perceptual systems to behavior. The requirements imposed by the decision to address these particular audiences are reflected in the scope and style of the chapters as well as in their content.
Professor Wever studies the structure of the ear and its functioning as a receptor of sounds in all amphibian species (139) for which living representatives could be obtained Originally published in 1985. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
The Springer Handbook of Auditory Research presents a series of compreh- sive and synthetic reviews of the fundamental topics in modern auditory - search. The volumes are aimed at all individuals with interests in hearing research including advanced graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and clinical investigators. The volumes are intended to introduce new investigators to important aspects of hearing science and to help established investigators to better understand the fundamental theories and data in ?elds of hearing that they may not normally follow closely. Each volume presents a particular topic comprehensively, and each serves as a synthetic overview and guide to the literature. As such, the chapters present neither exhaustive data reviews nor original research that has not yet appeared in peer-reviewed journals. The volumes focus on topics that have developed a solid data and conceptual foundation rather than on those for which a literature is only beginning to develop. New research areas will be covered on a timely basis in the series as they begin to mature.
This book is not intended to give a full and comprehensive account of the Mesozoic mammals, and nor is it intended as a handbook for research workers studying pre-Tertiary mammals. Our intention is to give an account of the origin and evolution of certain of the characters of the Mammalia. We have tried to portray the fossils we describe as the living animals they once were, not as dead bones. Our account ends with the end of the Lower Cretaceous, since by that time the major characters of the mammals had become established. There exist a number of characters which, at the present day, are confined to the Mammalia. These include: (1) a jaw articulation formed by the squamosal and the dentary; (2) a chain of three bones, malleus, incus and stapes connecting the tympanic membrane to the inner ear; (3) the presence of hair or fur; (4) the presence of milk-glands in the female; (5) the left aortic arch is the systemic arch; (6) the phalangeal formula in both manus and pes is 220.127.116.11.3; (7) some of the teeth have more than one root. Of these characters (1) or (2) are sufficient by themselves to define a mammal; characters (6) and (7) are known to have been already in existence in some of the mammal-like reptiles - the ancestors of the mammals.
"Ich spreche Spanisch zu Gott, Italienisch zu den Frauen, Französisch zu den Männern und Deutsch zu meinem Pferd.' Die scherzhafte Vermutung Karls V., dass verschiedene Sprachen nicht in allen Situationen gleich gut zu gebrauchen sind, findet wohl auch heute noch breite Zustimmung. Doch ist sie aus sprachwissenschaftlicher Sicht haltbar? Sind alle Sprachen gleich komplex, oder ist Sprache ein Spiegel ihrer kulturellen Umgebung - sprechen 'primitive' Völker 'primitive' Sprachen? Und inwieweit sieht die Welt, wenn sie 'durch die Brille' einer anderen Sprache gesehen wird, anders aus? Das neue Buch des renommierten Linguisten Guy Deutscher ist eine sagenhafte Tour durch Länder, Zeiten und Sprachen. Auf seiner Reise zu den aktuellsten Ergebnissen der Sprachforschung geht Guy Deutscher mit Captain Cook auf Känguruh-Jagd, prüft mit William Gladstone die vermeintliche Farbblindheit der Griechen zur Zeit Homers und verfolgt Rudolf Virchow in Carl Hagenbecks Zoo auf dem Kurfürstendamm im Berlin des 19. Jahrhunderts. Mitreisende werden nicht nur mit einer glänzend unterhaltsamen Übersicht der Sprachforschung, mit humorvollen Highlights, unerwarteten Wendungen und klugen Antworten belohnt. Sie vermeiden auch einen Kardinalfehler, dem Philologen, Anthropologen und - wer hätte das gedacht - auch Naturwissenschaftler allzu lange aufgesessen sind: die Macht der Kultur zu unterschätzen." -- Publisher's website.
This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.
The invasion of land by ocean-dwelling plants and animals was one of the most revolutionary events in the evolution of life on Earth, yet the animal invasion almost failed—twice—because of the twin mass extinctions of the Late Devonian Epoch. Some 359 to 375 million years ago, these catastrophic events dealt our ancestors a blow that almost drove them back into the sea. If those extinctions had been just a bit more severe, spiders and insects—instead of vertebrates—might have become the ecologically dominant forms of animal life on land. This book examines the profound evolutionary consequences of the Late Devonian extinctions and the various theories proposed to explain their occurrence. Only one group of four-limbed vertebrates exists on Earth, while other tetrapod-like fishes are extinct. This gap is why the idea of "fish with feet" seems so peculiar to us, yet such animals were once a vital part of our world, and if the Devonian extinctions had not happened, members of these species, like the famous Acanthostega and Ichthyostega, might have continued to live in our rivers and lakes. Synthesizing decades of research and including a wealth of new discoveries, this accessible, comprehensive text explores the causes of the Devonian extinctions, the reasons vertebrates were so severely affected, and the potential evolution of the modern world if the extinctions had never taken place.