Exploration of changing human nutrition from evolutionary and social perspectives and its influence on health and disease, past and present.
Taking a comparative approach, this book investigates the ways in which obesity and its susceptibilities are framed in science and policy and how they might work better. Providing a clear, authoritative voice on the debate, the author builds on early work to engage further in ecological and complexity thinking in obesity. Many of the models that have emerged since obesity became a population-level issue are examined, including the energy balance model, and models used to examine human body fatness from a range of perspectives including evolutionary, anthropological, environmental, and political viewpoints. The book is ideal for those working on, or interested in, obesity science, health policy, health economics, evolutionary medicine, medical sociology, nutrition and public health who want to understand the shifts that have taken place in obesity science, policy, and intervention in the past forty years.
With the rapid growth and interest in food studies around the U.S. and globally, the original essays in this one-of-a-kind volume aid instructors in expanding their teaching to include both the latest scholarship and engage with public debate around issues related to food. The chapters represent the product of original efforts to develop ways to teach both with and about food in the classroom, written by innovative instructors who have successfully done so. It would appeal to community college and university instructors in anthropology and social science disciplines who currently teach or want to develop food-related courses. This book -illustrates the creative ways that college instructors have tackled teaching about food and used food as an instructional device;-aims to train the next generation of food scholars to deal with the complex problems of feeding an ever-increasing population -contains an interview with Sidney Mintz, the most influential anthropologist shaping the study of food
The Committee on Examination of the Evolving Science for Dietary Supplements of the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board was directed to review, retrospectively, selected case studies of diet and health relationships that were relevant to dietary supplements and identified as important in the National Research Council report, Diet and Health: Implications for Chronic Disease Risk (D&H) (NRC, 1989). It was then to determine the extent to which subsequent scientific evidence from the peerreviewed literature used in published reports from the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) series (IOM, 1997, 1998, 2000a, 2001) either agreed with the preliminary evidence used to support the relationship identified originally in the 1989 review or significantly modified the original hypotheses and preliminary conclusions. The committee's analysis was to include characteristics of research with apparent high probability of predicting future confirmation by new science in support of a diet and health relationship. It also was to consider characteristics of information useful to consumers that would allow them to make scientifically informed judgments about the role that a specific food component or nutrient plays in health.
The appearance of Volume 38 marks a transition for Advances in Food and Nutrition Research as Steve L. Taylor assumes editorial responsibility for the series. Under John Kinsella's guiding hand, Advances in Food Research strengthened its reputation as the leading publication for comprehensive reviews on important topics in food science, evolving into Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, a title which better reflected his interest in the integral relationships between food science and nutrition. Building on this legacy of quality scholarship, Dr. Taylor brings a fresh perspective to the serial, seeking novel approaches to research in food and nutritional science.
Consider Our Genes Our Foods Our Choice your handheld audit of Food and Nutrition 101, a course that distills current research on the effects of food nutrients on gene expression and health by upkeep of your second genome and second brain-the enteric nervous system. It gives the power of knowledge: how foods and right lifestyle make and shape our body, mind, and behavior. The book provides extraordinary wealth of information on basic nutrients that feed our genes, that help us control diet and reduce weight, and that preserve our health and postpone senescence and death. This book is a great tale of symbiotic human beings whose existence depends on oxygen they breathe, the water they drink, the foods they eat, and the bacteria they have in their gut. In truth humans are creatures of sun, thriving under its energy and its gift of oxygen through plant life. The bacteria come from raw or fermented foods they eat. Its main lesson: human beings must supplement their daily gene expression and methylation diet with a lifestyle rich in exercise, meditation, yoga, sleep, belief, and planned social interactivity. They should protect and preserve their second brain-the enteric nervous system and the second genome-the bacteria in their gut.
This book introduces the human right to adequate food and nutrition as evolving concept and identifies two structural "disconnects" fueling food insecurity for a billion people, and disproportionally affecting women, children, and rural food producers: the separation of women’s rights from their right to adequate food and nutrition, and the fragmented attention to food as commodity and the medicalization of nutritional health. Three conditions arising from these disconnects are discussed: structural violence and discrimination frustrating the realization of women’s human rights, as well as their private and public contributions to food and nutrition security for all; many women’s experience of their and their children’s simultaneously independent and intertwined subjectivities during pregnancy and breastfeeding being poorly understood in human rights law and abused by poorly-regulated food and nutrition industry marketing practices; and the neoliberal economic system’s interference both with the autonomy and self-determination of women and their communities and with the strengthening of sustainable diets based on democratically governed local food systems. The book calls for a social movement-led reconceptualization of the right to adequate food toward incorporating gender, women’s rights, and nutrition, based on the food sovereignty framework.
A human female is born, lives her life, and dies within the space of a few decades, but the shape of her life has been strongly influenced by 50 million years of primate evolution and more than 100 million years of mammalian evolution. How the individual female plays out the stages of her life--from infancy, through the reproductive period, to old age--and how these stages have been formed by a long evolutionary process, is the theme of this collection. Written by leading scholars in fields ranging from evolutionary biology to cultural anthropology, these essays together examine what it means to be female, integrating the life histories of marine mammals, monkeys, apes, and humans. The result is a fascinating inquiry into the similarities among the ways females of different species balance the need for survival with their role in reproduction and mothering. The Evolving Female offers an outlook integrating life history with an intimate examination of female life paths. Behavior, anatomy and physiology, growth and development, cultural identity of women, the individual, and the society are among the topics investigated. In addition to the editors, the contributors are Linda Fedigan, Kathryn Ono, Joanne Reiter, Barbara Smuts, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mary McDonald Pavelka, Caroline Pond, Robin McFarland, Silvana Borgognini Tarli and Elena Repetto, Gilda Morelli, Patricia Draper, Catherine Panter-Brick, Virginia J. Vitzthum, Alison Jolly, and Beverly McLeod.
In this gustatory tour of human history, Allen suggests that the everyday activity of eating offers deep insights into our cultural and biological heritage. Beginning with the diets of our earliest ancestors, he explores eating’s role in our evolving brain before considering our contemporary dinner plates and the preoccupations of foodies.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
This title is now available under ISBN 9780702044632. This 12th edition of Human Nutrition has been fully updated by a renowned team of international experts to ensure to ensure authoritative content and a global perspective. It provides a comprehensive resource for all those in the field of nutrition and other health sciences. Comprehensive coverage of nutrition in one, concise volume with additional material and interactive exercises on website. A similar logical chapter structure throughout and textbook features in each chapter - learning objectives, key point summaries and text boxes - facilitate learning and revision. Incorporates latest research, for example on organic foods and sustainable agriculture. Team of contributors of international repute from 11 countries guarantees authoritative text. New chapter on dietary reference values N New section on electrolytes and water balance Expanded section on HIV Website: updating between editions online-only chapters on food commodities, e.g. cereals, vegetables and fruit, meat, fish, egg, milk and milk products online examples of calculations and interactive exercises.
Hundreds of millions of people still suffer from chronic hunger and food insecurity despite sufficient levels of global food production. The poor's inability to afford adequate diets remains the biggest constraint to solving hunger, but the dynamics of global food insecurity are complex and demand analysis that extends beyond the traditional domains of economics and agriculture. How do the policies used to promote food security in one country affect nutrition, food access, natural resources, and national security in other countries? How do the priorities and challenges of achieving food security change over time as countries develop economically? The Evolving Sphere of Food Security seeks to answer these two important questions and others by exploring the interconnections of food security to security of many kinds: energy, water, health, climate, the environment, and national security. Through personal stories of research in the field and policy advising at local and global scales, a multidisciplinary group of scholars provide readers with a real-world sense of the opportunities and challenges involved in alleviating food insecurity. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, management of HIV/AIDS, the establishment of an equitable system of land property rights, and investment in solar-powered irrigation play an important role in improving food security---particularly in the face of global climate change. Meanwhile, food price spikes associated with the United States' biofuels policy continue to have spillover effects on the world's rural poor with implications for stability and national security. The Evolving Sphere of Food Security traces four key areas of the food security field: 1) the political economy of food and agriculture; 2) challenges for the poorest billion; 3) agriculture's dependence on resources and the environment; and 4) food in a national and international security context. This book connects these areas in a way that tells an integrated story about human lives, resource use, and the policy process.
Here, Wm. Alex McIntosh analyzes the relationship between food and nutrition and social factors, using a wide array of sociological theories. The author applies theories of social organization, culture, social stratification, social change, rural sociology, the sociology of the body, and social problems to empirical problems in food and nutrition. By doing so, he sheds light on issues such as the rise of the state; population growth; famine; obesity; eating disorders; the maldistribution of food across class, gender, and ethnic boundaries; and the changing nature of the food industry.
Der Big Bang war der heißeste Augenblick der Weltgeschichte. Der Rest ist Abkühlung. Und die hatte Folgen: Atome und Sterne entstanden, die Erde und wir. Eingebettet in die Geschichte des Universums ist auch die Geschichte der Menschheit. David Christian erzählt die Historie der Welt anhand von acht Schwellenmomenten: von der Entstehung des Lebens bis zur Fotosynthese, von der Sprache bis zum menschgemachten Klimawandel. Sein Buch ist eine brillante Synthese der Erkenntnisse aus Astronomie, Biologie, Chemie und Physik. Und eine atemberaubende moderne Ursprungsgeschichte, die mit einem Ausblick auf die Zukunft endet, in der wir endlich die Verantwortung für den Planeten Erde übernehmen müssen.
For courses in Anthropology and Human Evolution. This collection of essays offers students the academic basis for discussing science and religion. The papers offer a better appreciation of the complexity of thinking in both scientific and religious traditions on evolution and the fertile common ground that is still in great need of exploration.
The right to adequate food and to be free from hunger is a fundamental human right whose realisation is within the reach of the present generation, provided there is commitment to meeting corresponding obligations on the part of state and other duty bearers, and improved, broadly based understanding of the nature of these obligations as basis for their effective implementation. The first volume of this book introduced the concept of the human right to adequate food and elaborated its theoretical foundation and operational meaning in development. This second volume carries the debate further, with a relative shift in emphasis on implementation issues. It begins with a series of reviews of how different academic disciplines which influence the agenda for development have embraced or rejected human rights dimensions in their scholarly discourse and practical advice to governments. This is followed by concrete examples of how some states have started to apply a human rights based approach to food and nutrition policies and action, recognising the potential of such an approach as much as the many challenges still ahead. The cases reveal that one major obstacle is the lack of awareness, knowledge and capacity at all levels for applying human rights in national and local development. The need for appropriate education and capacity strengthening is therefore a central message. Overall, the experience presented suggests that human rights in development have reached a stage-of-noreturn, with the climate for the adoption and application of right to adequate food principles and obligations slowly but steadily improving.
Woher kommt die Moral? Wie hilft sie uns dabei, richtig zu handeln? De Waal beantwortet Fragen rund um Moral und Humanismus mit Blick auf Primaten und andere Tiere, die uns erstaunlich nahestehen: Im gottlosen Universum beobachtet er, wie Menschenaffen gerecht, kooperativ und empathisch handeln. Der weltbekannte Primatenforscher Frans de Waal nimmt uns mit auf eine erfrischende, philosophische Reise, bei der die lange Tradition des Humanismus ebenso zu Wort kommt wie das Sozialverhalten im Tierreich. Er untersucht, welche Konsequenzen seine Forschungen für unser Verständnis von moderner Religion haben. Ganz gleich, welchen Einfluss die Religion auf den Moralkodex des Menschen genommen hat, sie ist nicht die Urheberin unserer Moralität. Der Autor fordert die Leser auf, sich konstruktiv mit Fragen wie diesen auseinanderzusetzen: Welche Rolle spielt die Religion heutzutage in einer gut funktionierenden Gesellschaft? Wo können Gläubige und Nichtgläubige Inspiration für eine gute Lebensführung finden?