A landmark work of science, history and reporting on the past, present and imperiled future of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes—Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior—hold 20 percent of the world’s supply of surface fresh water and provide sustenance, work and recreation for tens of millions of Americans. But they are under threat as never before, and their problems are spreading across the continent. The Death and Life of the Great Lakes is prize-winning reporter Dan Egan’s compulsively readable portrait of an ecological catastrophe happening right before our eyes, blending the epic story of the lakes with an examination of the perils they face and the ways we can restore and preserve them for generations to come. For thousands of years the pristine Great Lakes were separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the roaring Niagara Falls and from the Mississippi River basin by a “sub-continental divide.” Beginning in the late 1800s, these barriers were circumvented to attract oceangoing freighters from the Atlantic and to allow Chicago’s sewage to float out to the Mississippi. These were engineering marvels in their time—and the changes in Chicago arrested a deadly cycle of waterborne illnesses—but they have had horrendous unforeseen consequences. Egan provides a chilling account of how sea lamprey, zebra and quagga mussels and other invaders have made their way into the lakes, decimating native species and largely destroying the age-old ecosystem. And because the lakes are no longer isolated, the invaders now threaten water intake pipes, hydroelectric dams and other infrastructure across the country. Egan also explores why outbreaks of toxic algae stemming from the overapplication of farm fertilizer have left massive biological “dead zones” that threaten the supply of fresh water. He examines fluctuations in the levels of the lakes caused by manmade climate change and overzealous dredging of shipping channels. And he reports on the chronic threats to siphon off Great Lakes water to slake drier regions of America or to be sold abroad. In an age when dire problems like the Flint water crisis or the California drought bring ever more attention to the indispensability of safe, clean, easily available water, The Death and the Life of the Great Lakes is a powerful paean to what is arguably our most precious resource, an urgent examination of what threatens it and a convincing call to arms about the relatively simple things we need to do to protect it.
Most aquatic ecosystems have variable water levels. These water-level fluctuations (WLF) have multiple effects on the organisms above and below the waterline. Natural WLF patterns in lakes guarantee both productivity and biodiversity, while untimely floods and droughts may have negative effects. Human impacts on WLF have led to a stabilization of the water levels of many lakes by hydraulic regulation, untimely drawdown due to water use, or floods due to water release from hydropower plants in the catchments. This book provides a first review in this field. It presents selected papers on the ecological effects of WLF in lakes, resulting from a workshop at the University of Konstanz in winter 2005. Issues addressed here include the extent of WLF, and analyses of their effects on different groups of biota from microorganisms to vertebrates. Applied issues include recommendations for the hydrological management of regulated lakes to reduce negative impacts, and a conceptual framework is delivered by an extension of the floodpulse concept for lakes. Current impacts on water use, including increasing demands on drinking and irrigation water, hydropower etc., and climate change effects on WLF make this book an essential resource for aquatic ecologists, engineers, and decision-makers dealing with the management of lake ecosystems and their catchments.
Chemistry can get very confusing if the approach to learning the subject is ineffective. That is why picture books on chemistry exist. Picture books break down learning as it uses only a few rich sentences then paired off with carefully selected pictures to bring the message across. This appeals to a child's word and picture memories. Buy a copy now!
Learning American history is more effective if done via pictures. Children are attracted to the vibrant colors of meaningful pictures. It's easier to imagine previous events when there are pictures to look at. This educational book also makes it easier to communicate with descriptive words to relay drawn messages. Grab a copy of this informative book today!
This is a handbook for policy makers and environmental managers in water authorities and engineering companies engaged in water quality programmes, especially in developing countries. It is also suitable for use as a textbook or as training material for water quality management courses. It is a companion volume to Water Quality Assessment and Water Quality Monitoring.
This book helps students make essential connections between economics and civics/government by asking the philosophical questions of government's role in the economy and the relationship between economic freedom and political freedom. The set of lessons include: (1) "How Has the Constitution Shaped the Economic System in the United States?"; (2) "Is Economic Freedom a Necessary Condition for Political Freedom?"; (3) "What are the Costs and Benefits of Voting?"; (4) "What are the Economic Functions of Government?"; (5) "How Has Federal Government Spending Changed?"; (6) "How Can Changes in the Federal Government's Budget Stabilize the Economy?"; (7) "Who Should Control the Money Supply--the U.S. Congress or the Federal Reserve?"; (8) "To What Extent Do Economic Conditions Determine the Outcome of Presidential Elections?"; (9) "How Are Economic Solutions to Pollution Different from Political Solutions?"; (10) "Why Does the Federal Government Give Money to State and Local Governments?"; (11) "What Can the Government Do About Unemployment?"; (12) "Why Isn't Income Distributed More Equally?"; (13) "Whose Interest is Being Served?"; (14) "Do Economic Forces Lead Immigrants to the United States?"; (15) "Why Would Governments Limit International Trade?"; and (16) "How Can Economic Sanctions Be Part of U.S. Foreign Policy?" Each lesson includes core concepts, objectives, materials needed, lesson description, procedure, and closure. (EH)
Follows the adventures of Minn, a three-legged snapping turtle, as she slowly makes her way from her birthplace at the headwaters of the Mississippi River to the mouth of river on the Gulf of Mexico.
The second edition of The Diversity of Fishes represents a major revision of the world’s most widely adopted ichthyology textbook. Expanded and updated, the second edition is illustrated throughout with striking color photographs depicting the spectacular evolutionary adaptations of the most ecologically and taxonomically diverse vertebrate group. The text incorporates the latest advances in the biology of fishes, covering taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, biogeography, ecology, and behavior. A new chapter on genetics and molecular ecology of fishes has been added, and conservation is emphasized throughout. Hundreds of new and redrawn illustrations augment readable text, and every chapter has been revised to reflect the discoveries and greater understanding achieved during the past decade. Written by a team of internationally-recognized authorities, the first edition of The Diversity of Fishes was received with enthusiasm and praise, and incorporated into ichthyology and fish biology classes around the globe, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The second edition is a substantial update of an already classic reference and text. Companion resources site This book is accompanied by a resources site: www.wiley.com/go/helfman The site is being constantly updated by the author team and provides: · Related videos selected by the authors · Updates to the book since publication · Instructor resources · A chance to send in feedback
Until relatively recently the valuable tropical montane cloud forests (hereaf ter usually referred to as TMCFs) of the world had scarcely come under the assaults experienced by the downslope montane and lowland forests. TMCFs are not hospitable environments for human occupation, and their remoteness (except in places near Andean high mountain settlements and in the Ethiopian Highlands) and difficult terrain have given them de facto protection. The ad jacent upper montane rain forests have indeed been under assault for timber, fuelwood, and for conversion to grazing and agriculture for many decades, even centuries in the Andes, but true cloud forest has only come under ex ploitation as these lower elevational resources have disappeared. They have also been "nibbled" at from above where there have been alpine grasslands under grazing pressure. Increasingly now, however, these cloud forest eco systems are being fragmented, reduced, and disturbed at an alarming rate. It is now becoming recognized that steps must be taken rapidly to increase our understanding of TMCF and to achieve their conservation, because: their water-capture function is extremely important to society; • their species endemism is high; they serve as refugia for endangered species being marginalized in these environments by increasingly transformed lower elevation ecosystems; they are relatively little studied; yet, their value to science is extremely high; they have low resilience to disturbance; vii viii Preface and many other reasons, which will be discussed subsequently in this publi cation.
This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.
As Ecology teachers ourselves we have become increasingly aware of the lack of a single comprehensive textbook of Ecvlogy which we can recommend unreservedly to our students. While general, review texts are readily available in other fields, recent publications in Ecology have tended for the most part to be small, specialised works on single aspects of the subject. Such general texts as are available are often rather too detailed and, in addition, tend to be somewhat biased towards one aspect of the discipline or another and are thus not truly balanced syntheses of current knowledge. Ecology is, in addition, a rapidly developing subject: new information is being gathered all the time on a variety of key questions; new approaches and techniques open up whole new areas of research and establish new principles. Already things have changed radically since the early '70s and we feel there is a need for an up to date student text that will include some of this newer material. We have tried, therefore, to create a text that will review all the major principles and tenets within the whole field of Ecology, presenting the generally accepted theories and fundamentals and reviewing carefully the evidence on which such principles have been founded. While recent developments in ecological thought are emphasised, we hope that these will not dominate the material to the extent where the older-established principles are ignored or overlooked.
The Nile provides freshwater not only for domestic and industrial use, but also for irrigated agriculture, hydropower dams and the vast fisheries resource of the lakes of Central Africa. The Nile River Basin covers the whole Nile Basin and is based on the results of three major research projects supported by the Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF). It provides unique and up-to-date insights on agriculture, water resources, governance, poverty, productivity, upstream-downstream linkages, innovations, future plans and their implications. Specifically, the book elaborates the history and the major current and future challenges and opportunities of the Nile river basin. It analyzes the basin characteristics using statistical data and modern tools such as remote sensing and geographic information systems. Population distribution, poverty and vulnerability linked to production system and water access are assessed at the international basin scale, and the hydrology of the region is also analysed. This text provides in-depth scientific model adaptation results for hydrology, sediments, benefit sharing, and payment for environmental services based on detailed scientific and experimental work of the Blue Nile Basin. Production systems as they relate to crops, livestock, fisheries and wetlands are analyzed for the whole Blue and White Nile basin including their constraints. Policy, institutional and technological interventions that increase productivity of agriculture and use of water are also assessed. Water demand modeling, scenario analysis, and tradeoffs that inform future plans and opportunities are included to provide a unique, comprehensive coverage of the subject.
Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessor, the Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health, Second Edition brings together world-class editors and contributors who have been at the forefront of ecosystem health assessment research for decades, to provide a sound approach to environmental management and sustainable development. Significantly updated and expanded, this authoritative resource details a proven framework for selecting, evaluating, and validating ecological indicators for ecosystem health assessment. It guides readers through the application of this framework to a wide range of ecosystems, including wetlands, estuaries, coastal zones, lakes, forests, marine ecosystems, lagoons, agricultural systems, landscapes, and rivers. The text synthesizes material from a variety of books, journals, and private research, to consider biodiversity, energy needs, ecological economics, and natural capital in the measurement of ecological health. Organized for ease of reference, the first part of the handbook provides the required theoretical background. It presents a complete overview of all relevant ecological indicators—including thermodynamics, resilience estimates, exergy, and emergy indicators. The second part focuses on how to effectively apply the ecological indicators to a number of important ecosystems. It includes many examples and case studies that clearly illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method for specific applications. Offering first-hand insight and practical guidance from practitioners in the field, this complete resource supplies the tools and the well-rounded understanding required to diagnose the health of virtually any ecosystem with much improved accuracy.
Synthesizes Decades of Research on Vernal Pools Science Pulling together information from a broad array of sources, Science and Conservation of Vernal Pools in Northeastern North America is a guide to the issues and solutions surrounding seasonal pools. Drawing on 15 years of experience, the editors have mined published literature, personal communication from professionals working in the field, unpublished reports and data, and other sources to present the latest information and practical application of this knowledge. They synthesize decades of research on vernal pools and pool-dependent biota as a foundation for presenting the necessary tools for conserving these ecosystems. The book introduces vernal pools as a keystone ecosystem in northeastern forests of North America. This landscape approach is the common current flowing throughout the chapters. Section I reviews the physical parameters that demonstrate how vernal pools function differently from other wetland systems and where they are found in the landscape. Section II provides an overview of the diversity and natural history of their unique biota, focusing on plants, invertebrates, amphibians, and other pool-associated vertebrates. Finally, Section III synthesizes the best-available science from peer-reviewed and unpublished sources relevant to conserving vernal pools in human-dominated landscapes. The book also highlights the significant role that educators and citizens have in effecting local conservation, and in ensuring a permanent place on the landscape for seasonal wetlands. An impressive cadre of scientists contribute knowledge and expertise on how to conserve vernal pools, its species, and its flora and fauna. Acknowledging the physical and biological connections between upland and aquatic systems, the authors provide a landscape-scale approach to conservation that is equally applicable to all isolated wetlands.
This book places the main actors in environmental microbiology, namely the microorganisms, on center stage. Using the modern approach of 16S ribosomal RNA, the book looks at the taxonomy of marine and freshwater bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, viruses, and the smaller aquatic animals such as nematodes and rotifers, as well as at the study of unculturable aquatic microorganisms (metagenomics). The peculiarities of water as an environment for microbial growth, and the influence of aquatic microorganisms on global climate and global recycling of nitrogen and sulphur are also examined. The pollution of water is explored in the context of self-purification of natural waters. Modern municipal water purification and disease transmission through water are discussed. Alternative methods for solid waste disposal are related to the economic capability of a society. Viruses are given special attention. By focusing on the basics, this primer will appeal across a wide range of disciplines.
Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity's most pressing current and future challenges. The United States' position in the global economy is declining, in part because U.S. workers lack fundamental knowledge in these fields. To address the critical issues of U.S. competitiveness and to better prepare the workforce, A Framework for K-12 Science Education proposes a new approach to K-12 science education that will capture students' interest and provide them with the necessary foundational knowledge in the field. A Framework for K-12 Science Education outlines a broad set of expectations for students in science and engineering in grades K-12. These expectations will inform the development of new standards for K-12 science education and, subsequently, revisions to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development for educators. This book identifies three dimensions that convey the core ideas and practices around which science and engineering education in these grades should be built. These three dimensions are: crosscutting concepts that unify the study of science through their common application across science and engineering; scientific and engineering practices; and disciplinary core ideas in the physical sciences, life sciences, and earth and space sciences and for engineering, technology, and the applications of science. The overarching goal is for all high school graduates to have sufficient knowledge of science and engineering to engage in public discussions on science-related issues, be careful consumers of scientific and technical information, and enter the careers of their choice. A Framework for K-12 Science Education is the first step in a process that can inform state-level decisions and achieve a research-grounded basis for improving science instruction and learning across the country. The book will guide standards developers, teachers, curriculum designers, assessment developers, state and district science administrators, and educators who teach science in informal environments.