The many economic factors affecting sustainability of the Gulf of Mexico region are perhaps as important as the waves on its shores and its abundant marine life. This second volume in Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota (a multivolumed work edited by John W. Tunnell Jr., Darryl L. Felder, and Sylvia A. Earle) assesses the Gulf of Mexico as a single economic region. The book provides information and baseline data useful for assessing the goals of economic and environmental sustainability in the Gulf. In five chapters, economists, political scientists, and ecologists from Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Maine, and Mexico cover topics such as: the idea of the Gulf as a transnational community; the quantitative value of its productivity; a summary of the industries dependent on the Gulf, including shipping, tourism, oil and gas mining, fisheries, recreation, and real estate; the human uses and activities that affect coastal economies; and the economic trends evident in Mexico's drive toward coastal development. This first-of-its-kind reference work will be useful to scientists, economists, industry leaders, and policy makers whose work requires an understanding of the economic issues involved in science, business, trade, exploration, development, and commerce in the Gulf of Mexico.
This landmark scientific reference for scientists, researchers, and students of marine biology tackles the monumental task of taking a complete biodiversity inventory of the Gulf of Mexico with full biotic and biogeographic information. Presenting a comprehensive summary of knowledge of Gulf biota through 2004, the book includes seventy-seven chapters, which list more than fifteen thousand species in thirty-eight phyla or divisions and were written by 138 authors from seventy-one institutions in fourteen countries.This first volume of Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota, a multivolumed set edited by John W. Tunnell Jr., Darryl L. Felder, and Sylvia A. Earle, provides information on each species' habitat, biology, and geographic range, along with full references and a narrative introduction to the group, which opens each chapter.
Fascinating and instantly recognisable, flatfishes are unique in their asymmetric postlarval body form. With over 700 extant species recognised and a distribution stretching across the globe this group of fishes are of considerable research interest and provide a major contribution to recreational and commercial fisheries, and to aquaculture, worldwide. Flatfishes: Biology and exploitation is the only comprehensive and current book in the field and responds to the economic importance and growing body of research to produce an invaluable addition to the Fish and Aquatic Resources Series providing: Outlines of systematics, distribution, reproduction, recruitment, ecology and behaviour Descriptions of the major fisheries and their management Full coverage of recent advances in aquaculture and stock enhancement This book is essential reading for fish biologists; fisheries scientists; marine biologists; ecologists and environmental scientists; aquaculture personnel and government workers in fisheries and fish and wildlife departments. It should be found in all libraries of research establishments and universities where biology, fish biology, fisheries, aquaculture, marine sciences, oceanography, ecology and environmental sciences are studied or taught.
Contains over 1,100 literature citations through 1992 related to water recirculation and aeration in aquaculture. The focus is on filtration, aeration, and circulation techniques in various aquaculture situations. Provides broad exposure to water quality, organics removal, invertebrate and algal culture systems, diseases and sterilization, and economics. References on partial recycled systems utilizing waste water treatment processes, and relevant sanitary engineering are also included.
Rev. ed. of: Techniques for wildlife investigations and management / edited by Clait E. Braun. 6th ed. Bethesda, Md.: Wildlife Society, 2005.
The spotted seatrout is an important species not only for recreational and commercial fisheries, but also as an integral part of many estuarine ecosystems. As one of the few fishes that live its entire life within an estuarine system, the species has tremendous potential as a monitor or sentinel for estuarine conditions. Prepared by the foremost authorities in their respective fields, Biology of the Spotted Seatrout presents an up-to-date summary of what is known about the basic biology of this important species. This innovative reference provides current life history information on this species for the expressed purpose of beginning the task of assessing differences in estuarine restricted sub-populations of spotted seatrout. It serves as a model of a biological summary directed toward determining which of the life history parameters will most aptly serve as bioindicators to meet overall environmental management needs. It integrates estuarine specific life history features into the overall management of both estuaries and an estuarine dependent fishery. Biology of the Spotted Seatrout includes a classic systematic approach to studying the relationships between seatrout genera as well as a more modern approach to investigating intra- and inter-estuarine differences in genetic structure. Ecologists, fisheries biologists and managers, and environmental scientists worldwide will be able to use the information presented in this book as a model on which to establish a database of information to be used to assess and compare estuarine conditions and environmental health. This valuable book serves as a blueprint for bringing together the biological criteria necessary to begin landscape scale comparisons of estuaries based on the biological information of totally estuarine dependent species, such as the spotted seatrout.
Acknowledging the present inability to determine objectively the status and trends among estuarine ecosystems, the environmental research community has recently stepped up efforts to develop and evaluate meaningful estuarine indicators. This goal requires the effort of researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines. In order to expedite this initiative, many of the world's leading estuarine scientists came together to present their views at the 2003 Estuarine Indicators Workshop. Derived from this conference of leading estuarine scientists, Estuarine Indicators presents the principles, concepts, practical use, and application of indicators in estuarine research and management practices. Topics include: the theory behind environmental indicators and their presumed attributes; the methods and protocols of indicator development and evaluation; a presentation of effective and ineffective indicator examples; and discussions of the future directions in research and management practices. This is an ideal reference for researchers, scientists, and students from any field dealing with estuaries and estuarine ecosystems. Its introductory-level chapters are accessible to novices and seasoned experts alike, and the applications and interpretation of research data suit the needs of environmental managers. This is a truly multidisciplinary, comprehensive compendium upon which future research will undoubtedly be built.
Coastal-Marine Conservation: Science and Policy introduces studentsand managers to complex conservation and management issues facingcoastal nations of the world, their citizens, and international andnon-governmental organizations. It aims to reduce complexity andinspire a greater consensus for more effective conservationaction. Presents the coastal realm as a heterogeneous, diverseecosystem of exceptionall high biological diversity andproductivity, and where conservation challenges are most difficultand urgent Examines the critical issues facing coastal-marine conservationand the mechanisms for dealing with them Reviews the basic science required for addressing conservationissues by presenting the coastal realm as a land-sea ecosystem ofglobal significance, and by reviewing the natural-history featuresof coastal-marine organisms Presents three ecologically and latitudinally distinct"real-world" case studies to create a context for understanding ofregional systems, their cultures, and their conservation: the polarBering Sea, the temperate Chesapeake Bay, and the tropicalBahamas Makes apparent the ecological stresses on the coastal realm,increasing rates of ecosystem change, loss of ecosystem health, andfragmented governance Synthesizes the major challenges for conservation and suggestsfuture policy and management strategies, including ecosystemmanagement and needs for achieving sustainability and addressingthe environmental debt This book is intended for undergraduates and graduates takingcourses in coastal and marine conservation and management, as wellas those actively engaged in coastal-marine conservationactivities, and gives the reader a clear steer to future managementapproaches. References additional to those in the book are available athttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pdf/ray_references.pdf The artwork is available to download athttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ray/
Taking an integrated approach to the biology of marine carnivores, cetaceans, and sirenians, twenty-two prominent researchers compare marine mammals with one another and with terrestrial mammals, providing a framework for fundamental biological and ecological concepts. They describe functional morphology, sensory systems, energetics, reproduction, communication and cognition, behavior, distribution, population biology, and feeding ecology. They also detail the physiological adaptations—for such activities and processes as diving, thermo-regulation, osmoregulation, and orientation—that enable marine mammals to exploit their aquatic environment.
The fishing industry benefits the people and economies of the Pacific in various ways but the full value of these benefits is not reflected in the region's statistics. Records may be maintained but they are not complete, or accurate, or comparable. The research summarized in this report reaffirms the importance of this sector to the economies and societies of the Pacific island countries. The research reveals that the full value of fisheries is likely to have eluded statisticians, and therefore fisheries authorities, government decision makers, and donors. But its value has never escaped the fisher, fish trader, and fish processor. The difference in appreciation between public and private individuals must raise the question of whether fisheries are receiving adequate attention from the public sector---including the necessary management and protection, appropriate research, development, extension and training, and sufficient investment.
Fishes are very successful vertebrates and have adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions, from the deep ocean to the smallest brook or pond. The physiological background to these environmental adaptations is, obviously, far from clear, and provides fish physiologists with many challenges. The number of extant fish species has been estimated to be in excess of 20000, and only relatively few of these have been subject to physiological studies. Yet among these animals can be found many physiological systems different from those of the land-dwelling vertebrates, and also systems similar to those of the 'higher' vertebrates but at a different level of phylogenetic development. Apart from the rapidly increasing interest in basic fish physi ology, the last few years have seen a dramatic increase in applied research, aimed primarily in two directions: fish culture and envi ronmental toxicology. Physiological research is of vital importance in both these fields, and basic fish physiology is a necessary base for the applied research. This book is intended for a wide readership among senior undergraduate, postgraduate and research students, as well as uni versity teachers and researchers in zoology, physiology, aqua culture and biology generally. The book focuses on five major areas of basic and applied research: haemopoiesis, acid-base regu lation, circulation, gastro-intestinal functions and physiological toxicology. The chapters will serve as introductions to these fields, as well as up-to-date reviews of the most recent advances in the research areas.
New species are discovered every day—and cataloguing all of them has grown into a nearly insurmountable task worldwide. Now, this definitive reference manual acts as a style guide for writing and filing species descriptions. New collecting techniques and new technology have led to a dramatic increase in the number of species that are discovered. Explorations of unstudied regions and new habitats for almost any group of organisms can result in a large number of new species discoveries—and hence the need to be described. Yet there is no one source a student or researcher can readily consult to learn the basic practical aspects of taxonomic procedures. Species description can present a variety of difficulties: Problems arise when new species are not given names because their discoverers do not know how to write a formal species description or when these species are poorly described. Biologists may also have to deal with nomenclatural problems created by previous workers or resulting from new information generated by their own research. This practical resource for scientists and students contains instructions and examples showing how to describe newly discovered species in both the animal and plant kingdoms. With special chapters on publishing taxonomic papers and on ecology in species description, as well as sections covering subspecies, genus-level, and higher taxa descriptions, Describing Species enhances any writer's taxonomic projects, reports, checklists, floras, faunal surveys, revisions, monographs, or guides. The volume is based on current versions of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature and recognizes that systematics is a global and multicultural exercise. Though Describing Species has been written for an English-speaking audience, it is useful anywhere Taxonomy is spoken and will be a valuable tool for professionals and students in zoology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and other fields of biology.
Written as a stand-alone textbook for students and a useful reference for professionals in government and private agencies, academic institutions, and consultants, Ecology and Conservation of Fishes provides broad, comprehensive, and systematic coverage of all aquatic systems from the mountains to the oceans. The book begins with overview discussions on the ecology, evolution, and diversity of fishes. It moves on to address freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems and identifies factors that affect the distribution and abundance of fishes. It then examines the adaptations of fishes as a response to constraints posed in ecosystems. The book concludes with four chapters on applied ecology to discuss the critical issues of management, conservation, biodiversity crises, and climate change. Major marine fisheries have collapsed, and there are worldwide declines in freshwater fish populations. Fishery scientists and managers must become more effective at understanding and dealing with resource issues. If not, fish species, communities, and entire ecosystems will continue to decline as habitats change and species are lost. Ecology and Conservation of Fishes has taken a historical and functional approach to explain how we got where we are, providing old and new with a better foundation as ecologists and conservationists, and most importantly, it awakens senses of purpose and need. Past management practices are reviewed, present programs considered, and the need for incorporating principles of applied ecology in future practices is emphasized.