Photocopy and make flexagon nets plus explanation of maths at recreational level.
A flexagon is a motion structure that has the appearance of a ring of hinged polygons. It can be flexed to display different pairs of faces, usually in cyclic order. Flexagons can be appreciated as toys or puzzles, as a recreational mathematics topic, and as the subject of serious mathematical study. Workable paper models of flexagons are easy to make and entertaining to manipulate. The mathematics of flexagons is complex, and how a flexagon works is not immediately obvious on examination of a paper model. Recent geometric analysis, included in the book, has improved theoretical understanding of flexagons, especially relationships between different types. This profusely illustrated book is arranged in a logical order appropriate for a textbook on the geometry of flexagons. It is written so that it can be enjoyed at both the recreational mathematics level, and at the serious mathematics level. The only prerequisite is some knowledge of elementary geometry, including properties of polygons. A feature of the book is a compendium of over 100 nets for making paper models of some of the more interesting flexagons, chosen to complement the text. These are accurately drawn and reproduced at half full size. Many of the nets have not previously been published. Instructions for assembling and manipulating the flexagons are included.
The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, and surreal numbers were inspired by the game of Go. Yet even with such groundbreaking findings and a wealth of popular-level books exploring puzzles and brainteasers, research in recreational mathematics has often been neglected. The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects brings together authors from a variety of specialties to present fascinating problems and solutions in recreational mathematics. Contributors to the book show how sophisticated mathematics can help construct mazes that look like famous people, how the analysis of crossword puzzles has much in common with understanding epidemics, and how the theory of electrical circuits is useful in understanding the classic Towers of Hanoi puzzle. The card game SET is related to the theory of error-correcting codes, and simple tic-tac-toe takes on a new life when played on an affine plane. Inspirations for the book's wealth of problems include board games, card tricks, fake coins, flexagons, pencil puzzles, poker, and so much more. Looking at a plethora of eclectic games and puzzles, The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects is sure to entertain, challenge, and inspire academic mathematicians and avid math enthusiasts alike.
The legacy of Martin Gardner is celebrated in this broad collection of articles. Essential reading for all recreational mathematicians.
This easy-to-read 2010 book demonstrates how a simple geometric idea reveals fascinating connections and results in number theory, the mathematics of polyhedra, combinatorial geometry, and group theory. Using a systematic paper-folding procedure it is possible to construct a regular polygon with any number of sides. This remarkable algorithm has led to interesting proofs of certain results in number theory, has been used to answer combinatorial questions involving partitions of space, and has enabled the authors to obtain the formula for the volume of a regular tetrahedron in around three steps, using nothing more complicated than basic arithmetic and the most elementary plane geometry. All of these ideas, and more, reveal the beauty of mathematics and the interconnectedness of its various branches. Detailed instructions, including clear illustrations, enable the reader to gain hands-on experience constructing these models and to discover for themselves the patterns and relationships they unearth.
Twenty-five experiments with simple, inexpensive materials demonstrate various mathematical principles.
Presents directions and diagrams for string games and paper folding tricks.
Offers puzzles, games and problems featuring matrixes, probability, topology, card tricks, paradoxes, and logic
A dissection involves cutting a polygon into pieces in such a way that those pieces form another polygon; for a hinged dissection, the pieces must be attached by hinges. A piano hinge is "a long narrow hinge with a pin running the entire length of its joint." So, unlike regular hinged dissections, which swing or twist (around single point of hinge), piano-hinged dissections fold along an edge. This book discusses the history, methods, and variations of these dissections and is rich with illustrations that clearly depict the cuts of the dissections and three-dimensional simulations of the dissections in the process of being folded. A CD that includes video recordings of select dissections being transformed accompanies the book.
A collection of thirty-five magic tricks using folded paper. Includes some optical illusions and some simple toys.
Despite their apparent simplicity, the behaviour of pendulums can be remarkably complicated. Historically, pendulums for specific purposes have been developed using a combination of simplified theory and trial and error. There do not appear to be any introductory books on pendulums, written at an intermediate level, and covering a wide range of topics. This book aims to fill the gap. It is written for readers with some background in elementary geometry, algebra, trigonometry and calculus. Historical information, where available and useful for the understanding of various types of pendulum and their applications, is included. Perhaps the best known use of pendulums is as the basis of clocks in which a pendulum controls the rate at which the clock runs. Interest in theoretical and practical aspects of pendulums, as applied to clocks, goes back more than four centuries. The concept of simple pendulums, which are idealised versions of real pendulums is introduced. The application of pendulums to clocks is described, with detailed discussion of the effect of inevitable differences between real pendulums and simple pendulums. In a clock, the objective is to ensure that the pendulum controls the timekeeping. However, pendulums are sometimes driven, and how this affects their behaviour is described. Pendulums are sometimes used for occult purposes. It is possible to explain some apparently occult results by using modern pendulum theory. For example, why a ring suspended inside a wine glass, by a thread from a finger, eventually strikes the glass. Pendulums have a wide range of uses in scientific instruments, engineering, and entertainment. Some examples are given as case studies. Indexed in the Book Citation Index– Science (BKCI-S)
Are you ready to flip out? Hexaflexagons are six-sided, flat paper models that can be made to reveal hidden images through a series of flexes and folds. Flexagons were first introduced in a column written by Martin Gardner for Scientific American. From there, people started folding and figuring out creative ways to craft these interesting origami-like objects. Included in this delightful book are instructions and material to create hexaflexagons, tri-tetra flexagons, cubes, flexacubes, and more! Flexing kaleidocycles are shapes formed by taking several tetrahedra (four-sided 3D shapes) and joining their edges to form a ring, which can then be rotated so that it turns inside out to display a multitude different colors, shapes, and designs! This book contains: * A brief introduction on the history of hexaflexagons * Instructions on how to make 13 different fun flexagon models * 40 pages of easy tear-out pages with pieces to assemble your hexaflexagons People are still discovering new ways to innovate with these enjoyable creations--so with some study and practice, you may be able to come up with a unique design and enter the pages of flexagon history! All you need to do is to cut out and assemble the various models in this book to create the most intriguing and entertaining designs available. Start folding your flexagons now!
Includes puzzles, games, ideas, and more, that have to do with mathematics
This sampler of entertaining mathematical diversions reveals the elegance and extraordinary usefulness of mathematics for readers who think they have no aptitude for the subject. If you like any kind of game at all, you’ll enjoy the amazing mathematical puzzles and patterns presented here in straightforward terms that any layperson can understand. From magic squares and the mysterious qualities of prime numbers to Pythagorean triples, probability theory, the Fibonacci sequence, and more, the author shows that math can be fun while having some profound implications. Such ubiquitous mathematical entities as pi and the Fibonacci numbers are found throughout the natural world and are also the foundation of our technological civilization. By exploring the intriguing games presented here, you’ll come away with a greater appreciation for the beauty and importance of these and many more math concepts. This is the perfect book for people who were turned off by math in school but now as adults wonder what they may have missed. From the Trade Paperback edition.