Transportation of species to areas outside their native ranges has been a feature of human culture for millennia. During this time such activities have largely been viewed as beneficial or inconsequential. However, it has become increasingly clear that human-caused introductions of alien biota are an ecological disruption whose consequences rival those of better-known insults like chemical pollution, habitat loss, and climate change. Indeed, the irreversible nature of most alien-species int- ductions makes them less prone to correction than many other ecological problems. Current reshuffling of species ranges is so great that the present era has been referred to by some as the “Homogocene” in an effort to reflect the unique mag- tude of the changes being made. These alien interlopers often cause considerable ecological and economic d- age where introduced. Species extinctions, food-web disruptions, community alte- tions, ecosystem conversion, changes in nutrient cycling, fisheries collapse, watershed degradation, agricultural loss, building damage, and disease epidemics are among the destructive – and frequently unpredictable – ecological and economic effects that invasive alien species can inflict. The magnitude of these damages c- tinues to grow, with virtually all environments heavily used by humans now do- nated by alien species and many “natural” areas becoming increasingly prone to alien invasion as well. Attention to this problem has increased in the past decade or so, and efforts to prevent or limit further harm are gaining wider scientific and political acceptance.
With many frog populations declining or disappearing and developmental malformations and disease afflicting others, scientists, conservationists, and concerned citizens need up-to-date, accurate information. Frogs of the United States and Canada is a comprehensive resource for those trying to protect amphibians as well as for researchers and wildlife managers who study biodiversity. From acrobatic tree frogs to terrestrial toads, C. Kenneth Dodd Jr. offers an unparalleled synthesis of the biology, behavior, and conservation of frogs in North America. This two-volume, fully referenced resource provides color photographs and range maps for 106 native and nonindigenous species and includes detailed information on- past and present distribution- life history and demography - reproduction and diet- landscape ecology and evolution- - diseases, parasites, and threats from toxic substances- conservation and management
A coherent, readable summary of the technical information available on savannas, barrens and rock outcrop plant communities.
Inhaltsangabe:Einleitung: Die Frage, inwieweit Fischprädation die Strukturierung und die Regulierung von Süßwasser-Invertebratengemeinschaften beeinflußt, hat in der aquatischen Ökologie vermehrt Aufmerksamkeit erhalten. Bereits frühere Studien weisen darauf hin, daß Fische Abundanz und Biomasse einiger Makroinvertebratenklassen beeinflussen und auch später berichteten Autoren, daß Fische eine Schlüsselrolle spielen können, indem sie in signifikanter Weise benthische Gemeinschaftsstrukturen verändern. Andererseits finden sich, auch Angaben, daß Fischprädation wenig oder keinen Effekt auf Benthosgemeinschaften hat, oder daß der Einfluß von Fischen aufgrund vielfältiger, indirekter Interaktionen variabel ist und auch von anderen verwandten Faktoren wie z.B. Zufluchtmöglichkeit der Beute etc. abhängt. Der Begriff Benthos (oder Benthon) bezeichnet die Lebensgemeinschaft des Gewässerbodens. Benthische Organismen können im Substrat leben (bei Schlamm und Sand), sich auf dem Substrat bewegen oder dort festgewachsen sein. Entsprechend ihrer Größe werden sie nach MARE in drei willkürliche Klassen eingeteilt: Makro-, Meio- und Mikrofauna. Die Grenzen der 3 Gruppen werden durch verschiedene Maschenweiten standardisierter Netze festgelegt: Individuen, die zu groß sind, um ein 500 um-Netz zu passieren, werden zur Makrofauna gezählt (z. B. Insektenlarven, Anneliden, Mollusken). Meiobenthische Organismen können 500 um-Netze passieren und werden in Netzen mit einer Maschenweite von 42 um aufgefangen (z. B. Nematoden, Crustacecn, Jugendstadien der Anneliden und Chironomiden, Tardigraden). Diejenigen Organismen, die das Netz mit einer Maschenwcite von 42 um passieren, bezeichnet man als Mikrobenthon (v.a. Bakterien und Protozoen). Auch das Zooplankton kann in seiner Abundanz und Zusammensetzung von Fischprädation beeinflußt werden, und zwar insofern, als große Zooplankter bei Anwesenheit von planktivoren und benthivoren Fischen deutlich reduziert werden und die Zooplankton-Fauna dann dementsprechend von kleineren Arten dominiert wird. Als Plankton bezeichnet man die Lebensgemeinschaft der Freiwasserzone. Das Phytoplankton als Ebene der Primärproduzenten enthält Blaualgen (Cyanobakterien) und Algen in einem Bereich von ca. 0,5 um bis 1 um (Kolonien auch noch bis 1 cm). Das Zooplankton der Binnengewässer enthält in erster Linie Protozoen (Flagellaten und Ciliaten; einige um bis einige 100 mm), Rotatorien (30 um bis 1 mm) und Crustaceen (Copepoden und Cladoceren; [...]
Toxicology and Occupational Medicine documents the proceedings of the Tenth Inter-American Conference on Toxicology and Occupational Medicine held in Key Biscayne (Miami), Florida, on 22-25 October 1978. The purpose of the conference was the presentation by delegates of research reports on subjects in the broad field of Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, followed by free discussions by all participants. This volume contains 47 papers and begins by tracing the history of the Inter-American Conferences. Subsequent chapters present papers on topics such as legal and scientific concerns over food safety; factors to consider to ensure the validity of the design of the experiment, the procedure for carrying it out, and the method of interpreting the results; and comparison of mutagenic, carcinogenic, and epidemiological data on known human carcinogens. Other papers cover the hidden carcinogen in the manufacture of isopropyl alcohol; developments in protecting workers from chemical hazards on the job; and safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.
New species are discovered every day—and cataloguing all of them has grown into a nearly insurmountable task worldwide. Now, this definitive reference manual acts as a style guide for writing and filing species descriptions. New collecting techniques and new technology have led to a dramatic increase in the number of species that are discovered. Explorations of unstudied regions and new habitats for almost any group of organisms can result in a large number of new species discoveries—and hence the need to be described. Yet there is no one source a student or researcher can readily consult to learn the basic practical aspects of taxonomic procedures. Species description can present a variety of difficulties: Problems arise when new species are not given names because their discoverers do not know how to write a formal species description or when these species are poorly described. Biologists may also have to deal with nomenclatural problems created by previous workers or resulting from new information generated by their own research. This practical resource for scientists and students contains instructions and examples showing how to describe newly discovered species in both the animal and plant kingdoms. With special chapters on publishing taxonomic papers and on ecology in species description, as well as sections covering subspecies, genus-level, and higher taxa descriptions, Describing Species enhances any writer's taxonomic projects, reports, checklists, floras, faunal surveys, revisions, monographs, or guides. The volume is based on current versions of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature and recognizes that systematics is a global and multicultural exercise. Though Describing Species has been written for an English-speaking audience, it is useful anywhere Taxonomy is spoken and will be a valuable tool for professionals and students in zoology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and other fields of biology.
One of the most important questions we can ask about life is "Does ecology matter?" Most biologists and paleontologists are trained to answer "yes," but the exact mechanisms by which ecology matters in the context of patterns that play out over millions of years have never been entirely clear. This book examines these mechanisms and looks at how ancient environments affected evolution, focusing on long-term macroevolutionary changes as seen in the fossil record. Evolutionary paleoecology is not a new discipline. Beginning with Darwin, researchers have attempted to understand how the environment has affected evolutionary history. But as we learn more about these patterns, the search for a new synthetic view of the evolutionary process that integrates species evolution, ecology, and mass extinctions becomes ever more pressing. The present volume is a benchmark sampler of active research in this ever more active field.
Talks about the achievements of a giant in the field of marine biology. Alfred Goldsborough Mayor (1868-1922), a Harvard-trained marine biologist founded and directed on behalf of the Carnegie Institution the first tropical marine biological laboratory in the Western hemisphere.
This book incorporates twenty contributions on diverse aspects of the environmental geochemistry in tropical and sub-tropical environments, drawing together extensive original research not readily available elsewhere. Coverage includes intercontinental comparisons drawn on paleoclimatology, environmental impacts of mining and geochemistry of continetal shelf sediments.
"Describes how hurricanes form, how scientists study them, and how people can protect against their destruction"--Provided by publisher.
Highlights the work scientists are doing to protect the manatee, an endangered species.
"In graphic novel format, follows the adventures of Max Axiom as he explores the science and history behind hurricanes"--Provided by publisher.
Archie Carr (1909-1987), the eminent naturalist, writer, and conservationist, was particularly entranced by the wildlife and ecosystems of Florida, where he lived for more than 50 years. This book - which includes some of his essays - is full of details and anecdotes about the flora, fauna, and humans that have inhabited Florida's colourful landscape.
The chemical compositions of over 100 household product groups, along with 10 sample experiments, will show students how chemistry influences their everyday lives.
Becoming a Food Scientist is designed as a reservoir of ideas for those beginning a graduate education in food science or beginning a professional career in the field. Although at times it may read as a how-to manual for success in graduate school, it is meant to encourage each reader to study the research process, to challenge conventional wisdom, and to develop a career path that maximizes the probability of success both in school and beyond. The author has viewed food science graduate programs through the lenses of programs at four universities and service in numerous activities with the Institute of Food Technologists. This book is thus focused on the field of food science, but it may have relevance to other scientific disciplines. The book introduces the concept of research as process in the first chapter. Subsequent chapters focus on individual unit operations of research: idea generation, problem definition, critical evaluation of the literature, method selection, experimental design, data collection, processing and analysis, and knowledge dissemination. Successful graduate students in food science must master each of these operations. The final section of the book pushes the reader beyond graduate school into its practice in the real world. Topics covered in the maturation of a food scientist include the scientific meeting, critical thinking, science and philosophy, ethics, finding and managing the literature, planning, grantsmanship, laboratory setup and management, and career development. This book should be a meaningful companion for any graduate student in the field and those transitioning from graduate school to the food science profession.
This book challenges the new urban growth concepts of the creative class and creative industries from a critical urban theory perspective. Critiques Richard Florida's popular books about cities and the creative class Presents an alternative approach based on analyses of empirical research data concerning the German urban system and the case study regions, Hanover and Berlin Underscores that the culture industry takes a leading role in conforming with neoliberal conceptions of labor markets