Urban agriculture has the potential to change our food systems, enhance habitat in our cities, and to morph urban areas into regions that maximize rather than disrupt ecosystem services. The potential impacts of urban agriculture on a range of ecosystem services including soil and water conservation, waste recycling, climate change mitigation, habitat, and food production is only beginning to be recognized. Those impacts are the focus of this book. Growing food in cities can range from a tomato plant on a terrace to a commercial farm on an abandoned industrial site. Understanding the benefits of these activities across scales will help this movement flourish. Food can be grown in community gardens, on roofs, in abandoned industrial sites and next to sidewalks. The volume includes sections on where to grow food and how to integrate agriculture into municipal zoning and legal frameworks.
Changing the Boundaries explores gender relations with respect to education, reproductive health services, and agricultural resources -- three factors that are widely recognized as being central to the struggle for gender equity, population control, and environmental sustainability. As well as defining the role of women in the population-environment quandary, author Janice Jiggins explains how that role is the key to understanding issues of population and environment. Throughout the volume, she makes extensive use of research, experience, and documentation that draws on the views and publications of women in the global South, much of which is available to development practitioners but is rarely found in academic libraries. Data, arguments, concepts, and analysis from a wide and varied range of sources are woven together to link the experience of women's daily lives with population policies and global environmental politics.
Contrasting the prevailing theories of the evolution of agriculture, the author argues that the practice of smallholding is more efficient and less environmentally degrading than that of industrial agriculture which depends heavily on fossil fuel, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. He presents a convincing case for his argument with examples taken from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas, and demonstrates that there are fundamental commonalities among smallholder cultures. "Smallholders, Householders" is a detailed and innovative analysis of the agricultural efficiency and conservation of resources practiced around the world by smallholders.
A publicação de "Melhorar a nutrição através das hortas familiares. Módulo de formação destinado a Técnicos de Extensão Agrícola em África" tem como finalidade a formação de técnicos de extensão rural, de economia doméstica, de nutrição, de saúde e de outros agentes de desenvolvimento que trabalhem com famílias e comunidades. As hortas familiares existem em muitas zonas húmidas e sub-húmidas de África. Essas hortas, tendo uma funda tradição, constituem um enorme potencial de melhoria do aprovisionamento alimentar das famílias, podendo ser usadas para cultivar diversas espécies vegetais, frutos, cereais, plantas medicinais e especiarias, bem como para criar animais, incluindo peixes. Se devidamente tratada, mesmo uma pequena porção de terra pode contribuir substancialmente para aumentar o nível nutricional familiar, indo ao encontro das suas necessidades alimentares. Este módulo de formação abrange a produção de alimentos e questões nutricionais, fornecendo um vasto leque de materiais para a formação de técnicos de campo que desejem ajudar as famílias e respectivas comunidades a melhorarem a produção alimentar e a aumentarem o valor nutritivo das suas dietas.
The Environment in Anthropology presents ecology and current environmental studies from an anthropological point of view. From the classics to the most current scholarship, this text connects the theory and practice in environment and anthropology, providing readers with a strong intellectual foundation as well as offering practical tools for solving environmental problems. Haenn, Wilk, and Harnish pose the most urgent questions of environmental protection: How are environmental problems mediated by cultural values? What are the environmental effects of urbanization? When do environmentalists’ goals and actions conflict with those of indigenous peoples? How can we assess the impact of “environmentally correct” businesses? They also cover the fundamental topics of population growth, large scale development, biodiversity conservation, sustainable environmental management, indigenous groups, consumption, and globalization. This revised edition addresses new topics such as water, toxic waste, neoliberalism, environmental history, environmental activism, and REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), and it situates anthropology in the multi-disciplinary field of environmental research. It also offers readers a guide for developing their own plan for environmental action. This volume offers an introduction to the breadth of ecological and environmental anthropology as well as to its historical trends and current developments. Balancing landmark essays with cutting-edge scholarship, bridging theory and practice, and offering suggestions for further reading and new directions for research, The Environment in Anthropology continues to provide the ideal introduction to a burgeoning field.
The biodiversity crisis -- the extinction of thousands of species of plants and animals -- is not just a faraway problem for scientists to solve. Instead, the crisis is as close as our backyards, our gardens, and our refrigerator shelves. This engaging, practical guide inspires average Americans to wield their consumer power in favor of protecting the world's plant and animal species.Environmentalist activist Martin Teitel offers compelling evidence that by slightly modifying how we shop, eat, and garden, we can collectively influence the operating decisions of today's corporate agribusiness and help preserve our precious genetic resources. Teitel offers strategies so simple that they require no significant lifestyle change or expense.
Includes material on irrigation in Mexico, Somalia, Morocco, the Andes, Bali, Cape Verde, Iran, and Sri Lanka.
Previous editions of this bestseller have established it as the definitive food-gardening manual for the Pacific Northwest. Now, this fully revised edition is available for gardeners' food-growing pleasure!Growing Vegetables West of the Cascades is the bible of vegetable gardening for anyone turning soil left of the Cascade Mountain range-from Western British Columbia to Northern California. It includes the basics of soil composition, when to plant, which seed companies to rely on, pest control, and an extensive section on the cultivation of each vegetable. Carrots, peppers, lettuce-you name it, it's in this book.
Currently 868 million people are undernourished and 195 million children under five years of age are stunted. At the same time, over 1 billion people are overweight and obese in both the developed and developing world. Diseases previously associated with affluence, such as cancer, diabetes and cardio-vascular disease, are on the rise. Food system-based approaches to addressing these problems that could enhance food availability and diet quality through local production and agricultural biodiversity often fall outside the traditional scope of nutrition, and have been under-researched. As a consequence, there remains insufficient evidence to support well-defined, scalable agricultural biodiversity interventions that can be linked to improvements in nutrition outcomes. Agricultural biodiversity is important for food and nutritional security, as a safeguard against hunger, a source of nutrients for improved dietary diversity and quality, and strengthening local food systems and environmental sustainability. This book explores the current state of knowledge on the role of agricultural biodiversity in improving diets, nutrition and food security. Using examples and case studies from around the globe, the book explores current strategies for improving nutrition and diets and identifies key research and implementation gaps that need to be addressed to successfully promote the better use of agricultural biodiversity for rural and urban populations and societies in transition.
Young people account for a large percentage of the rural population, and are often unemployed or underemployed, despite the need for labour force in agriculture. Rural youth face many hurdles in trying to earn a livelihood. They do not perceive agriculture as a remunerative or prestigious profession, and until they find meaningful economic opportunities and attractive environments in rural areas, they will continue to migrate to cities. This trend not only contributes to the emerging phenomenon of over-urbanization and growing unemployment in urban areas, but is also expected to affect global food production. Investing in young people living in rural areas is therefore key to enhancing agricultural productivity, boosting rural economies and ensuring food security. This publication provides real life examples on how to re-engage youth in agriculture. It shows how tailor-made educational programmes can provide rural youth with the skills and insights needed to engage in farming and adopt environmentally friendly production methods. Many of the initiatives and approaches reported in this study originate from the youth themselves. The following study was a joint undertaking of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA).
Malnutrition-under nutrition and imbalanced nutrition-is a major health problem in developing and developed countries. The recent National Health Survey-2005-06 says "India loses 2-3 per cent of its GDP every year due to undernutrition among children in the age group of up to two years." According to the report "Nutrition in India" even among wealthy only about 7 percent children between 6 and 24 months receive adequate feeding, health care and environmental health. The FAO of the UN declared 2014 as year of family farming with the intention of making each family a farming unit to meet the nutritional requirement. The Indian National Science Academy focused on micronutrient security as priority for research and action. The National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi released two policy papers related to organic farming and related approaches to make homesteads self sustainable. Being a sub-continent enjoying temperate, sub-tropical and tropical climate along with arid climate and a longer coastal eco-system India has the strength of biodiversity, traditional wisdom and adequate natural resources-soil, water and energy. "There is a horticultural remedy for every nutritional malady" says Prof. M.S. Swaminathan. Fruits, vegetables, spices and aromatic plants are the reservoirs of much needed fibre, vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, lipids, flavourants, odourants and essential phyto-chemicals. Horticulture for Nutrition Security carries 21 chapters authored by 43 well known scientists. Four preambles are added to get the most authoritative information on Nutrition Security. The book has a FOREWORD by Prof. V.L. Chopra, Former Member, Planning Commission (Science) GOI and Former Director General ICAR New Delhi. The book is devoted to Prof. M.S. Swaminathan, the Father of Green Revolution for his commitment to make India hunger free by 2030.
Conceitos básicos; Introducción; Características sobresalientes; Interdependencia y sostenibilidad; Aplicaciones; Establecimiento de infor,ación; La recopilación; la utilización de información; Anexos.
The fundamental purpose of agriculture is not just to produce food and raw materials, but also to grow healthy, well-nourished people. One of the sector’s most important tasks then is to provide food of sufficient quantity and quality to feed and nourish the world’s population sustainably so that all people can lead healthy, productive lives. Achieving this goal will require closer collaboration across the sectors of agriculture, nutrition, and health, which have long operated in separate spheres with little recognition of how their actions affect each other. It is time for agriculture, nutrition, and health to join forces in pursuit of the common goal of improving human well-being. In Reshaping Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, leading experts, practitioners, and policymakers explore the links among agriculture, nutrition, and health and identify ways to strengthen related policies and programs. The chapters in this book were originally commissioned as background papers or policy briefs for the conference “Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health,” facilitated by the International Food Policy Research Institute’s 2020 Vision Initiative in New Delhi, India, in February 2011.
Biotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture: Emerging Approaches and Strategies is an outstanding collection of current research that integrates basic and advanced concepts of agricultural biotechnology with future development prospects. Using biotechnology with sustainable agriculture effectively contributes to gains in agricultural productivity, enhanced food security, reduced poverty and malnutrition, and more ecologically sustainable means of food production. Written by a panel of experts, this book is unique in its coverage of the broad area of biotechnology for sustainable agriculture. It includes intriguing topics and discussions of areas such as recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. Identifies and explores biotechnological tools to enhance sustainability Encompasses plant and microbial biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering Focuses on plant biotechnology and crop improvement to increase yield and resilience Summarizes the impact of climate change on agriculture, fisheries and livestock
Sustainable Food Production Practices in the Caribbean addresses the issue of sustainable agriculture from a practical perspective. Although the scientific and technological aspects are given attention, the authors use their accumulated research and field experiences to focus on tested, simple production systems and practices that sustain soil fertility, ecosystems and people. In so doing, they consistently advocate crop and livestock production techniques that require an agro-ecological approach, aimed at reducing the use of water, chemicals and pesticides and the preservation of the region's soils. This volume fills a void in this important area of Caribbean development: from the large scale farming organizations to the small farming communities that are the backbone of agriculture in the region; from undergraduates at the newly energized Faculty of Food and Agriculture at the University of the West Indies, St Augustine campus and other tertiary agriculture training institutions around the region to a young generation of students who now have the opportunity to sit for the new examination in Food and the Environment offered by the Caribbean Examinations Council at advanced (CAPE) certificate level. This book will also be a useful tool for agriculture extension officers and policymakers who are called upon to provide advice and leadership in the promotion of sustainable food production in the Caribbean. The 20 chapters in Sustainable Food Production Practices are comprehensive in their coverage of issues that go beyond primary food production to include often neglected areas such as post harvest, quality assurance, local regional and international marketing, post-production methods and systems and sustainable nutritional practices. Throughout, the emphasis is on simple, jargon-free descriptions, instructions and recommendations, supported by a variety of charts, tables and numerous full-colour photographs that richly illustrate key elements of the text.
Aquaponics is the integration of aquaculture and soilless culture in a closed production system. This manual details aquaponics for small-scale production--predominantly for home use. It is divided into nine chapters and seven annexes, with each chapter dedicated to an individual module of aquaponics. The target audience for this manual is agriculture extension agents, regional fisheries officers, non-governmental organizations, community organizers, government ministers, companies and singles worldwide. The intention is to bring a general understanding of aquaponics to people who previously may have only known about one aspect.
Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development and a key agricultural input-but in excess it can lead to a host of problems for human and ecological health. Across the globe, distribution of fertilizer nitrogen is very uneven, with some areas subject to nitrogen pollution and others suffering from reduced soil fertility, diminished crop production, and other consequences of inadequate supply. Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle provides a global assessment of the role of nitrogen fertilizer in the nitrogen cycle. The focus of the book is regional, emphasizing the need to maintain food and fiber production while minimizing environmental impacts where fertilizer is abundant, and the need to enhance fertilizer utilization in systems where nitrogen is limited. The book is derived from a workshop held by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) in Kampala, Uganda, that brought together the world's leading scientists to examine and discuss the nitrogen cycle and related problems. It contains an overview chapter that summarizes the group's findings, four chapters on cross-cutting issues, and thirteen background chapters. The book offers a unique synthesis and provides an up-to-date, broad perspective on the issues of nitrogen fertilizer in food production and the interaction of nitrogen and the environment.
Climate changes will affect food production in a number of ways. Crop yields, aquatic populations and forest productivity will decline, invasive insect and plant species will proliferate and desertification, soil salinization and water stress will increase. Each of these impacts will decrease food and nutrition security, primarily by reducing access to and availability of food, and also by increasing the risk of infectious disease. Although increased biofuel demand has the potential to increase incomes among producers, it can also negatively affect food and nutrition security. Land used for cultivating food crops may be diverted to biofuel production, creating food shortages and raising prices. Accelerations in unregulated or poorly regulated foreign direct investment, deforestation and unsustainable use of chemical fertilizers may also result. Biofuel production may reduce women’s control of resources, which may in turn reduce the quality of household diets. Each of these effects increases risk of poor food and nutrition security, either through decreased physical availability of food, decreased purchasing power, or increased risk of disease. The Impact of Climate Change and Bioenergy on Nutrition articulates the links between current environmental issues and food and nutrition security. It provides a unique collection of nutrition statistics, climate change projections, biofuel scenarios and food security information under one cover which will be of interest to policymakers, academia, agronomists, food and nutrition security planners, programme implementers, health workers and all those concerned about the current challenges of climate change, energy production, hunger and malnutrition.