Through the medium of women's bodies, Fan Hong explores the significance of religious beliefs, cultural codes and political dogmas for gender relations, gender concepts and the human body in an Asian setting.
Die Autorin Lin Bai (geb. 1958) gehört mit ihrem umfassenden essayistischen und belletristischen Werk seit Ende der 1980er Jahre zu den wichtigsten Vertreterinnen der gegenwärtigen chinesischen Frauenliteratur. Ihre literarisch anspruchsvollen Texte zeichnen ein facettenreiches, düsteres Bild der Lebensrealität der Frau in der chinesischen Gesellschaft. Der charakteristisch offene Umgang mit weiblicher Sexualität und die teilweise drastischen Schilderungen von Gewalt gegen und von Frauen sorgten insbesondere nach der Veröffentlichung ihres bekanntesten Romans "Der Krieg der Einzelnen" für Kontroversen. Bettina von Reden untersucht das Prosawerk Lin Bais vor dem Hintergrund zeit- und sozialgeschichtlicher Debatten um die Rolle der Frau in der chinesischen Gesellschaft. Dabei wird nicht nur die besondere Ausprägung eines chinesischen 'weiblichen' oder 'feministischen' Schreibens im Kontext der chinesischen Frauenbewegung sichtbar, sondern auch die literarische und gesellschaftliche Bedeutung einer in Deutschland weitgehend unbekannten Autorin.
This is the first in-depth global study of women's football across the world. This collection considers women's football, in fifteen countries worldwide, in a global context, and analyzes its progress, challenges and problems it has faced. It shows how women's football has made a significant contribution to the emancipation of women's football in many countries. It also traces the evolution of women's football in face of resistance, rejection and prejudice and describes women footballer's struggle for equal rights in a male dominated football world.
This is the first text to examine women and sport in Italy during the period 1861-1945. To qualify and quantify the impact of fascism on Italian Women's sport, the author first of all examines the pre-fascist period in terms of female physical culture. The text then describes how during the fascist era, women moved strictly within a framework designed by medicine and eugenics, religious and traditional education. The country aspired to emancipation, as promised by the fascist revolution but emancipation was hard to advance under the fascist regime because of male hegemonic trends in the country. This book shows how the engagement of women in some sporting activity did promote and support some gender emancipation. The conclusion of the book demonstrates how, in the post-war period, women found it hard to advance further on, for a number of reasons.
This book is a teaching textbook for both lower and upper level courses on modern Chinese history and/or modern visual culture. With fourteen chapters of well-illustrated original scholarship, the contributors introduce key themes of modern Chinese history while providing students with critical thinking skills in visual studies and analysis.
The impact of Communism on the twentieth century was massive, equal to that of the two world wars. Until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, historians knew relatively little about the secretive world of communist states and parties. Since then, the opening of state, party, and diplomatic archives of the former Eastern Bloc has released a flood of new documentation. The thirty-five essays in this Handbook, written by an international team of scholars, draw on this new material to offer a global history of communism in the twentieth century. In contrast to many histories that concentrate on the Soviet Union, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism is genuinely global in its coverage, paying particular attention to the Chinese Revolution. It is 'global', too, in the sense that the essays seek to integrate history 'from above' and 'from below', to trace the complex mediations between state and society, and to explore the social and cultural as well as the political and economic realities that shaped the lives of citizens fated to live under communist rule. The essays reflect on the similarities and differences between communist states in order to situate them in their socio-political and cultural contexts and to capture their changing nature over time. Where appropriate, they also reflect on how the fortunes of international communism were shaped by the wider economic, political, and cultural forces of the capitalist world. The Handbook provides an informative introduction for those new to the field and a comprehensive overview of the current state of scholarship for those seeking to deepen their understanding.
Trial-blazer and mentor, Professor J.A. Mangan is a distinguished scholar in the fields of sports history whose work has inspired a generation of historians and social scientists across the globe. His seminal book on athleticism and imperialism commanded attention and applause from a broad range of historians and social scientists across the globe. His seminal work on athleticism and imperialism commanded attention and applause from a broad range of historians. It opened new horizons of inquiry providing the field with a richly perceptive study of hegemony and patronage, of cultural assimilation and adaptation, and of the ways that power elites used sport for socialization, acculturation and social control. His later works continued to pose critical, sometimes controversial questions, providing new and provocative insights into the complex social issues involved in the development and diffusion of sporting activity. The geographical horizons of his work now span the globe. This volume is a fitting tribute to the scholarship and lasting accomplishments of a pioneer who has mentored - and continues to mentor - numerous young scholars internationally, simultaneously developing and maintaining high quality channels through which to disseminate sport history research. In appraising his scholarship the contributors to this collection demonstrate their debt to his vision and achievements. This volume was previously published as a special issue of The International Journal of the History of Sport
Beginning with a general discussion of patriarchy as the starting point of feminist utopian literature, Qian Ma's study focuses on a cross-cultural comparison of feminist utopian discourse in six 18th-century Chinese and English fictional narratives: Charlotte Lennox's Female Quixote, Sarah Scott's A Description of Millennium Hall, Samuel Richardson's Clarissa, Chen Duansheng's Destiny after Rebirth, Cao Xueqin's A Dream of the Red Mansion and Li Ruzhen's Destiny of Flowers in the Mirror. and the patriarchal realistic world within fictional narratives, and the contrast between fictional ideality and social realities in China and England during the 18th century. feminist writers to express social criticism obliquely in the form of utopias, the writers discussed in this study were true forerunners of contemporary feminism, and their works anticipated today's feminist concerns.
Outside China, little is known about the process and implications of the Up to the Mountains and Down to the Countryside (UMDC) Movement, a Chinese state policy from 1967 to 1979 in which more than 16 million secondary school-leavers in different cities were relocated to rural areas. The Movement shaped the lives of these young people and assigned them a shared group identity: Zhiqing, or the Educated Youth. This book provides new research on Zhiqing, who were born and brought up after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China and regarded as a lost generation during the Cultural Revolution. Presenting a remembrance of their tortuous life trajectories, the book investigates their distinctive identity and self-identification. Unlike earlier historical approaches, it does this from a social psychological perspective. It is also unique in its use of first-hand materials, as individuals’ memories and reflections collected by in-depth interviews are compiled and presented as Zhiqing’s self-portrait. This innovative research offers an informative and profound induction of the topic and also contributes to the development of contemporary Chinese studies by laying the foundation for a specialized Zhiqing study. Combining rich empirical research with a strong theoretical perspective, this book will be invaluable to students and scholars of Chinese history, sociology, anthropology and politics.
A collection that challenges the binary conception of conservative religion versus progressive secularism by highlighting the existence of multiple secularisms.
FIFA, the world governing body of association football, declared 'The Future is Feminine' in a 1995 press release. Since then, football has been claimed as the fastest growing participation sport for women globally. An estimated twenty million women play the game around the world, and that figure is on the rise. However, the history of women's participation goes back to at least 1895 and in our enthusiasm for the present, the memory of that longer history can be overlooked or forgotten. A Beautiful Game, supported by a two-year FIFA/ CIES João Havelange Research Scholarship, examines contemporary women's football internationally, with case studies from England, the United States, China and Australia. In each case study, Jean Williams considers the evolution of the women's game against a backdrop of issues, such as media representation, access to facilities, lack of resources, coaching, sponsorship, talent identification, training and professionalisation. T he author examines contentious questions, such as why women are absent from the highest levels of professional football, combining source material from archives, oral history and artefacts. A Beautiful Game analyses the status and image of the women's game from the late nineteenth century to the shifting social values of the present.
First published in 1978, Feminism and Socialism in China explores the inter-relationship of feminism and socialism and the contribution of each towards the redefinition of the role and status of women in China. In her history of the women’s movement in China from the late nineteenth century onwards, Professor Croll provides an opportunity to study its construction, its ideological and structural development over a number of decades, and its often ambiguous relationship with a parallel movement to establish socialism. Based on a variety of material including eye witness accounts, the author examines a wide range of fundamental issues, including women’s class and oppression, the relation of women’s solidarity groups to class organisations, reproduction and the accommodation of domestic labour, women in the labour process, and the relationship between women’s participation in social production and their access to and control of political and economic resources. The book includes excerpts from studies of village and communal life, documents of the women’s movement and interviews with members of the movement.
The 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing, but many human rights activists support a boycott. They liken the circumstances to previous governments that used the games to glorify their regimes--most notoriously the Nazis in 1936. What has led to this perception and is it fair? Sport, Revolution and the Beijing Olympicsis a cultural history of sport in China that challenges many such ingrained Western assumptions. The authors unpick the relationship of sport to imperialism and revolution and examine its significance in both China and Taiwan at governmental and everyday levels. In the process they successfully debunk harmful myths, such as the prevalence of drugs in Chinese sport among women athletes, and present a balanced view that is a much-needed corrective to popular understanding.
This book examines the interaction between nationalism and feminism in modern Polish women's physical culture from the late nineteenth century until the end of the twentieth century. Unlike most western countries where sportswomen were typically marginalized in their athletic endeavors, Polish female athletes earned greater respect and recognition in their physical culture. On many occasions, and for varied reasons, women's athleticism in Poland was a source of immense pride and prestige for both the state and society. This form of acceptance, however, does not suggest that sportswomen faced no discrimination in their efforts to become sportive. Women's physicality remained the subject of intense debate, particularly when the socio-economic conditions worsened and threatened the survival of families. Still, despite the patriarchal and other barricades, the Polish national struggles for independence and the emergence of the "New Woman" created significant institutional and ideological spaces for sportswomen to build their physical culture. Accordingly, this book enriches the histories of Poland and modern Europe, as well as women's and sports studies.
This book is part of a broad study on Confucianism and its implications for the modernisation of East Asia. The Opium War symbolises the beginning of foreign humiliations, and the Cultural Revolution represents the apex of self-oppression, self-intimidation and self-humiliations. China vainly strove under the guns of many countries until the end of World War II, and since then, has suffered from many civil wars. Immediately after New China was established in 1949, the CCP closed the door to the outside (democratic) world, thus creating self-humiliations. Since economic reform was launched in 1978, New China has been developed from the verge of nationwide self-murder to the track for prosperity and freedom. The long march from self-destructiveness to social and economic progresses raises many challenging questions about human survival and processes. Philosophical, historical, political and economic perspectives are discussed. An open and enriching New China could dramatically affect the world in the not-so-distant future. This book describes the history of New China as a dynamic process from the pole of central planning, anti-Americanism and anti-Confucianism towards market economy, Americanisation and modernising Confucian manifestations.
This book is a fascinating glimpse into the history of sexual perversions and diversions including fetishism, cross-dressing, effeminate men and masculinised women, sodomy, tribadism, masturbation, necrophilia, rape, paedophilia, flagellation, and sado-masochism, asking how these sexual inclinations were viewed at a particular time in history.
Examines the origins and evolution of global public opinion and assesses its future role in national and international policy-making. Historian Stearns presents case studies of the function and effectiveness of world opinion over the last two centuries and looks at the role it has in changing both domestic and foreign policy. With an examination of the relationship between world opinion and Islam, as well as the protests against the 2003 Iraq war, Stearns also assesses the future possibilities of the role and function of world opinion.--From publisher description.