Fundamentals of Fuzzy Sets covers the basic elements of fuzzy set theory. Its four-part organization provides easy referencing of recent as well as older results in the field. The first part discusses the historical emergence of fuzzy sets, and delves into fuzzy set connectives, and the representation and measurement of membership functions. The second part covers fuzzy relations, including orderings, similarity, and relational equations. The third part, devoted to uncertainty modelling, introduces possibility theory, contrasting and relating it with probabilities, and reviews information measures of specificity and fuzziness. The last part concerns fuzzy sets on the real line - computation with fuzzy intervals, metric topology of fuzzy numbers, and the calculus of fuzzy-valued functions. Each chapter is written by one or more recognized specialists and offers a tutorial introduction to the topics, together with an extensive bibliography.
"This defining work will be valuable to readers and researchers in social sciences and humanities at all academic levels. As a teaching resource it will be useful to instructors and students alike and will become a standard reference source. Essential for general and academic collections." --CHOICE This Encyclopedia provides readers with authoritative essays on virtually all social science methods topics, quantitative and qualitative, by an international collection of experts. Organized alphabetically, the Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods covers research terms ranging from different methodological approaches to epistemological issues and specific statistical techniques. Written to be accessible to general readers, the Encyclopedia entries do not require advanced knowledge of mathematics or statistics to understand the purposes or basic principles of any of the methods. To accomplish this goal, there are two major types of entries: definitions consisting of a paragraph or two to provide a quick explanation of a methodological term; and topical treatments or essays that discuss the nature, history, applications, and implications of using a certain method, including suggested readings and references. Readers are directed to related topics via cross-referenced terms that appear in small capital letters. By assembling entries of varied origins and serving different research purposes, readers will be able to benefit from this immense source of methodological expertise in advancing their understanding of research. With three volumes and more than 900 signed entries, the Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods will be a critical addition to any social science library.
Comprising papers presented at an international symposium on fuzzy engineering technology, this volume provides information on the current state-of-the-art in the field of fuzzy theories and applications, and their importance in the areas of industry, medicine, artificial intelligence, management, socio-economics, ecology, agriculture, behavioural science and education. The results of recent research of LIFE (Laboratory for International Fuzzy Engineering Research) are also included.
This volume provides an up-to-date picture of the current status of theoretical and empirical developments in the application of fuzzy sets in psychology. Fuzzy set theory could benefit researchers in at least two ways: first, as a metaphor or model for ordinary thought, and secondly, as an aid to data analysis and theory construction. One can find examples for both kinds in the volume, which will be of interest both to the advanced student in the field as well as to anyone possessing a basic scientific background.
Der Vergleich als Methode gehört zu den ältesten Formen des Erkenntnisgewinns. Durch die systematische Gegenüberstellung von Tatbeständen können Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten erkannt, Hypothesen geprüft, Theorien entwickelt und das Wissen über die singuläre Situation hinaus erweitert werden. Methoden des Vergleichens haben in der Politikwissenschaft eine lange Tradition, die sich in einer eigenen Disziplin, der vergleichenden Politikwissenschaft, äußert. Für wissenschaftliche Zwecke ist es notwendig, den Vergleich in eine Systematik zu überführen, was zu der Etablierung vergleichender Methoden der Politikwissenschaft geführt hat. Diese haben in den letzten Jahren viele Weiterentwicklungen erfahren, die bislang oft nur begrenzt vom angelsächsischen in den deutschen Sprachraum vorgedrungen sind. Der vorliegende Band macht es sich zur Aufgabe, diese neueren Entwicklungen und zentralen Diskussionen in einzelnen, fundierten Beiträgen von Spezialisten interessierten Kollegen in Deutschland vorzulegen und die neuere Diskussion vergleichender Methoden der Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften voranzubringen.
Im Bereich der Methoden der vergleichenden Politikwissenschaft haben sich in den letzten Jahren vielfältige Entwicklungen ergeben, die bislang aber eher selektiv und voneinander getrennt vorgestellt wurden. Dabei fehlt es insbesondere an Publikationen, die sich an fortgeschrittenen Interessenten des Bereichs wenden und anwendungsorientierte Leitlinien für spezifische Analysetypen geben. Diese Hilfestellungen sind in der Regel in übergreifenden Einführungen, von wenigen Autoren nicht zu leisten. Dieser Band gibt eine erschöpfende Breite an derzeit verfügbaren methodischen Zugängen zur vergleichenden Sozialwissenschaft, die durch die einschlägigen Autoren der jeweiligen Gebiete fachgerecht und anwendungsorientiert gestaltet wurden.
First Published in 1990. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
The depth, intensity, and long-standing nature of the disagreements between differing schools of social thought renders more critical than ever the treatment of dialectical reasoning and its relationship to the social sciences. The nature of these disagreements are deeply rooted in fundamentally differing beliefs regarding, among many things: (1) the nature of man, (2) the role of theory versus data in constructing social theories, (3) the place and function of values versus facts in inquiry, etc. It has become more and more apparent that such fundamental differences cannot be resolved by surface appeals to rationality or to consensus. Such for it is precisely the definitions of appeals are doomed to failure 'rationality' and 'consensus' that are at odds. That is, different schools not only have different definitions of rationality and consensus but different notions regarding their place and function within a total system of inquiry. A dialectical treatment of conflicts is called for because such conflicts demand a method which is capable of recognizing first of all how deep they lie. Secondly, a method is demanded which is capable of appreciating that the various sides of the conflict fundamentally depend on one another for their very existence; they depend, in other words, on one another not 'in spite of' their opposition but precisely 'because of' it.
The theme of the present volume concerns people' s response to the natural environment, considered at scales varying from that of a house hold plant to that of vast wilderness areas. Our decision to focus on this particular segment of the physical environment was prompted in part by the intrinsic interest in this subject on the part of a diverse group of sodal scientists and professionals-and of laypersons, for that matter and in part by the relative neglect of this topic in standard treatments of the environment-behavior field. It also serves to bring out once again the interdisdplinary nature of that field, and we are pleased to have been able to inc1ude representatives from geography, sodology, soda! ecology, and natural recreation among our contributors. We believe that this volume will serve a useful purpose in helping to integrate the find ings and concepts in this presently somewhat fragmented field, scat tered as they are over a very diverse array of publications representing a similarly varied group of spedalties. It is hoped that the result will be to stimulate future development of this area and to add a measure of in creased coherence to it. Volume 7 of our series will be devoted to the theme of elderly people and the environment, with M. Powell Lawton joining us as guest co-editor. The titles of the papers comprising Volume 7 are shown on page v. Irwin Altman J oachim F. Wohlwill ix Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This volume explores the leading edge of theoretical development in sociology between 1972 and 1989. It contains the work of some of the leading sociological theorists, presents extensions or reformulations of existing theories and some wholly new theories. The editors particularly wish to show the range of middle-range theory - theory orientated towards empirical knowledge of specific domains as opposed to overarching frameworks for all sociology.
The editors have updated and revised this edition and added 12 new authors to their distinguished list of contributors from academia and industry. Contains the latest research methodologies, statistics and techniques relevant to tourism and hospitality. Includes additional material regarding the airline industry, supporting disciplines in the social sciences and environmental issues. Reflects the increasing emphasis on globalization focusing more extensively on the area of research which seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of tourism advertising.

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