The most important investigation of genetic science since The Selfish Gene, from the author of the critically acclaimed and best-selling The Red Queen and The Origins of Virtue.
This unprecedented collection of 27,000 quotations is the most comprehensive and carefully researched of its kind, covering all fields of science and mathematics. With this vast compendium you can readily conceptualize and embrace the written images of scientists, laymen, politicians, novelists, playwrights, and poets about humankind's scientific achievements. Approximately 9000 high-quality entries have been added to this new edition to provide a rich selection of quotations for the student, the educator, and the scientist who would like to introduce a presentation with a relevant quotation that provides perspective and historical background on his subject. Gaither's Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, Second Edition, provides the finest reference source of science quotations for all audiences. The new edition adds greater depth to the number of quotations in the various thematic arrangements and also provides new thematic categories.
The living world runs on genomic software - what Dawn Field and Neil Davies call the 'biocode' - the sum of all DNA on Earth. In Biocode, they tell the story of a new age of scientific discovery: the growing global effort to read and map the biocode, and what that might mean for the future. The structure of DNA was identified in 1953, and the whole human genome was mapped by 2003. Since then the new field of genomics has mushroomed and is now operating on an industrial scale. Genomes can now be sequenced rapidly and increasingly cheaply. The genomes of large numbers of organisms from mammals to microbes, have been mapped. Getting your genome sequenced is becoming affordable for many. You too can check paternity, find out where your ancestors came from, or whether you are at risk of some diseases. Some check out the pedigree of their pets, while others turn genomes into art. A stray hair is enough to crudely reconstruct the face of the owner. From reading to constructing: the first steps to creating artificial life have already been taken. Some may find the rapidity of developments, and the potential for misuse, alarming. But they also open up unprecedented possibilities. The ability to read DNA has changed how we view ourselves and understand our place in nature. From the largest oceans, to the insides of our guts, we are able to explore the biosphere as never before, from the genome up. Sequencing technology has made the invisible world of microbes visible, and biodiversity genomics is revealing whole new worlds within us and without. The findings are transformational: we are all ecosystems now. Already the first efforts at 'barcoding' entire ecological communities and creating 'genomic observatories' have begun. The future, the authors argue, will involve biocoding the entire planet.
“Simultaneously sobering and exhilarating, Michael Tennesen’s wide-ranging survey of disasters highlights both life’s fragility and its metamorphosing persistence” (Booklist) and describes what life on earth could look like after the next mass extinction. A growing number of scientists agree we are headed toward a mass extinction, perhaps in as little as 300 years. Already there have been five mass extinctions in the last 600 million years, including the Cretaceous Extinction, during which an asteroid knocked out the dinosaurs. Though these events were initially destructive, they were also prime movers of evolutionary change in nature. And we can see some of the warning signs of another extinction event coming, as our oceans lose both fish and oxygen, and our lands lose both predators and prey. In The Next Species, Michael Tennesen questions what life might be like after it happens. In thoughtful, provocative ways, Tennesen discusses the future of nature and whether humans will make it through the bottleneck of extinction. Could life suddenly get very big as it did before the arrival of humans? Could the conquest of Mars lead to another form of human? Could we upload our minds into a computer and live in a virtual reality? How would we recognize the next humans? Are they with us now? Tennesen delves into the history of the planet and travels to rainforests, canyons, craters, and caves all over the world to explore the potential winners and losers of the next era of evolution. His predictions, based on reports and interviews with top scientists, have vital implications for life on earth today. The Next Species is “an engrossing history of life, the dismal changes wrought by man, and a forecast of life after the sixth mass extinction” (Kirkus Reviews).
What exactly is a gene? How does cloning actually work? Are designer babies a bad idea? Could we ever clone a human? The Rough Guide To Genes & Cloning answers all these questions and more. From the inside story of cells and their structure and the sleuths who cracked the genetic code to DNA cloning, twins and Dolly the sheep. Illustrated throughout with helpful pictures and diagrams, this Rough Guide turns the microscope on the things that make us what we are.
Natural computing brings together nature and computing to develop new computational tools for problem solving; to synthesize natural patterns and behaviors in computers; and to potentially design novel types of computers. Fundamentals of Natural Computing: Basic Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications presents a wide-ranging survey of novel techniques and important applications of nature-based computing. This book presents theoretical and philosophical discussions, pseudocodes for algorithms, and computing paradigms that illustrate how computational techniques can be used to solve complex problems, simulate nature, explain natural phenomena, and possibly allow the development of new computing technologies. The author features a consistent and approachable, textbook-style format that includes lucid figures, tables, real-world examples, and different types of exercises that complement the concepts while encouraging readers to apply the computational tools in each chapter. Building progressively upon core concepts of nature-inspired techniques, the topics include evolutionary computing, neurocomputing, swarm intelligence, immunocomputing, fractal geometry, artificial life, quantum computing, and DNA computing. Fundamentals of Natural Computing is a self-contained introduction and a practical guide to nature-based computational approaches that will find numerous applications in a variety of growing fields including engineering, computer science, biological modeling, and bioinformatics.
These essays grew out of an effort at the EMBL to promote a new form of science communication on the social, ethical, and political issues that surround rapid change in the life sciences. Published in the Journal of Molecular Biology, these eighteen essays address the main topics of the future of the biosciences, biosciences and basic values, genomics and the globalization of biology, science miscommunication, and reproductive technologies. Hot topics such as cloning, genomics, reproductive technologies, heatlh care costs are addressed. Key Features * Significant to those in the life sciences and social sciences * Features an Introduction by Halldór Stefánsson * Published in conjunction with the prestigious European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)
The autobiography of one of America's most important gastroenterologists.
Pathbreaking and controversial, Darwin and International Relations offers the first comprehensive analysis of international affairs of state through the lens of evolutionary theory. Bradley A. Thayer provides a new method for investigating and explaining human and state behavior while generating insights into the origins of human and animal warfare, ethnic conflict, and the influence of disease on international relations. Using ethnological and statistical studies of warfare among tribal societies, Thayer argues that humans wage war for reasons predicted by evolutionary theory -- to gain and protect vital resources but also for the physically and emotionally stimulating effects of combat. Thayer demonstrates that an evolutionary understanding of disease will become a more important part of the study of international relations as new strains of diseases emerge and advances in genetics make biological warfare a more effective weapon for states and terrorists. He also explains the deep causes of ethnic conflict by illuminating how xenophobia and ethnocentrism evolved in humans. He notes that these behaviors once contributed to our ancestors' success in radically different environments, but they remain a part of us. Darwin and International Relations makes a major contribution to our understanding of human history and the future of international relations.
With forty-four newly commissioned articles from an international cast of leading scholars, The Routledge Companion to Literature and Science traces the network of connections among literature, science, technology, mathematics, and medicine. Divided into three main sections, this volume: links diverse literatures to scientific disciplines from Artificial Intelligence to Thermodynamics surveys current theoretical and disciplinary approaches from Animal Studies to Semiotics traces the history and culture of literature and science from Greece and Rome to Postmodernism. Ranging from classical origins and modern revolutions to current developments in cultural science studies and the posthumanities, this indispensible volume offers a comprehensive resource for undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers. With authoritative, accessible, and succinct treatments of the sciences in their literary dimensions and cultural frameworks, here is the essential guide to this vibrant area of study.
Our Spiritual Destiny: Manifesting New Bodies discusses the ways that evolutionary forces are continuing to unfold through all gradations of life. It explains the purpose of human life as the expansion of Consciousness in matter through ongoing body development. We have the choice to fulfill this purpose consciously at an accelerated pace by changing and raising the matter of our bodies to a level of our divine essence. Utilizing the capacities of our Higher Selves within an initiatory framework of growth and transmutation, we can actively participate in our body development, thereby helping to expedite the manifestation of new bodies. The following are passages from various chapters in the book: From Alignment Clarification: Many of the ancient wisdom traditions, sacred religious texts and modern-day writers have all alluded to some form of physical transcendence, life extension or the raising and refinement of the physical body. From the past, each culture, religion or entity has its own interpretation and language of what the stories mean or symbolize and how they apply to the present day. I believe that many of these references relate to physical ascension, physical body perfection or physical immortality. All include the same premise that our bodies are of a nature and essence which enable their transformation. From Our Journey into Matter: I have come to see all of creation as a work in progress, gradually working its way towards fulfillment. Through evolutionary forces, matter is continually being prepared to express ever-higher aspects of Consciousness in our physical life. It may not always seem like it, but I also believe we are important agents of change for the expansion of consciousness in the world. Our immortal human spirit repeatedly reincarnates within humanity with increasing experience to help unfold and expand a higher plan for matter. However, our main problem with this task is that by taking physical form in matter bodies we cannot remember our divine origins in the inner, unseen realms. From Remembering: Some religious scholars suggest that the essence of all sacred material is somehow buried deep within our being. If this is true, then helping us remember must be the intent and purpose of all divinely inspired sacred books, spiritual literature and cultural myths in the world. Somewhere in our Being or Higher Self, we already know the purpose of physical life in matter. As evolution progresses and our consciousness expands through time, we are incrementally working towards remembering this purpose. From Spiritual Orientation and Alignment: For most of us, the physical demands of our daily lives capture our conscious attention and vital energies. This happens gradually within our ritualized patterns and daily activities. Through this physical focus and orientation, the crystallizing force in matter constructs barriers within our consciousness and bodies that maintain and reinforce this alignment. Because of its compelling and coalescing nature, our life energies are drained through attachment to the form and routine of our lives. As a result, we usually feel and believe we have little left over to devote to our spiritual development. From Health and New Body Alignment: Most people have grown up with a body-centered identity. Everything about living in the world seems to condition us to identify with this orientation. The realities of physical life throughout history have encouraged us to strengthen, build up or perfect our natural body in one way or another. This alignment has ensured the survival of our species. Even today in our modern world, we continue to value the attributes of physical strength, fitness, and vitality as the ultimate experience of a good life. From the standpoint of our present bodies and our collective beliefs about them, this orientation is helpful and necessary. However
When Darwin proposed that females shape evolution by being choosy in their choice of male suitors, his Victorian contemporaries were shocked that he accorded so much importance to women. But this early view of the female role was far from revolutionary: They were simply allowed to be passive 'quality controllers' of male genes. Recent years have shown that the inert 'coy female' is a myth. For a male, a high sex drive and a taste for variety may improve his fitness. But for a female, successful reproduction goes far beyond copulation. She bears the brunt of parental investment with each child represents years of commitment from pregnancy and breast-feeding to provisioning and guarding. For her genetic lineage to survive, she must do this better than her rivals. Each of us comes from a line of winning mothers. Women are, after all, the first and default sex. It is women who bear children. A child born with a single X chromosome can survive, but not one with a single Y. In a population crash, a female-biased population will survive far better than a male-heavy one. In this book, Anne Campbell redresses the balance of evolutionary theory in favour of women. She examines how selection pressures have shaped the female mind over thousands of generations: Their emotions, friendship, competition, aggression and mate choice. She brings together data from neuroscience, endocrinology, anthropology, primatology as well as psychology to address fundamental questions about sex differences.... Why are women less aggressive than men? Were women designed for monogamy or promiscuity? What do women compete for? Why is conflict between males and females inevitable? What makes each woman unique? Have contraception and IVF subverted the process of natural selection?
Anatomy and Physiology - E-Book
A medical memoir and poetic meditation on raising a child with a genetic disorder Clare Dunsford is the mother of a twenty-one-yearold son with Fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited cause of mental retardation. Spelling Love with an X is the first literary memoir about living with Fragile X, which affects the lives of over a million people in the U.S., including those with the full mutation, their families, and treatment professionals. When her son was first diagnosed, at age seven, Dunsford received the devastating news that she and three of her four siblings carry the Fragile X premutation and had therefore unknowingly passed on the full mutation to several of their children. An English professor by training, Dunsford draws on classic poetry to explore her new identity as a genetically “flawed” individual and reflect on her life with J.P., a colorful young man with great verbal dexterity and a lovably cheeky streak. “My instinct to find order and consolation in literature,” she writes, “lends a distinct voice to the story of my family’s DNA.” Brimming with warmth and intelligence, Spelling Love with an X shares the disarming insights of a compassionate scholar on motherhood, literature, and genetic inheritance. "Part poetry, part scientific inquiry, this wonderful memoir is, above all, the story of being complexly human in a world filled with fragility and strength, shadow and light. Clare Dunsford navigates the X that has mapped her own and her son's paths with humor, honesty, and clear-sighted intelligence—and in prose that sings." —Elizabeth Graver, author of The Honey Thief and Awake “Clare Dunsford does much more than inform us concerning a disorder we know too little about. Through a prose both lucid and beautiful, she is able to communicate the strangeness, even the poetry, of fragile X.” —Clara Claiborne Park, author of The Siege: A Family’s Journey into the World of an Autistic Child and Exiting Nirvana: A Daughter’s Life with Autism "Spelling Love with an X is a beautifully written journey of a woman toward understanding—of herself, her son, and the twists of fate and DNA that bind them and all of us. Clare Dunsford's powerful and moving memoir is rich with humor, poetry and, most of all, love." —Mitchell Zuckoff, author of Choosing Naia: A Family’s Journey
Discover how the brain is organized and develops and how educators can use this emerging understanding of cognition to enhance student learning and the school environment.
3 cutting-edge books reveal the latest genetic breakthroughs – and their implications for you, your health, and your world These three cutting-edge books reveal how modern genetics has already transformed the world – and will transform it again and again in the coming years. Mobile DNA book thoroughly reviews our current scientific understanding of the significant role that mobile genetic elements play in the evolution and function of genomes and organisms–from plants and animals to humans. Renowned geneticist Haig Kazazian offers an accessible intellectual history of the field’s research strategies and concerns, explaining how advances have opened up new questions, and how new tools and capabilities have encouraged still more progress. He introduces today’s key strategies for advancing the field, and previews long-term research strategies that may lead to even deeper insights. Next, in Investigating the Human Genome, leading medical genetics scholar Moyra Smith reviews current and recent work in genetics and genomics to assess progress in understanding human variation and the pathogenesis of common and rare diseases linked to genetics. You’ll discover how these advances are shedding new light on issues ranging from human origins to psychiatric disease, Alzheimer’s to epigenetics. Finally, in Genes, Chromosomes, and Disease, Nicholas Wright Gillham offers an exceptionally readable overview of the rise and transformations of medical genetics – and of the eugenic impulses that it has inspired. From world-renowned leaders and experts, including Haig H. Kazazian, Moyra Smith, and Nicholas Wright Gillham
For decades, the prevailing sentiment was that, since geography is unchangeable, there is no reason why public policies should take it into account. In fact, charges that geographic interpretations of development were deterministic, or even racist, made the subject a virtual taboo in academic and policymaking circles alike. 'Is Geography Destiny?' challenges that premise and joins a growing body of literature studying the links between geography and development. Focusing on Latin America, the book argues that based on a better understanding of geography, public policy can help control or channel its influence toward the goals of economic and social development.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.