The last 15 years in development of biology were marked with accumulation of unprecedentedly huge arrays of experimental data. The information was amassed with exclusively high rates due to the advent of highly efficient experimental technologies that provided for high throughput genomic sequencing; of functional genomics technologies allowing investigation of expression dynamics of large groups of genes using expression DNA chips; of proteomics methods giving the possibility to analyze protein compositions of cells, tissues, and organs, assess the dynamics of the cell proteome, and reconstruct the networks of protein-protein interactions; and of metabolomics, in particular, high resolution mass spectrometry study of cell metabolites, and distribution of metabolic fluxes in the cells with a concurrent investigation of the dynamics of thousands metabolites in an individual cell. Analysis, comprehension, and use of the tremendous volumes of experimental data reflecting the intricate processes underlying the functioning of molecular genetic systems are unfeasible in principle without the systems approach and involvement of the state-of-the-art information and computer technologies and efficient mathematical methods for data analysis and simulation of biological systems and processes. The need in solving these problems initiated the birth of a new science— postgenomic bioinformatics or systems biology in silico.
These proceedings contain papers from the 2009 Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI), held at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during September 12–13, 2009. WABI 2009 was the ninth annual conference in this series, which focuses on novel algorithms that address imp- tantproblemsingenomics,molecularbiology,andevolution.Theconference- phasizes research that describes computationally e?cient algorithms and data structures that have been implemented and tested in simulations and on real data. WABI is sponsored by the European Association for Theoretical C- puter Science (EATCS) and the International Society for Computational Bi- ogy (ISCB). WABI 2009 was supported by the Penn Genome Frontiers Institute and the Penn Center for Bioinformatics at the University of Pennsylvania. For the 2009 conference, 90 full papers were submitted for review by the Program Committee, and from this strong ?eld of submissions, 34 papers were chosen for presentation at the conference and publication in the proceedings. The ?nal programcovered a wide range of topics including gene interaction n- works, molecular phylogeny, RNA and protein structure, and genome evolution.
Recent major advances in the field of comparative genomics and cytogenomics of plants, particularly associated with the completion of ambitious genome projects, have uncovered astonishing facets of the architecture and evolutionary history of plant genomes. The aim of this book was to review these recent developments as well as their implications in our understanding of the mechanisms which drive plant diversity. New insights into the evolution of gene functions, gene families and genome size are presented, with particular emphasis on the evolutionary impact of polyploidization and transposable elements. Knowledge on the structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, centromeres and microRNAs is reviewed and updated. Taken together, the contributions by internationally recognized experts present a panoramic overview of the structural features and evolutionary dynamics of plant genomes.This volume of Genome Dynamics will provide researchers, teachers and students in the fields of biology and agronomy with a valuable source of current knowledge on plant genomes.
“... an excellent book... achieves all of its goals with style, clarity and completeness... You can see the power and possibilities of molecular genetics as you read...” –Human Genetics "This volume hits an outstanding balance among readability, coverage, and detail." –Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Rapid advances in a collection of techniques referred to as gene technology, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning have pushed molecular biology to the forefront of the biological sciences. This new edition of a concise, well-written textbook introduces key techniques and concepts involved in cloning genes and in studying their expression and variation. The book opens with a brief review of the basic concepts of molecular biology, before moving on to describe the key molecular methods and how they fit together. This ranges from the cloning and study of individual genes to the sequencing of whole genomes, and the analysis of genome-wide information. Finally, the book moves on to consider some of the applications of these techniques, in biotechnology, medicine and agriculture, as well as in research that is causing the current explosion of knowledge across the biological sciences. From Genes to Genomes: Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology, Second Edition includes full two-colour design throughout. Specific changes for the new edition include: Strengthening of gene to genome theme Updating and reinforcing of material on proteomics, gene therapy and stem cells More eukaryotic/mammalian examples and less focus on bacteria This textbook is must-have for all undergraduates studying intermediate molecular genetics within the biological and biomedical sciences. It is also of interest for researchers and all those needing to update their knowledge of this rapidly moving field.
Since the late 1800s, the discovery of new viruses was a gradual process. Viruses were described one by one using a suite of techniques such as (electron) microscopy and viral culture. Investigators were usually interested in a disease state within an organism, and expeditions in viral ecology were rare. The advent of metagenomics using high-throughput sequencing has revolutionized not only the rate of virus discovery, but also the nature of the discoveries. For example, the viral ecology and etiology of many human diseases are being characterized, non-pathogenic viral commensals are ubiquitous, and the description of environmental viromes is making progress. This Frontiers in Virology Research Topic showcases how metagenomic and bioinformatic approaches have been combined to discover, classify and characterize novel viruses.
This second of two volumes on Plant Genome Diversity provides, in 20 chapters, insights into the structural evolution of plant genomes with all its variations. Starting with an outline of plant phylogeny and its reconstruction, the second part of the volume describes the architecture and dynamics of the plant cell nucleus, the third examines the evolution and diversity of the karyotype in various lineages, including angiosperms, gymnosperms and monilophytes. The fourth part presents the mechanisms of polyploidization and its biological consequences and significance for land plant evolution. The fifth part deals with genome size evolution and its biological significance. Together with Volume I, this comprehensive book on the plant genome is intended for students and professionals in all fields of plant science, offering as it does a convenient entry into a burgeoning literature in a fast-moving field.
The VitalBook e-book version of Genomes 3 is only available in the US and Canada at the present time. To purchase or rent please visit http://store.vitalsource.com/show/9780815341383 Covering molecular genetics from the basics through to genome expression and molecular phylogenetics, Genomes 3is the latest edition of this pioneering textbook. Updated to incorporate the recent major advances, Genomes 3 is an invaluable companion for any undergraduate throughout their studies in molecular genetics. Genomes 3 builds on the achievements of the previous two editions by putting genomes, rather than genes, at the centre of molecular genetics teaching. Recognizing that molecular biology research was being driven more by genome sequencing and functional analysis than by research into genes, this approach has gathered momentum in recent years.
The announcement in 2003 that the Human Genome Project had completed its map of the entire human genome was heralded as a stunning scientific breakthrough: our first full picture of the basic building blocks of human life. Since then, boasts about the benefits—and warnings of the dangers—of genomics have remained front-page news, with everyone agreeing that genomics has the potential to radically alter life as we know it. For the nonscientist, the claims and counterclaims are dizzying—what does it really mean to understand the genome? Barry Barnes and John Dupré offer an answer to that question and much more in Genomes and What to Make of Them, a clear and lively account of the genomic revolution and its promise. The book opens with a brief history of the science of genetics and genomics, from Mendel to Watson and Crick and all the way up to Craig Venter; from there the authors delve into the use of genomics in determining evolutionary paths—and what it can tell us, for example, about how far we really have come from our ape ancestors. Barnes and Dupré then consider both the power and risks of genetics, from the economic potential of plant genomes to overblown claims that certain human genes can be directly tied to such traits as intelligence or homosexuality. Ultimately, the authors argue, we are now living with a new knowledge as powerful in its way as nuclear physics, and the stark choices that face us—between biological warfare and gene therapy, a new eugenics or a new agricultural revolution—will demand the full engagement of both scientists and citizens. Written in straightforward language but without denying the complexity of the issues, Genomes and What to Make of Them is both an up-to-date primer and a blueprint for the future.
This title represents a broad review of current research on LAB and their novel applications with contributions from a number of well-known leading scientists. The book encompasses a wide range of topics including both traditional and novel developing fields, and provides unparalleled, comprehensive information on new advances of genomics, proteomics, metabolism and biodiversity of LAB. Chapters contain state-of-the-art discussions of specific LAB applications such as their use as probiotics, live vaccines and starter cultures in old and new fermented products. The safety of these microorganisms and their interactions with diverse ecosystems natural biota are also covered as well as the new applications of well-known (bacteriocins) and novel (vitamins, low-calorie sugars, etc.) metabolites produced by LAB. This book is an essential reference for established researchers and scientists, doctoral and post-doctoral students, university professors and instructors, and food technologists working on food microbiology, physiology and biotechnology of lactic acid bacteria.
Genomes and Genomics of Nitrogen-fixing Organisms This is Volume 3 of a seven-volume series on all aspects of Nitrogen Fixation. The series aims to be the definitive authority in the field and to act as a benchmark for some years to come. Rather than attempting to cram the whole field into a single volume, the subject matter is divided among seven volumes to allow authors the luxury of writing in depth with a comprehensive reference base. All authors are recognized practicing scientists in the area of their contribution, which ensures the high quality, relevance, and readability of the chapters. In establishing the rationale for, and the organization of, this book, we realized the need to divide it into two sections. The first section should be organism based and should review our current knowledge of the genomes of nitrogen-fixing organisms and what these nucleotide sequences tell us. The second section should then be technology based. It should review what technologies are available to mine the data inherent in the nucleotide sequences and how they are now being used to produce gene-function data from differential gene expression.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics, WABI 2005, held in Mallorca, Spain, in September 2005 as part of the ALGO 2005 conference meetings. The 34 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 95 submissions. All current issues of algorithms in bioinformatics are addressed with special focus on statistical and probabilistic algorithms in the field of molecular and structural biology. The papers are organized in topical sections on expression (hybrid methods and time patterns), phylogeny (quartets, tree reconciliation, clades and haplotypes), networks, genome rearrangements (transposition model and other models), sequences (strings, multi-alignment and clustering, clustering and representation), and structure (threading and folding).
Learn how to think and engage like a scientist! BIOLOGY: THE DYNAMIC SCIENCE, Third Edition, allows you to develop a deep understanding of the core concepts in Biology and builds a strong foundation for future courses. The authors explain complex ideas clearly and describe how biologists collect and interpret evidence to test hypotheses about the living world. Russell, Hertz, and McMillan will spark your curiosity about living systems instead of burying it under a mountain of disconnected facts. You will learn what scientists know about the living world, how they know it, and what they still need to learn. The accompanying Aplia for Biology complements the book by enabling you to go beyond rote memorization and gain a true understanding of key concepts. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Soybean genomics is of great interest as one of the most economically important crops and a major food source. This book covers recent advances in soybean genome research, including classical, RFLP, SSR, and SNP markers; genomic and cDNA libraries; functional genomics platforms; genetic and physical maps; and gene expression profiles. The book is for researchers and students in plant genetics and genomics, plant biology and pathology, agronomy, and food sciences.
In the approach to the analysis of disease, including, of course, cancer, two major thrusts may be distinguished. These may be referred to, in shorthand, as agents and processes: the causative agents (chemical, microbial, physical, environmental, and psychosocial) and the organismic processes, initiated and furthered by the agents, culminating in observable pathology (at the macromolecular, cytological, histological, organ function, locomotor, and behavioral levels). The past 25 years, since the appearance of the first volume of the predecessor series (1) authored by the Editors of this present volume, have seen an impressive number of studies on chemicals (and other agents) as etiologic factors in the induction of cancer. The major emphasis has been on the discovery of many chemical carcinogens of widely different structures, their metabolism by various tissues and cells, and, in turn, their molecular-biochemical effects on the cells. This rapidly expanded body of information, as effectively covered in the predecessor volumes, is an excellent entree to the second half of the overall problem of chemical carcinogenesis, the processes. The active agents trigger a large array of molecular-biochemical alterations to which the target cells, target tissues, and target organisms respond in many select and common ways. This second major aspect of the induction of cancer by chemicals (and by other agents)- the sequence of cellular and tissue changes clearly relevant to cancer-remains the challenge for the future.
This textbook provides an authoritative introduction to both classical and coalescent approaches to population genetics. Written for graduate students and advanced undergraduates by one of the world's leading authorities in the field, the book focuses on the theoretical background of population genetics, while emphasizing the close interplay between theory and empiricism. Traditional topics such as genetic and phenotypic variation, mutation, migration, and linkage are covered and advanced by contemporary coalescent theory, which describes the genealogy of genes in a population, ultimately connecting them to a single common ancestor. Effects of selection, particularly genomic effects, are discussed with reference to molecular genetic variation. The book is designed for students of population genetics, bioinformatics, evolutionary biology, molecular evolution, and theoretical biology--as well as biologists, molecular biologists, breeders, biomathematicians, and biostatisticians. Contains up-to-date treatment of key areas in classical and modern theoretical population genetics Provides in-depth coverage of coalescent theory Discusses genomic effects of selection Gives examples from empirical population genetics Incorporates figures, diagrams, and boxed features throughout Includes end-of-chapter exercises Speaks to a wide range of students in biology, bioinformatics, and biostatistics
Despite being recognized and fought against over countless centuries, human viral pathogens continue to cause major public health problems worldwide—killing millions of people and costing billions of dollars in medical care and lost productivity each year. With contributions from specialists in their respective areas of viral pathogen research, Molecular Detection of Human Viral Pathogens provides a reliable reference on molecular detection and identification of major human viral pathogens. Each chapter briefly reviews the classification, epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of one related viral pathogen or a group of them. The clinical sample collection and preparation procedures are outlined, and a selection of representative stepwise molecular detection protocols is covered. The chapters conclude with a discussion on further research requirements relating to improved diagnosis. With its judicious selection of streamlined, ready-to-use protocols for major human viral pathogens—including commercial kits—Molecular Detection of Human Viral Pathogens is an indispensable tool for medical, veterinary, and industrial laboratory scientists involved in virus determination.
Plant Polysaccharides, an exceptional new volume in Wiley-Blackwell’s successful Annual Plant Reviews series, covers the polysaccharides and proteins that form the fundamental architecture of the plant cell wall, and the genes that encode the cellular machinery that synthesizes them. The volume focuses on the evolution of the many families of genes whose products are required to make a particular kind of polysaccharide, bringing attention to the specific biochemical properties of the proteins to the level of kinds of sugar linkages they make. Beautifully illustrated in full colour throughout, this exceptional new volume provides cutting edge up-to-date information on such important topics as cell wall biology, composition and biosynthesis, glycosyltransferases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, enzymatic modification of plant cell wall polysaccharides, glycan engineering in transgenic plants, and polysaccharide nanobiotechnology. Drawing together some of the world’s leading experts in these areas, the editor, Peter Ulvskov, has provided a landmark volume that is essential reading for plant and crop scientists, biochemists, molecular biologists and geneticists. All libraries in universities and research establishments where plant sciences, agriculture, biological, biochemical and molecular sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important volume.