How did flying birds evolve from running dinosaurs, terrestrial trotting tetrapods from swimming fish, and whales return to swim in the sea? These are some of the great transformations in the history of life; events that have captured the imagination of scientists and the general public alike. At first glance, these major evolutionary events seem utterly impossible. The before and after look so fundamentally different that the great transformations of the history of life not only seem impossible, but unknowable. The 500 million year history of vertebrates is filled with change and, as a consequence, every living species contains within its structure, DNA, and fossil record, a narrative of them. A battery of new techniques and approaches, from diverse fields of inquiry, are now being marshaled to explore classic questions of evolution. These approaches span multiple levels of biological organization, from DNA sequences, to organs, to the physiology and ecology of whole organisms. Analysis of developmental systems reveals deep homologies of the mechanisms that pattern organs as different as bird wings and fish fins. Whales with legs are one of a number of creatures that tell us of the great transformations in the history of life. Expeditions have discovered worms with a kind of head, fishes with elbows, wrists, and necks; feathered dinosaurs, and human precursors to name only a few. Indeed, in the last 20 years, paleontologists have discovered more creatures informative of evolutionary transitions than in the previous millennium. The Great Transformations captures the excitement of these new discoveries by bringing diverse teams of renowned scientists together to attack particular transformations, and to do so in a contents organized by body part--head, neck, fins, limbs, and then the entire bauplan. It is a work that will transform evolutionary biology and paleontology.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Eine anregende Gesamtschau auf Quellen und Risiken des Klimawandels in Form einer attraktiven Graphic Novel. Das Buch ist eine unkonventionelle Methode, wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zu verbreiten. Ausgehend von der Erkenntnis, dass wissenschaftliche Berichte nur einen kleinen Leserkreis erreichen, hat der "Wissenschaftliche Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen" (WBGU) sein Gutachten zum Klimawandel von 2011 als Comic herausgegeben. Neun Wissenschaftler unterschiedlicher Disziplinen nehmen den Leser mit auf eine Reise und erklären Ursachen und Folgen des Klimawandels und zeigen, was eine zukunftsfähige Gesellschaft dagegen tun könnte. Mit dem Comic "Die grosse Transformation. Klima - Wie kriegen wir die Kurve hin?" sollen Kinder und Jugendliche für Thema sensibilisiert werden. Denn sie sind diejenigen, die von einer möglichen Klimakrise am meisten betroffen sein werden. Zum Buch gibt es eine Website mit einer umfangreichen Sammlung weiterführender Materialien (www.trafo-comic.blogspot.de/) sowie Unterrichtsmaterial zum Download (www.berlin.de/sen/bildung/ganzheitliche-bildung/globale-entwicklung/). (Quelle: www.golbaleducation.ch).
Knowledge in the field of the biology of the extracellular matrix, and in particular of collagen, has made considerable progress over the last ten years, especially in mammals, birds and ln man with respect to very important applied medical aspects. Basic knowledge in the animal kingdom overall has increased more slowly and haphazardly. We, therefore, considered it useful to organize a meeting specifically devoted to the study of the invertebrate and lower vertebrate collagens. The NATO Scientific Division financed an Advanced Research Workshop aimed at bringing together experts qualified in collagen biology (with morphological, biochemical and genetic specialization) with researchers who are currently studying collagenous tissues of invertebrates and lower vertebrates. The Medical-Biology Committee of the CNR-Rome and the University of Milan also supplied interest and support for the organization of this Meeting. The format of the workshop consisted in: 1) main lectures on the most recent aspects of collagen biology; 2) minireviews on the current knowledge of collagenous tissues in the various invertebrate phyla and in fish; 3) contributed papers on particular aspects of research in specific fields; 4) workshops on the methodology of studying collagen. As we had intended, the Workshop gave a comprehensive overview of acquired knowledge and of the present state of research actlvlty. It permitted wide interdisciplinary discussion, enabling collabora tions to be established and new research themes to be chosen. This volume contains the text of all the contributions presented at the Meeting, including posters.
How can we bring together the study of genes, embryos and fossils? Embryos in Deep Time is a critical synthesis of the study of individual development in fossils. It brings together an up-to-date review of concepts from comparative anatomy, ecology and developmental genetics, and examples of different kinds of animals from diverse geological epochs and geographic areas. Can fossil embryos demonstrate evolutionary changes in reproductive modes? How have changes in ocean chemistry in the past affected the development of marine organisms? What can the microstructure of fossil bone and teeth reveal about maturation time, longevity and changes in growth phases? This book addresses these and other issues and documents with numerous examples and illustrations how fossils provide evidence not only of adult anatomy but also of the life history of individuals at different growth stages. The central topic of Biology today—the transformations occurring during the life of an organism and the mechanisms behind them—is addressed in an integrative manner for extinct animals.
Extensively revised, this edition contains a new treatment of evolution theory, new classifications of certain groups which are illustrated in range charts, and many new photographs and illustrations.
This fourth volume of Contemporary Topics In Immunobiology treats in vertebrate immunity. Specifically, the results represent several approaches to humoral and cellular immunity. It is evident that invertebrates do have function ing immune systems. For example, cellular immunity is characterized by both specificity and memory, but it is still problematical whether vertebrate immune capacity evolved directly from invertebrates. Most of the manuscripts were formally presented at the International Symposium on Invertebrate Pathology, University of Minnesota, August 1972, held in connection with the 25th anniversary celebration of the American Insti tute of Biological Sciences. I wish to express my appreciation to the contributors and to beg their indulgence in what may have been overzealous editing. This was done, though, in the interest of clarity and to seek uniformity. Because of earlier problems, time limitations did not permit consultations between submission of manuscripts and final editing. For assistance, I extend a special note of gratitude to Mrs. Lois Gehringer who unselfishly retyped many of the manuscripts. The preparation of this volume was aided partially by NSF Grant GB17767, two grants from The California Institute for Cancer Research, and a grant from The Brown-Hazen Corporation. E.L.C. Contents Introduction: General Comments and a Note on Taxonomy ....................... .
Role of Darwin's ideas and the degree and direction of their influence, Bowler shows how these interactions constituted an interdisciplinary program with a focus on reconstructing the past rather than on mechanisms of evolutionary change. Bowler also examines the socially laden metaphors used by early biologists to describe the history of life, and argues that such usage influenced the development of modern evolutionism by exploiting Darwinian principles outside the.
The Dissection of Vertebrates, Second Edition, provides students with a manual that combines pedalogical effective text with high-quality, accurate, and attractive visual references. Using a systemic approach within a systematic framework for each vertebrate, this book covers several animals commonly used in providing an anatomical transition sequence. Seven animals are covered: lamprey, shark, perch, mudpuppy, frog, pigeon, and cat. This updated version include a revised systemic section of the introductory chapter; corrections to several parts of the existing text and images; new comparative skull sections included as part of the existing vertebrates; and a companion site with image bank. This text is designed for 2nd or 3rd year university level comparative vertebrate anatomy courses. Such courses are usually two-semester courses, and may either be a required course or an elective. It is typically a required course for Biology and Zoology majors, as well as for some Forensics and Criminology programs, and offered as an elective for many other non-zoology science majors. * Winner of the NYSM Jury award for the Rock Dove Air Sacs, Lateral and Ventral Views illustration * Expertly rendered award-winning illustrations accompany the detailed, clear dissection direction * Organized by individual organism to facilitate classroom presentation * Offers coverage of a wide range of vertebrates * Full-color, strong pedagogical aids in a convenient lay-flat presentation * Expanded and updated features on phylogenic coverage, mudpuppy musculature and comparative mammalian skulls
Dieser Band nimmt sie mit auf eine spannende Reise in Bildern und Texten. Spektakuläre, großformatige Fotos auf Doppelseiten mit einem Erklärungstext machen die Leser neugierig auf das, was die Evolution im Bereich des Fliegens hervorgebracht hat: von der pflanzlichen Luftflotte (Pollenkörner, Flugsamen,...) über fliegende Schlangen und Fische, unter Wasser fliegende Pinguine bis zum Menschen, der sich in die Lüfte erhebt. Das Buch kann in beliebiger Reihenfolge, Doppelseite für Doppelseite, gelesen werden. Querverweise sorgen für bequemes Umspringen auf andere Doppelseiten. Die Textpassagen sind zumeist - abgesehen von der fundierten Einleitung - unabhängig von einander und besprechen besondere Highlights im evolutionären Prozess. Ergänzt wird die Doppelseite mit Literaturhinweisen und Verweisen auf instruktive Internet-Seiten.
"Treatise Online publishes chapters prepared for parts of the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology as they are ready, rather than waiting for an entire hard copy Treatise to be printed"--Treatise Online website
Dieter Hillert untersucht, wie Bausteine der sprachlichen Evolution diskutiert werden können und wie sich diese in Bezug auf den modernen Menschen entwickelt haben. Insbesondere die hier vorgestellten neuronalen Kartierungsmethoden ermöglichen, wichtige Ergebnisse über die neuronalen Schaltkreise zu gewinnen, die an der Sprachverarbeitung beteiligt sind. Der Autor verdeutlich zudem kortikale Kartierungen sowohl bei typischem und als auch bei atypischem Sprachverhalten. Entsprechend wird aus diesen angesprochenen Perspektiven besprochen, wie sich unser Sprachvermögen evolutionär entwickelten hat, um beispielsweise Ideen, Gefühle, Ziele und Humor lautsprachlich vermitteln zu können. Das vorgestellte evolutionäre Sprachmodell beruht auf den kognitiven Fähigkeiten unserer biologischen Vorahnen.
The roots of this book and its sister volume, Mammal Phylogeny: Placentals, go back to discussions and plans, shelved for a while, between F. S. Szalay and W. P. Luckett during the international and multidisciplinary symposium on rodent evolution sponsored by NATO, July 2-6, 1984, in Paris. That conference, orga nized by W. P. Luckett and J. -L. Hartenberger, the proceedings of which were published in 1985, proved an inspiring experience to all of the participants, as this was repeatedly expressed both during and after the meetings. In addition to issues relating to rodents, general theoretical topics pertaining to the evolutionary biol ogy and systematics of other groups of mammals regularly surfaced during the presentations and discussions. M. J. Novacek, who was also a participant in the rodent symposium, shared with Luckett and Szalay the enthusiasm acquired there, and he also expressed strong interest for a meeting on mammal evolution with a general focus similar to that of the rodent gathering. In 1988, Szalay and Luckett, after having planned in detail a program, direc tion, and core list of participants, were awarded a $30,000 grant by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation through the Research Foundation of the City University of New York. The grant was contingent upon obtaining additional funds sufficient to assure that the symposium would be held. Raising the remaining funds proved to be a problem.
Al Gore, der ehemalige Vizepräsident der USA, Friedensnobelpreisträger und Bestsellerautor, wagt in seinem neuen Buch einen Blick in die Zukunft. Er identifiziert diejenigen Kräfte, die unser Leben in den kommenden Jahrzehnten am stärksten verändern werden, und zeichnet so ein beeindruckend detailliertes Bild der Welt von morgen. Denn, so Gore, nur wem es gelingt, die Chancen und Risiken der Zukunft zu erkennen, kann sie auch gestalten. Wir leben in einer Zeit umwälzender Veränderungen. Aus der Vielzahl der Kräfte, die unsere Welt formen, greift Al Gore diejenigen heraus, die unsere Zukunft am radikalsten prägen werden: Neben der weiter zunehmenden Globalisierung der Wirtschaft sind das die Verschiebung der geopolitischen Machtverhältnisse, eine fehlgeleitete, allein auf Wachstum ausgerichtete Wirtschaftspolitik, der nicht nachhaltige Umgang mit unserer Umwelt und unseren Ressourcen sowie die Revolutionen in der digitalen Kommunikation, in der Biotechnik, den Neurowissenschaften und der Gentechnik. Inwiefern wir diese Entwicklungen gewinnbringend nutzen können und ab wann sie für uns zum Risiko werden, das debattiert Gore in seinem neuen, umfassenden Bestseller über unsere Zukunft.
Traces the history of evolution, explains the concept of natural selection, and discusses DNA, adaptation, classification, and genetic engineering

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