Educators know it's important to get students to engage in "higher-order thinking." But what does higher-order thinking actually look like? And how can K-12 classroom teachers assess it across the disciplines? Author, consultant, and former classroom teacher Susan M. Brookhart answers these questions and more in this straightforward, practical guide to assessment that can help teachers determine if students are actually displaying the kind of complex thinking that current content standards emphasize. Brookhart begins by laying out principles for assessment in general and for assessment of higher-order thinking in particular. She then defines and describes aspects of higher-order thinking according to the categories established in leading taxonomies, giving specific guidance on how to assess students in the following areas: * Analysis, evaluation, and creation * Logic and reasoning * Judgment * Problem solving * Creativity and creative thinking Examples drawn from the National Assessment of Educational Progress and from actual classroom teachers include multiple-choice items, constructed-response (essay) items, and performance assessment tasks. Readers will learn how to use formative assessment to improve student work and then use summative assessment for grading or scoring. Aimed at elementary, middle, and high school teachers in all subject areas, How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom provides essential background, sound advice, and thoughtful insight into an area of increasing importance for the success of students in the classroom--and in life.
Educators know it's important to get students to engage in "higher-order thinking." But what does higher-order thinking actually look like? And how can K-12 classroom teachers assess it across the disciplines? Author, consultant, and former classroom teacher Susan M. Brookhart answers these questions and more in this straightforward, practical guide to assessment that can help teachers determine if students are actually displaying the kind of complex thinking that current content standards emphasize. Brookhart begins by laying out principles for assessment in general and for assessment of higher-order thinking in particular. She then defines and describes aspects of higher-order thinking according to the categories established in leading taxonomies, giving specific guidance on how to assess students in the following areas: * Analysis, evaluation, and creation * Logic and reasoning * Judgment * Problem solving * Creativity and creative thinking Examples drawn from the National Assessment of Educational Progress and from actual classroom teachers include multiple-choice items, constructed-response (essay) items, and performance assessment tasks. Readers will learn how to use formative assessment to improve student work and then use summative assessment for grading or scoring. Aimed at elementary, middle, and high school teachers in all subject areas, How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom provides essential background, sound advice, and thoughtful insight into an area of increasing importance for the success of students in the classroom--and in life.
With new standards emphasizing higher-order thinking skills, students will have to demonstrate their ability to do far more than simply remember facts and procedures. But what's the best way for teachers to ensure that students have such skills? In this highly accessible guide, author Susan M. Brookhart shows how to do just that, by providing specific guidelines for designing targeted questions and tasks that align with standards and assess students' ability to think at higher levels. Aided by dozens of examples across grade levels and subject areas, readers will learn how to: take a student perspective and view assessment questions and tasks as "problems to solve"; design multiple-choice questions that require higher-order thinking; understand the difference between "open" and "closed" questions and how to use open questions effectively; vary and control the features of performance assessment tasks, including cognitive level and difficulty, to target different thinking skills; and manage the assessment of higher-order thinking within the larger context of teaching and learning. Brookhart also provides an "idea bank" that teachers can use to jump-start their own thinking as they create assessments.Timely and practical, How to Design Questions and Tasks to Assess Student Thinking is essential reading for 21st century teachers who want their students to excel in the classroom and beyond.
Uses practical and research-based approaches to improve students' higher-order thinking skills and includes strategies for differentiating higher-order thinking skills and developing them in English language learners.
In How to Make Decisions with Different Kinds of Student Assessment Data, best-selling author Susan M. Brookhart helps teachers and administrators understand the critical elements and nuances of assessment data and how that information can best be used to inform improvement efforts in the school or district. Readers will learn— * What different kinds of data can—and cannot—tell us about student learning; * What different analyses reveal about changes in student achievement; * How to interpret, use, and share relevant data; and * How to create a model to go from problem to solution in a data-based decision-making process. With easy-to-understand explanations, supplemented by examples and scenarios from actual schools, this book offers a path to better understanding, more accurate interpretation of assessment results, and—most important—more effective use of data to improve teaching and learning.
What is a rubric? A rubric is a coherent set of criteria for student work that describes levels of performance quality. Sounds simple enough, right? Unfortunately, rubrics are commonly misunderstood and misused. The good news is that when rubrics are created and used correctly, they are strong tools that support and enhance classroom instruction and student learning. In this comprehensive guide, author Susan M. Brookhart identifies two essential components of effective rubrics: (1) criteria that relate to the learning (not the "tasks") that students are being asked to demonstrate and (2) clear descriptions of performance across a continuum of quality. She outlines the difference between various kinds of rubrics (for example, general versus task-specific, and analytic versus holistic), explains when using each type of rubric is appropriate, and highlights examples from all grade levels and assorted content areas. In addition, Brookhart addresses * Common misconceptions about rubrics; * Important differences between rubrics and other assessment tools such as checklists and rating scales, and when such alternatives can be useful; and * How to use rubrics for formative assessment and grading, including standards-based grading and report card grades. Intended for educators who are already familiar with rubrics as well as those who are not, this book is a complete resource for writing effective rubrics and for choosing wisely from among the many rubrics that are available on the Internet and from other sources. And it makes the case that rubrics, when used appropriately, can improve outcomes by helping teachers teach and helping students learn.
Here's a book intended to help readers develop better test questions -- aimed at measuring their students' (or future students') higher level thinking abilities such as writing, reading, mathematical or scientific problem solving, critical thinking, and creative thinking. This book is practical in its approach -- replete with examples -- and focuses on many different question types with the main objective being to select the item type most appropriate for the material being measured. It covers multiple-choice items, designing performance test items, creating and scoring portfolios, and writing survey items. Item-writing templates are provided in each chapter. Preservice and inservice teachers.
If we want all our students to become better thinkers and learners, we must design rigorous learning experiences that go beyond helping them simply master standards. In this guide, Robyn R. Jackson takes you step by step through the process of planning rigorous instruction--what great teachers do to ensure students have a learning destination that's worth working toward and that the path they take to get there will help them pass the big tests and become engaged learners, effective problem solvers, and critical thinkers. Here, you'll learn how to * Create a rigorous unit assessment to guide your instruction and ensure standards mastery. * Select rigorous learning materials by examining the type of thinking you want students to engage in and the type of understanding you want them to acquire. * Choose rigorous instructional strategies by looking at ways to help students grasp new content and acquire new skills, apply what they are learning in a meaningful way, use thinking processes to synthesize new understandings, and adapt these understandings to new contexts across disciplines. * Create a rigorous learning unit, tailored to your standards and classroom content, and to the students you teach.
Demonstrates how to teach students to improve essential skills in a way that augments standards-driven curriculum, and designed to be a professional development resource for K-12 library media and technology specialists.
Here are 51 easy-to-use, classroom-tested alternatives to the "stand and deliver" teaching techniques that cause so many students to tune out or drop out. Teachers report that these techniques motivate students to participate in learning, as they build confidence and are supported by compelling and safe ways to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of lessons. Refined through years of classroom experiences and supported by updated research, this 2nd edition delivers a dozen new techniques to engage K–12 students in active learning. The authors provide detailed descriptions of the Total Participation Techniques (TPTs) with step-by-step instructions--plus reproducible blackline masters for student response cards as well as posters to remind you to use the techniques. They also suggest how you can adapt and personalize the techniques to fit your context and content. Packed with examples from authentic classrooms, Total Participation Techniques is an essential toolkit for teachers who want to present lessons that are relevant, engaging, and cognitively challenging. Pérsida Himmele and William Himmele are professors who regularly work with preservice teachers and consult with educators in U.S. and international schools. They are also the authors of Total Literacy Techniques.
Using clear explanations and cases, this must-have resource shows how formative assessment can improve student learning. Included are lesson plans and ideas for easy implementation.
Group work is a growing trend in schools, as educators seek more complex, more authentic assessment tasks and assign projects and presentations for students to work on together. The Common Core State Standards call for increased student collaboration in various subject areas, and collaboration is considered one of the 21st century skills that students need to master in order to succeed in school and beyond. Many teachers, though, are uncomfortable giving group grades, which may or may not actually reflect an individual student's learning. How else to proceed? Assessment expert Susan M. Brookhart offers practical advice, strategies, and examples to help teachers understand the following: ? What the differences are between group projects and cooperative learning. ? How to assess and report on (but not grade) learning skills and group interaction skills. ? How to assess and grade individual achievement of learning goals after group projects. ? Why having students work together is a good thing--but group grades are not.
A proven program for enhancing students' thinking and comprehension abilities Visible Thinking is a research-based approach to teaching thinking, begun at Harvard's Project Zero, that develops students' thinking dispositions, while at the same time deepening their understanding of the topics they study. Rather than a set of fixed lessons, Visible Thinking is a varied collection of practices, including thinking routines?small sets of questions or a short sequence of steps?as well as the documentation of student thinking. Using this process thinking becomes visible as the students' different viewpoints are expressed, documented, discussed and reflected upon. Helps direct student thinking and structure classroom discussion Can be applied with students at all grade levels and in all content areas Includes easy-to-implement classroom strategies The book also comes with a DVD of video clips featuring Visible Thinking in practice in different classrooms.
Properly crafted and individually tailored feedback on student work boosts student achievement across subjects and grades. In this updated and expanded second edition of her best-selling book, Susan M. Brookhart offers enhanced guidance and three lenses for considering the effectiveness of feedback: (1) does it conform to the research, (2) does it offer an episode of learning for the student and teacher, and (3) does the student use the feedback to extend learning? In this comprehensive guide for teachers at all levels, you will find information on every aspect of feedback, including • Strategies to uplift and encourage students to persevere in their work. • How to formulate and deliver feedback that both assesses learning and extends instruction. • When and how to use oral, written, and visual as well as individual, group, or whole-class feedback. • A concise and updated overview of the research findings on feedback and how they apply to today's classrooms. In addition, the book is replete with examples of good and bad feedback as well as rubrics that you can use to construct feedback tailored to different learners, including successful students, struggling students, and English language learners. The vast majority of students will respond positively to feedback that shows you care about them and their learning. Whether you teach young students or teens, this book is an invaluable resource for guaranteeing that the feedback you give students is engaging, informative, and, above all, effective.
praise for previous books by stephen d. brookfield "Award-winning author Stephen Brookfield offers insight, inspiration, and down-to-earth advice to all teachers in settings as diverse as college, adult education, and secondary schools—on how to thrive on the unpredictability of classroom life."—Better Teaching "The author [relates] some of his own personal experiences as an educator in encouraging critical thinking. His insight and honesty in relating these experiences is valuable and interesting."—CBE Report "Brookfield's book will serve as an effective focus that can facilitate faculty in thinking critically about their work, their community, their relationships, not only individually but collaboratively."—Teaching Sociology "He offers clear, jargon-free, and unpretentious guidance." —Reference & Research Book News "The author is so darned good at finding and highlighting the key research." —Training "Brookfield illustrates practically his major scholarly interest in this readable, innovative, and perceptive book on college teaching."—Choice
A New Framework for Assessment, the first volume in the PISA series, provides the conceptual framework on which the PISA 2000 assessment is based.
A teacher presents a lesson, and at the end asks students if they understand the material. The students nod and say they get it. Later, the teacher is dismayed when many of the students fail a test on the material. Why aren’t students getting it? And, just as important, why didn’t the teacher recognize the problem? In Checking for Understanding, Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey show how to increase students’ understanding with the help of creative formative assessments. When used regularly, formative assessments enable every teacher to determine what students know and what they still need to learn. Fisher and Frey explore a variety of engaging activities that check for and increase understanding, including interactive writing, portfolios, multimedia presentations, audience response systems, and much more. This new 2nd edition of Checking for Understanding has been updated to reflect the latest thinking in formative assessment and to show how the concepts apply in the context of Fisher and Frey’s work on gradual release of responsibility, guided instruction, formative assessment systems, data analysis, and quality instruction. Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey are the creators of the Framework for Intentional and Targeted (FIT) Teaching™. They are also the authors of numerous ASCD books, including The Formative Assessment Action Plan: Practical Steps to More Successful Teaching and Learning and the best-selling Enhancing RTI: How to Ensure Success with Effective Classroom Instruction and Intervention.
Create assessments that meet state standards and target students’ learning needs! In this revised edition of her bestseller, Kay Burke provides a wide range of easy-to-implement alternative assessments that address today’s accountability requirements. Designed for use across all content areas, these formative assessments are rooted in the language of state standards and emphasize differentiating instruction to meet students’ diverse learning needs. Updated research and examples help K–12 teachers: Build Response to Intervention checklists for struggling students Develop unit plans using differentiated learning and assessment strategies Create portfolios that emphasize metacognition Design performance tasks that motivate and engage students Construct rubrics that describe indicators of quality work Create tests that focus on higher-order thinking skills
Describes everyday classroom practices and exercises to help students in grades four through twelve read for accuracy, extract meaning from text, and interpret subject matter.

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