What is humanitarianism? This authoritative book provides a comprehensive analysis of the original idea and its evolution, exploring its triangulation with war and politics. Peter J. Hoffman and Thomas G. Weiss trace the origins of humanitarianism, its social movement, and the institutions (international humanitarian law) and organizations (providers of assistance and protection) that comprise it. They consider the international humanitarian system’s ability to regulate the conduct of war, to improve the wellbeing of its victims, and to prosecute war criminals. Probing the profound changes in the culture and capacities that underpin the sector and alter the meaning of humanitarianism, they assess the reinventions that constitute “revolutions in humanitarian affairs.” The book begins with traditions and perspectives—ranging from classic international relations approaches to “Critical Humanitarian Studies” —and reviews seminal wartime emergencies and the creation and development of humanitarian agencies in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The authors then examine the rise of “new humanitarianisms” after the Cold War’s end and contemporary cases after 9/11. The authors continue by unpacking the most recent “revolutions”—the International Criminal Court and the “Responsibility to Protect”—as well as such core challenges as displacement camps, infectious diseases, eco-refugees, and marketization. They conclude by evaluating the contemporary system and the prospects for further transformations, identifying scholarly puzzles and the acute operational problems faced by practitioners.
This text provides a solid foundation for applying communication principles to intercultural interaction.
"Tangled Titans offers the most current and comprehensive assessment available of United States-China relations. In this definitive book, leading experts consider the past, present, and future of this complex relationship through an in-depth exploration of its historical, domestic, bilateral, regional, and global contexts. Never in modern history have two great powers been so deeply intertwined, yet so suspicious and potentially antagonistic. Readers will find Tangled Titans essential reading to understand the current dynamics and future direction of relations between the world's two most important powers."--Page 4 of cover.
Do we need the United Nations? Where would the contemporary world be without its largest intergovernmental organization? And where could it be had the UN’s member states and staff performed better? These fundamental questions are explored by the leading analyst of UN history and politics, Thomas G. Weiss, in this hard-hitting, authoritative book. While counterfactuals are often dismissed as academic contrivances, they can serve to focus the mind; and here, Weiss uses them to ably demonstrate the pluses and minuses of multilateral cooperation. He is not shy about UN achievements and failures drawn from its ideas and operations in its three substantive pillars of activities: international peace and security; human rights and humanitarian action; and sustainable development. But, he argues, the inward-looking and populist movements in electoral politics worldwide make robust multilateralism more not less compelling. The selection of António Guterres as the ninth UN secretary-general should rekindle critical thinking about the potential for international cooperation. There is a desperate need to reinvigorate and update rather than jettison the United Nations in responding to threats from climate change to pandemics, from proliferation to terrorism. Weiss tells you why and how.
For the past decade, humanitarian actors have increasingly sought not only to assist people affected by conflicts and natural disasters, but also to protect them. At the same time, protection of civilians has become central to UN peacekeeping operations, and the UN General Assembly has endorsed the principle that the international community has the "responsibility to protect" people when their governments cannot or will not do so. Elizabeth Ferris explores the evolution of the international community's understandings of protection, with a particular emphasis on the humanitarian community. "Protection" is a noble word, with positive connotations, but what does it actually mean in practice? Does providing assistance to vulnerable people protect them, for example? Does monitoring the number of rapes protect women? Does increased engagement in protection activities by humanitarian agencies jeopardize the cornerstone humanitarian principles of neutrality and impartiality? In The Politics of Protection, Ferris examines inconsistent ways in which protection is defined and applied. For example, why do certain groups receive international protection while other equally needy groups do not? Her case studies, ranging from Iraq to Katrina, illustrate the challenges—and limitations—of protecting vulnerable populations from the ravages of war and natural disasters. Ferris argues that the protection paradigms currently in use are inadequate to meet the challenges of the future, such as climate change, protracted displacement, and the changing nature of warfare.
Heralded as a success that mobilized support for development, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ushered in an era of setting development agendas by setting global goals. This book critically evaluates the MDG experience from the capabilities and human rights perspectives, and questions the use of quantitative targets as an instrument of global governance. It provides an account of their origins, trajectory and influence in shaping the policy agenda, and ideas about international development during the first 15 years of the 21st century. The chapters explore: • whether the goals are adequate as benchmarks for the transformative vision of the Millennium Declaration; • how the goals came to be formulated the way they were, drawing on interviews with key actors who were involved in the process; • how the goals exercised influence through framing to shape policy agendas on the part of both developing countries and the international community; • the political economy that drove the formulation of the goals and their consequences on the agendas of the South and the North; • the effects of quantification and indicators on ideas and action; and • the lessons to be drawn for using numeric goals to promote global priorities. Representing a significant body of work on the MDGs in its multiple dimensions, compiled here for the first time as a single collection that tells the whole definitive story, this book provides a comprehensive resource. It will be of great interest to students, researchers and policymakers in the fields of development, human rights, international political economy, and governance by numeric indicators.
How did the individual human being become the focus of the contemporary discourse on security? What was the role of the United Nations in "securing" the individual? What are the payoffs and costs of this extension of the concept? Neil MacFarlane and Yuen Foong Khong tackle these questions by analyzing historical and contemporary debates about what is to be secured. From Westphalia through the 19th century, the state's claim to be the object of security was sustainable because it offered its subjects some measure of protection. The state's ability to provide security for its citizens came under heavy strain in the 20th century as a result of technological, strategic, and ideological innovations. By the end of World War II, efforts to reclaim the security rights of individuals gathered pace, as seen in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and a host of United Nations covenants and conventions. MacFarlane and Khong highlight the UN's work in promoting human security ideas since the 1940s, giving special emphasis to its role in extending the notion of security to include development, economic, environmental, and other issues in the 1990s.
This textbook examines a wide range of humanitarian action issues in five parts, presented by specialists from different academic fields. The respective parts reflect the five core modules of the International NOHA Joint Master’s Programme “International Humanitarian Action”: a) World Politics, b) International Law, c) Public Health, d) Anthropology, and e) Management. The book serves as a common basis for teaching at all NOHA universities and aims at imparting the basic knowledge and skills needed to excel in a complex interdisciplinary and international learning context. It provides in-depth information on key international humanitarian principles and values, professional codes of conduct, and the commitment to their implementation in practice. The book will thus be useful for all students of the NOHA Joint Master’s Programme and participants of any courses with a similar content, but also for academics and practitioners affiliated with entities such as international organisations and NGOs. It may also serve as an introduction to anyone with an interest in understanding the numerous and inter-linked facets of humanitarian action.
This book draws a picture of a parliamentary and representative democracy that faces multiple tensions and multiple gaps.
A three-part investigation on the origins and evolving roles that Islamic law and international humanitarian law have played in regulating conflict and violence, War and Law in the Islamic World brings to light legal and policy complexities that plague modern-day armed conflict in the region.
This publication contains 18 papers which explore the challenges, posed by states involved in civil conflict, for the UN, individual countries and non-governmental organisations, whether acting as providers of humanitarian assistance or agents of political and social reconstruction. Issues discussed include: the dimensions of state disruption and the roles of the international community in responding to it; military doctrine for dealing with disorder and humanitarian emergencies; mechanisms for ending violence and delivering justice in post-conflict times; problems of rebuilding trust and promoting democracy; reconstitution of the rule of law; and the re-establishment of social and civil order.
This book rants against Freemasonry, Satan, international banks, Napoleon and more. It makes a series of unsubstantiated claims against Jews and possibly substantiated ones against the Rothschilds of his time. If one can put the authors personal biases aside, there remains some good historical information about government, religion, world power and money. The publishers do not agree with the authors biased opinions, but wish to make the remaining facts available to those interested. Conspiracy buffs will enjoy it immensely. The book, in its entirety, should not be taken at face valuethe truth that exists within it must be carefully extracted.
In today’s context of rapid socio-political changes, with deepening ethnic and religious conflicts on the one hand, and a diminishing feeling of identification with the community on the other, reflection on the idea of “solidarity” is very much necessary. This book provides answers to the following questions: “What is the idea of solidarity today?”; “How can it be defined?”; “How has it evolved over recent decades?”; “How does it manifest itself in social life?”; “How is it reflected in the arts?”; and, above all, “How does it relate to collective memory and identity?” With this outline of topic areas in mind, this volume brings together essays analysing various aspects of the concept of solidarity: namely, philosophical, social, political, cultural, historical, psychological and artistic. The book’s interdisciplinary character is testament to the complexity of perspectives and contexts in which the phenomenon of solidarity can be described today in the social sciences and the humanities. As such, it contains chapters devoted to the history of ideas; international relations and political conflicts in the modern world; national minorities; racism and anti-Semitism; and twentieth-century crimes against humanity, as well as psychological case studies, experimental research on mechanisms of social behaviour, and analyses of works of art. The contributors to this volume represent academic centres from Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe. They are deeply concerned with fighting against any forms of discrimination, and, as such, their respective chapters mark a contribution to the constant search for the improvement of the fate of societies and individuals in different corners of the globe. Consequently, this book has an ethical dimension, in addition to its cognitive side, inspiring its readers to undertake efforts to help victims of social exclusion, persecution and crime.
There has been a dramatic proliferation of Islamic charities recently. While most are legitimate, considerable evidence reveals that others have more questionable intentions, and that funds have been diverted to support terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda. The authors examine the contention through a detailed investigation of the charities involved, their financial intermediaries, and the terrorist organizations themselves. What they discover is that money from these charities has funded conflicts across the world, from the early days in Afghanistan, to subsequent terrorist activities in Asia, Africa, Palestine and, most recently, Europe and the United States.
This resourceful book draws on several case studies to derive implications for the design of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) schemes that are very relevant to current climate change negotiations and the implementation of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) schemes at the national level. With its focus on livelihoods, the book also provides important lessons that are relevant to the design of PES schemes focusing on environmental services other than carbon conservation. Drawing practical lessons for the design of activities aimed at reducing deforestation and forest degradation while benefiting rural people, this book will appeal to academics, practitioners and students involved in the fields of environment and natural resource management, forestry and development studies. This insightful study is accessible also to non-experts in presenting the key issues faced in avoiding deforestation and benefiting livelihoods.
If handbooks can be inspiring, this is it! Like a true companion, it takes in its stride conversations both big and small. Its entries do not just present an international and multidisciplinary mix, but true to life they work on several different scales. And, importantly, the book makes its authority evident. For it is like an extended website, but with all the added advantages of an encyclopaedia that actually tells you about the authors and the sources on which they have drawn. The resulting compilation is highly intelligent, thoughtful and above all usable. Dame Marilyn Strathern, University of Cambridge, UK The Elgar Companion to Development Studies is a major production in the development studies field, authored by a star-studded cast of contributors. With 136 entries covering a vast range of topics, it should quickly establish itself as a leading work of reference. We should all feel indebted to David Clark, who has successfully brought this substantial publishing project to completion. John Toye, University of Oxford, UK This is a most comprehensive handbook on development studies. It brings together a wide, varied array of carefully crafted summaries of 136 key topics in development by an international cast of well-respected academics and other experts in respective areas of study. The handbook is heavily interdisciplinary, organically combining economic, political, historical, social, cultural, institutional, ethical, and human aspects of development. While the wide range of entries might appear as a simple glossary listing or an encyclopedic collection, each of the 136 entries offers more depth and discussion than the average handbook. . . . Viewed in this light, this companion is highly likely to become known as a leading reference work on the topic. Highly recommended. Ismael Hossein-Zadeh, Choice The Elgar Companion to Development Studies is an innovative and unique reference book that includes original contributions covering development economics as well as development studies broadly defined. This major new Companion brings together an international panel of experts from varying backgrounds who discuss theoretical, ethical and practical issues relating to economic, social, cultural, institutional, political and human aspects of development in poor countries. It also includes a selection of intellectual biographies of leading development thinkers. While the Companion is organised along the lines of an encyclopaedia, each of its 136 entries provide more depth and discussion than the average reference book. Its entries are also extremely diverse: they draw on different social science disciplines, incorporate various mixes of theoretical and applied work, embrace a variety of methodologies and represent different views of the world. The Elgar Companion to Development Studies will therefore appeal to students, scholars, researchers, policymakers and practitioners in the filed of development as well as the interested layman.
/*0321317777, Brummett, Civilization Past and Present, Volume C: 11e*/The authors of the Eleventh Edition of Civilization Past and Present-specialists in Islamic, African, Asian, Ancient, Russian, and East European history-weave the diverse trends of world history into a clear and accessible analysis for today's students. Civilization Past and Present, well known in the marketplace as a highly readable survey text, delivers a strong narrative of world history and a level of detail that is manageable for students and solid for instructors. Using images and documents that enhance the text's content, the narrative traces connections across cultures and introduces intriguing avenues of historical interpretation. The text examines all aspects of world history-social, political, economic, religious, cultural, and geographic.
Sustainable Ecotourism in Central America: Comparative Advantage in a Globalized World examines the factors necessary for Nicaragua, Panama, and Belize to implement an economic development model based on the growth of ecotourism and foreign direct investment. In order to determine what factors are necessary to implement this model, this book analyzes the state of ecotourism development in Costa Rica and the lessons that the Costa Rican case can provide for other Central American states. It also assesses the effects of globalization and the increasing implementation of free market policies on the development of ecotourism. The book ultimately argues that globalization and neoliberalism have made it more likely that states will be able to adopt a development model based on ecotourism and foreign direct investment due to the manner in which neoliberalism and globalization help to create ever-increasing economic interconnectedness and openness. While globalization has served to shrink the world and make it easier for people to travel, the economic openness of neoliberalism has facilitated global flows of both tourists and international capital into every corner of the world. Understanding the way globalization and neoliberalism interact with ecotourism development and foreign direct investment is the key to formulating policy recommendations for states in Central America to jumpstart their economic development.
In the first historical account of international NGOs, from the French Revolution to the present, Thomas Davies places the contemporary debate on transnational civil society in context. In contrast to the conventional wisdom, which sees transnational civil society as a recent development taking place along a linear trajectory, he explores the long history of international NGOs in terms of a cyclical process characterized by three major waves: the era to 1914, the inter-war years, and the period since the Second World War. The breadth of transnational civil society activities explored is unprecedented in its diversity, from business associations to humanitarian organizations, peace groups to socialist movements, feminist organizations to pan-nationalist groups. The geographical scope covered is also extensive, and the analysis is richly supported with reference to a diverse array of previously unexplored sources. By revealing the role of civil society rather than governmental actors in the major trans- formations of the past two-and-a-half centuries, this book is for anyone interested in obtaining a new perspective on world history. The analysis concludes in the second decade of the twenty-first century, providing insights into the trajectory of transnational civil society in the post-9/11 and post-financial crisis eras.
Is globalization beyond human control? In this thought-provoking text, the myths and mantras of this apparently irresistible force are challenged and dissembled. By examining a number of fundamental questions, the contributors put forward a radical reform agenda for global governance. Can the global multilateral system be democratic? Are security and economic concerns separable? Can the development of a global civil society contribute to effective global governance? An important and wide ranging study, this book will be essential reading for graduates and researchers in international relations.